European care wall stockholm
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European care wall stockholm

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European care wall stockholm European care wall stockholm Presentation Transcript

  • The European Care Wall. Understanding Migrant Workers and European Integration from a Gender PerspectiveStockholm, June 2012 Helma Lutz
  • ”Effective and responsible integration ofimmigrants in the labor market and insociety is one of the key factors for successin reaching the Lisbon targets. The genderperspective is to a large extent lacking inintegration policies, which hampers thepossibilities of fully utilize the potential ofimmigrant women in the labor market.”European Commission’s Report on the Equality betweenMen and women. 2005
  • Overview- Domestic and Care as Work- Types of Migrant Care Work (domestic work, childcare and elderly care)- The European Care-Curtain – a geo- political aspect of the Global Care-Chain- Welfare and Migration Regimes- The ILO convention “Decent Work for Domestic Workers”- Debate
  • Care as WorkDomestic and Care Activities = Reproduction/Consumption ≠ productive WORKModernity labeled care/domestic work asunproductiveBinary: care/domestic work paidemployment“Adam Smith and Karl Marx shared a contempt formenial servants and despised their toil asparasitical, actually a perversion of labor, asthough nothing were worthy of this name which didnot enrich the world” (Hannah Arendt 1958:86).
  • Care as Work4 characteristics of current debates:b)Asymmetric evaluation of care and remunerated work isstill valid » domestic/care work is considered unqualifiedwork» low payment;c)Care/Domestic work outsourced to migrant women fromeconomically poorer countries »rise of a global market forlow paid migrant care workers;d)Equal distribution of domestic/care work in the privatehousehold between the genders unsolved;e)Extrication of domestic and care work from the privatesphere as one of most insuperable challenges of 21stcentury.
  • Specificities of the domestic and care work sectorDistinction from other markets:- Intimate character of the work sphere;- Social construction of d.m. as female gendered area;- Highly emotional relationship between employer and employee;- Highly personalized mutual dependency;- Logic of care work ≠ logic of other employment;- Cannot be reduced to replacement and substitution.
  • CareParadox:Western & Southern European countries have huge demand for migrant care workers while politically denying and ignoring this deficit.Mismatch of demand and restrictive migration policies resulting in large sector of undeclared work.Consequence: Legal care services and irregular migrant care work exist side by side.
  • Scale and numbers• Exact data missing; informed guesses: Three mill. migrant women from Central and Eastern Europe work in Southern and Western Europe.• Sector undergoes quick changes within short time periods;• Unwillingness of sending and receiving countries to acknowledge care migration:• In receiving countries: hidden (dirty) secret; in sending countries: female migrants are characterized as ‘temporarily’
  • Types of Care workDomestic work (live-out) – cleaning, ironing, cooking etc.~ est. 10% - 20% of all households purchase; irregular work-service check systems are existent – low level of take up.Child care - au pairs (live-ins); despite au-pair regulation (contract for one year) many overstays (irregularity);Elderly long term care (live-ins)- 24 hours personal care worker- From self-organized (6-10 weeks) to regularized rotation system;- Majority from Eastern Europe (Poland, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Georgia, Moldavia, Bulgaria).
  • Global Care Chains:“Global Care Chains” by A. Hochschild:Care gain and Care drainThree views on Global Care Chains:Critical feminist positionCelebrating globalization: “win-win” situation of migrants andemployersTraditionalist attitudeThe Care Curtain of EuropeCare chains are embedded in geo-political and historicalformations; they have non-identical outcomes: transnationalcare arrangements are at stake.
  • state migrant workers in the familyfamily market
  • ILO Convention June 2011
  • DEBATE- Cash for Care: Care receivers = employers (intimate and precarious relationship).- Various European countries: tacit toleration of irregularity (open secret, state semi-compliance with irregularity as a tool for flexibly solving the care deficit).- Various European countries: Two sector model - side by side: expensive regular care services next to (regularized) cheap migrant care worker – Downgrading of social standards and labor rights. Care-drain in sending countries.- Will the ILO convention be implemented in national law? Who are the actors to push this?
  • A (not so) hidden affair- Non recruitment policy for the low waged domestic work sector;- Exceptions: au pair and care work for the elderly through ZAV;- Since May 2004: migrants from Eastern Europe use “free movement of services” (Guide line 96/71/EC);- Result: a) distinction between legal and illegal employment is blurred; b) non discrimination of employers and non decision (laissez faire) policy.