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"Plastic Politics" by Global Ocean

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A report on plastic pollution in Kerala …

A report on plastic pollution in Kerala
*How Plastic Enters the Food Chain
*Types of Debris
*Plastic Consumption in India
*Plastics Recycling and Integrated *Waste Management
*Innovative Plastic Recycling
*Questionnaire and Poll Results
*Recommendations


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  • 1. PLASTIC POLITICS SYMPOSIUM ON PLASTIC POLLUTION AND MANAGEMENT FOR THE STATE OF KERALA On 10TH OCTOBER 2012 In Kochi Organized by Co- hosted byTheCorporation of cochin Beaumonde The Fern Kochi Muzris Biennale  
  • 2. PROCEEDINGS Edited By : Solly Solomon Education Director Global Ocean India . Published by : Global Ocean India 1/1903 Kunnumpuram Fort Kochi PO Kerala 682001 Copyright : Global Ocean India 1/1903 Kunnumpuram Fort Kochi PO Kerala 682001  
  • 3. Foreword Global Ocean ia a marine conservation foundation with a mission to mitigate theharmful effects of plastic pollutants in the environment for the benefit of human and marinehealth. Human activities are responsible for a major decline of the world’s biologicaldiversity, and the problem is so critical that combined human impacts could have acceleratedpresent extinction rates to 1000–10,000 times the natural rate. In the ocean, the threat tomarine life comes in various forms, such as over-exploitation and over-harvesting, pollution,alien species, land reclamation, dredging and climate change. One particular form of humanimpact constitutes a major threat to marine life: the pollution by plastic debris. Plastics is one of the fastest growing industries in India and the next 20 years willwitness an unprecedented growth in all sectors of the plastics industry according to thePlastIndia Foundation (www.plastindiafoundation.org). It is, therefore, imperative that a system to keep plastics out of our environment is putin place as soon as possible. One cannot have awareness of this issue without action, and aswe are collectively responsible for using plastic, we are equally responsible for removing theplastic from our natural environment. The symposium was targeted to give a platform to discuss management of plasticwaste and its immense opportunities for recycling, reusing, conversion and alternatives. Italso looked at innovative ideas that could become a permanent solution for the plastic menacethat we face. It is also imperative for businesses and organisations to work together to tackle themultiple challenges of pollution control. It is hoped that greater awareness will reduce theamount of plastics that gets into our water, air and food supplies, by making us more diligentin its disposal and more committed to creating efficient waste management systems. The Corporation of Cochin is indeed making a commendable effort in making the cityclean and organizing various awareness initiatives. More than these initiatives and awarenessprograms it is the self initialization of public concern that has to be ignited. If the people ofKerala can build on efforts already in existence today and implement other systems alreadysuccessful elsewhere in the world, the state may indeed offer a formula for managingdiscarded plastic that could be implemented in a national framework.  
  • 4. We are grateful to be offered a platform by the Cochin Corporation and The KochiBiennale foundation and for the generous hospitality of our hosts at the The Fern Hotel. Solly Solomon Education Director Global Ocean India.  
  • 5. Organizing committee • Ms. Melanie Salmon, Director, Global Ocean . • Mr. T.K Ashraf, Chairman, Health Standing Committee, Corporation of Cochin. • Dr. Rajan Chedambath, Secretary, Centre for Heritage, Environment and Development, Corporation of Cochin. • Dr. Nirmala Padmanabhan, Head, Dept of Economics St Theresas College Cochin • Mr. Solly Solomon, Education Director, Global Ocean India. • Ms. Dhanya Chungath, Global Ocean India  
  • 6. 1. Inaugural session The symposium was willingly attended by people from different sectors of society including policy makers, businessmen, educationalists, hoteliers, builders, environmentalists, The Navy, social workers, Non-Profit-Organizations, people from various print and electronic media and others. Dr.Rajan Chedambath, Secretary of the Centre for Heritage, Environment and Development of the Corporation of Cochin, welcomed the delegates and guests. Melanie Salmon, Founder of Global Ocean, gave a brief introduction about Global Ocean and its activities around the world. The program was formally inaugurated by the honourable member of the legislative assembly, Sri. Hiby Eden. In his inaugural address the Hon. MLA, stressed on the significance of the symposium and the various ill effects of plastic pollution in the State of Kerala. He highlighted the need to develop and implement initiatives in order to make a better environment for future generations to sustain and manage. The inaugural session was felicitated by the Hon. Deputy mayor Smt. Bhadra, She explained how the City of Cochin is dependent on the marine sectors, and how the pollution of the marine environment adversely affects the social and economic well-being of us all. Moreover, she briefly described the impact of plastic pollution on marine life. She commented on the initiative taken by Global Ocean in this regard. Sri. T.K. Ashraf, Health Standing Committee Chairman of the Corporation of Cochin, delivered the vote of thanks to all the guests and delegates who spared their valuable time for this noble cause and to all who worked on and off the screen for the successful conduct of the program. The inaugural session was followed by screening the trailer of the film Plastic Oceans (www.plasticoceans.net). This preceded the technical sessions which were handled by experts from the field who described what actually happens around us that  
  • 7. is largely hidden from our eyes. 2. Technical sessions 2.1. Dr. V. Kripa, Principal Scientist and Head, Fishery Environment Management Division, CMFRI Cochin, handled the first session on ‘How plastic enter into the food chain?’ About the speaker:Dr.(Mrs).V.Kripa, Principal Scientist, is the Head of Fishery Environment ManagementDivision of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute India. She has more than 26 years ofservice in Research, Management and Extension activities relating to the Fisheries andAquaculture sector; has published more than 95 publications in related subjects; has beenawarded the T.V.R.Pillay award (as a team) for coastal livelihood development throughbivalve mariculture in the year 2011, and received the commendable paper award for thework on Women empowerment in the International symposium on Gender and Fisheriesorganized by the Asian Fisheries Society. In a recent competition conducted by UNEP forWorld Environment Day Celebrations (WED-2012) for promoting Green Economy, DrKripa’s Environment team from CMFRI, was among 35 finalists shortlisted from 9200 globalcontestants.She is currently working on coastal habitat restoration, participatory programmes inenvironment conservation, climate change and environmental aspects related to marinefisheries.Summary of her presentation Dr. Kripa briefly explained the sources and types of plastic wastes that enter into ourenvironment, and how it enters into the food chain causing irreversible damage. Through herscholarly talks she explained how plastic affects the surface waters, impacts negatively onplankton, the commercial fisheries and the water-column, and how it adversely affects thebottom flora and fauna. She described direct and indirect sources of marine litter. The characterisation ofmarine debris was based on its floating nature. According to her, micro-plastics were themost unnoticed but deleterious pollutant. Possible effects of microplastics on marineorganisms after ingestion are threefold: physical blockage or damage of feeding appendagesor digestive tract, leaching of plastic component chemicals into organisms after digestion, andingestion and accumulation of sorbed chemicals by the organism.  
  • 8. Nurdles - pre-production plastic resin pellet typically under 5 mm (0.20 in) indiameter found outside of the typical plastics manufacturing stream can carry two types ofmicropollutants in the marine environment: native plastic additives and hydrophobicpollutants absorbed from seawater. For example, concentrations of PCBs and DDE onnurdles collected from Japanese coastal waters were found to be up to 1 million times higherthan the levels detected in surrounding seawater. Ingestion of plastic causes Blockages of the esophogus and intestinal tract. Sharpobjects results in injuries and infections, Toxins can accumulate in an animal’s tissuesaffecting the health and wellness of the animal. Seabirds and hatchling sea turtles may eatplastic debris that is toxic when ingested, resulting in reproductive failure or death. Sea turtlesmay mistake floating debris for food, which can lead to suffocation or intestinal blockagewhen ingested. Whales can ingest marine debris that can become entangled in their baleen,cause choking, or interfere with digestion. She quoted the study On July 1, 2006, Cynthia Vanderlip conducted a necropsy of achick. The contents of the bird’s stomach amazed and shocked the teachers and scientists.The dead chick was severely impacted and literally full of plastics. Some pieces wereapproximately 6 inches long and several were sharp and jagged. We could conclusively statethis bird was killed by the plastic debris because of the observed puncture in the lining of theproventriculus. We removed the plastic from our bird and counted an excess of 306 pieces ofplastic.  
  • 9. Plastics  in   turtle   stomach CMFRI,  Kochi Study by CMFRI indicates the quantity of non biodegradable waste ranged between at2 to 18 kg day-1 and consisted of rubber tyres, bottles, metal plates, tin cans etc during thepre-monsoon period. The quantity of debris flowing into the coastal ecosystem was found tobe considerably higher during the full moon and new moon period coinciding with the springtides. Types  of  debris  /  litter  in  Kerala  The   occurrence   by   weight   as   well   as   nature   of   the   biodegradable   objects  strewn  along  beaches  was  studied.   Canals  in  urban  areas  were  more    affected  The  intensity  varied  in  different  locations.    
  • 10. Number of plastic and glass bottles accumulating in a stake net placed near Northern Vermbanad area 48   No  of   In  one  stake  net  of     44   38   plas3c   frame  area  15sqm   32   32   about  48    plas3c   28  30   25   bo?les  are   21  24   18  17   accumulated   13   12   10   during    9  period  of   8   7   6   6   4   a   4   4   6   4   7   6  hrs   0   3   0   1   0   2   0   1   0  0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   Day  of  observa,on   CMFRI,  Kochi Latest research suggests that plastic is also a source of dissolved substances that caneasily become widely dispersed in the marine environment. Many of these chemicals arebelieved to be toxic to humans and animals. They release a range of chemicals, such asbisphenol A and substances known as polystyrene-based (PS) oligomers, which are not foundnaturally. Bisphenol A has been implicated in disrupting the hormonal system of animals,including humans.  
  • 11. In September 2010, Canada became the first country to declare BPA a toxicsubstance. The EU, Canada, and recently the US have banned BPA use in baby bottles.Bisphenol A is an endocrine disruptor which can mimic estrogen and may lead to negativehealth effects. A 2011 study that investigated the number of chemicals pregnant women areexposed to in the U.S. found BPA in 96% of women. Higher bisphenol A levels weresignificantly associated with heart disease, diabetes, and abnormally high levels of certainliver enzymes. “The problem is, BPA is also a synthetic estrogen, and plastics with BPA can breakdown, especially when theyre washed, heated or stressed, allowing the chemical to leach intofood and water and then enter the human body. That happens to nearly all of us; the CDChas found BPA in the urine of 93% of surveyed Americans over the age of 6. If you dont haveBPA in your body, youre not living in the modern world”…The perils of plastic – TIMEMagazine. The session was concluded by the suggestion of various management and preventivemeasures that can be adopted by everyone to tackle this issue.2.2 Dr. Bijoy Nandan Associate Professor CUSAT explained about the impactof plastic pollution on the marine and human health.About the speakerDr. S. Bijoy Nandan, an ECOLOGIST, is presently Associate Professor in Marine Biology,School of Marine Sciences, Cochin University of Science & Technology (CUSAT). He hadearlier served as Senior Scientist and Head, Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute Centre(ICAR), Kerala and as Sr. Officer in Central Institute of Fisheries, Nautical & EngineeringTraining (CIFNET), Govt. of India, Cochin. He has conducted post doctoral research ofCSIR, in the Dept. of Aquatic Biology & Fisheries, University of Kerala. He was aparticipant of the Indian Arctic research Expedition in 2011 and also worked as consultant inthe United Nations funded research project in King Fahd University of Petroleum &Minerals, Saudi Arabia. Bijoy Nandan is member of noted professional/ academic bodies inIndia and abroad. He is the Technical member of the Kerala State Pollution Control Board.Bijoy Nandan has over 103 research publications in peer reviewed journals of national andinternational repute, books, book chapters, and popular articles. He has visited severalcountries in connection with his academic and research assignments and is supervising  
  • 12. students for Ph.D programmes in several universities.Summary of the presentation Plastic is used very commonly in the world because they are cheap, easy to make andlong lasting. But sorry to say, these useful qualities make plastic a real menace to theenvironment. Neither biodegradable nor sustainable, 105 million tons of plastic is producedannually in the world, whilst 2.5 million tonnes is produced in India. The use of plastic inWestern and European countries is averaging 70 kg per person per year, whilst in India it is 4kg per person per year. Global per capita consumption of plastic (kg) World average 26 North America 90 West Europe 65 East Europe 10 China 12 India 5 South-East Asia 10 L. America 18 Individual plastic consumption in India Material Year 1999-2000 2000-01 HDPE 515496 540000 PVC 649000 700000 PP 789480 905000 PS 175382 193300 LDPE/LLDPE 723860 820000  
  • 13. Health impacts due to burning of plastics. Burning plastic bottles releases heavy metals such as cadmium and lead, along withtoxic chemicals into the air. These chemicals include benzene, dioxins, furans andpolyaromatic hydrocarbons. Burning polyvinyl chloride (PVC) releases hydrochloric acid,which contributes to acid rain. Dioxins and furans occur from the burning of waste,including plastics. One dioxin, known as TCDD, is linked to cancer in humans. Burning ofpolyurethrene foam releases about 57 cancer causing chemicals which include extremelytoxic toluene diso cyanate. The PVC gives off vinyl chloride gas, even the trace quantities ofwhich cause liver cancer. Generally, higher concentration of vinyl chloride is detected aroundthe rubbish dumps. Often they are set fire or they catch fire emitting smoke containinghydrogen fluoride, which is not only very poisonous but also contributes to acid rain.Antimony is also found in many fruit juice and squash bottles. When PVC is processed in a poorly ventilated area formed in the absence ofsufficient oxygen and at a temperature more than 300°C, carbon monoxide is produced.During incineration, PVC evolves dioxin, which is also highly toxic. Bisphenol - anendocrine disruptor which can mimic oestrogen and has been linked with an array ofafflictions as diverse as diabetes, heart disease, breast cancer, thyroid disorders, ADHD,infertility, erectile dysfunction, early-onset menstruation and obesity. Bisphenol A and otherpersistent organic pollutants (POPs) can pass through the placental wall and also enter infantsthrough breast milk. The Tragic Condition of The Marine Environment Within the oceans of the world, there are five plastic islands, or five “gyres.” Theoceans’ currents, the world’s wind patterns, and the Earth’s rotation cause “gyres.” Withinthe gyres, plastic congregates and accumulates, creating gyres in the North Pacific, SouthPacific, North Atlantic, South Atlantic, and Indian Ocean. These gyres resemble “plasticsoups” more than “plastic islands”.  
  • 14. An estimated 1.1-1.26 kg/person/day is generated on board the ships as waste plasticand thrown overboard. It is estimated that merchant ships alone dump about 5, 00,000 plasticcontainers each day in international waters. Plastic degradation at sea takes between 45-1000 years. When plastic reaches one ofthe gyres, it remains there for years, gradually disintegrating, until the oceans’ currents take itto a beach. Research on the Great North Pacific Garbage Patch, or the plastic island in theNorth Pacific, has shown that the concentration of plastics at the heart of this gyre is sixtimes greater than that of plankton Entanglement - animals get trapped or stuck in plastic pollution which limits theanimals movement and can lead to starvation. In the ocean, plastic debris injures and killsfish, seabirds and marine mammals. Marine plastic pollution has impacted at least 267species worldwide, including 86% of all sea turtle species, 44% of all seabird species and43% of all marine mammal species. The impacts include fatalities as a result of ingestion,starvation, suffocation, infection, drowning and entanglement. Coral reefs can be harmed via scouring, abrading, or breakage when marine debrissnags or entangles coral . Ghost fishing—the entrapment of fish in lost or abandoned gearsuch as gillnets, traps, cages, and pots—is a widely acknowledged problem  
  • 15. Algalita Marine  Research  Foundation  N.  Pacific  Central   Gyre  voyage  2008 672  fish  caught,  6  species 35%  had  ingested  micro-­‐plastic  fragments A recent study found that plastics take up and accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs), It affect ultimately humans through food chain. Plastics contaminate the marine food chain Ingested plastic has potential to transfertoxic substances to the food chain(Teuten el at. 2009). By migration of toxic additives: Manystudies show that additives leach out of plastic packaging. Chemicals in plastic are harmful towildlife-the most widely used plasticizers impact molluscs, crustaceans, insects, fish andamphibians-impairing development,reproduction at concentrations that mimic environmentalconcentrations. Plastic fragments also act as attractor molecules PAHs, PCBs, PBA and otherbioaccumulative contaminants in seawater adhere to surface and concentrate significantly –upto 100 times background levels (Mato et al 2001, Teuten et al 2009) This preliminary baseline study of Indian Ocean debris accumulation rates, nature andcolonization reflects patterns suggested by other authors for parts of the Atlantic and PacificOceans. The Indian Ocean has already become a major source of export of marine organismsto the Mediterranean Sea via the Suez Canal. Debris and ship carried invaders now seemlikely to pose a serious threat to the Southern Ocean around Antarctica, the only marine realmfrom which exotic invaders are unknown. (David K.A. Barnes) The Sea Education Association’s (SEA) expedition to the western North AtlanticOcean found bits of HDPE (high density polyethylene), LDPE (low density polyethylene),and PP (polypropylene) from items such as milk containers, plastic bags, and straws, whichfloat on the surface because they are less dense than seawater. It did not find PET  
  • 16. (polyethylene terephthalate), PVC (polyvinyl chloride), and PS (polystyrene solid), whichsink because they are denser than seawater. Algalita, Marine Research Foundation whichsampled down to depths of 100 hundred meters throughout the eastern side of the NorthPacific Gyre, found LDPE, styrene, PP and PET. Despite all these environmental and potential human health impacts, most scientistsagree that it is not feasible to clean up the plastic soup in our oceans. The areas are huge, andthe debris is unevenly distributed and always shifting. A cleanup would entail filteringenormous amounts of water, and the by-catch of plankton and other marine organisms wouldbe harmful to ocean ecosystems. Moreover, the fact that the trash gyres are in the open ocean,in international waters, makes it difficult to get governments to invest in research or cleanupefforts.2.3 Mr. Mohan Chandran Deputy Manager BPCL, Cochin refinery handled the session on themanagement of plastic waste and reduction of its impact on our environment.About the speakerMr. Mohan Chandran K C work as Deputy Manager (Information Systems) at BharatPetroleum Corporation Ltd – Kochi Refinery. Has conducted classes and seminars for over45 residents’ associations, 8 colleges, and 2 Engineering colleges on following subjects“Waste management and Organic Farming” “No waste only wealth” “Waste managementand terrace gardening”. Has introduced “PLASTEND” and “SAVE A TREE” projects in 4Schools and 3 Residents’ Association in tripunithura. These projects are introduced in schoolwith a motive of reaching their parents and then to the society. Founder and Vice-Chairmanof Tripunithura Rajanagari Union of Residents’ Association an apex body ofresidents’ which includes 85 residents’ associations with 50 to 250 members in eachassociation in tripunithura municipality . This organisation plays a main role in developmentof tripunithura municipality along with municipality with the help of people. The mainobjective of this organisation is to create awareness in the society, mainly the requirementand necessity of degradable solid waste at its origin, the hazard of plastic waste to theuniverse and coming generation and methods to avoid it, encouraging and propagatingOrganic farming/terrace farming . Founder of “Prerana” “The Inspiration” which is acharitable organisation focused on the development of children and ladies. The slogan of theorganisation is “Through the students to the parents, through the parents to the society”. Forany development and change in the society we have to model the new generation. We extendquality development program for them, study classes, memorising techniques and tressmanagement techniques.  
  • 17. Summary of the presentation Mr Mohan Chandran clearly briefed on the various possible management methodsthat is in vogue as well as those that can be possibly implemented in our society for thesuccessful mitigation of the plastic menace. He notifed that as on date the main methods ofplastic waste disposal practiced are by landfill, incineration, energy recovery, resourcerecovery, avoidance and reduction methods. Plastic is widely used to fill lands to reclaim unutilized areas. It takes 1000 to 1Mnyears for a polyethylene bag to breakdown in soil. As it breaks down toxic substances leachinto the soil and enter food chain . it choke the soil and the soil inhabitants for ages anddestroy their natural habitats. Plastics are widely incinerated in our society. Unscientific incineration of plasticresults in more hazardous environmental and clinical problems. 1 kg of polyethyleneproduces 3.20kg of CO2. This becomes one ofthe worst forms of air pollution as CO2 is oneof the major green house gases and heightens to the global warming. If plastic with chlorineor fluorine or any halogen in that respect is burned, cancer causing toxic substance called as –dioxins are produced. This results in serious health hazards. Plastic has a very high caloric value. This property of plastic can be exploitedusefully. Many furnaces and turbines already practice this. Since burned at very hightemperature and controlled air supply, CO2 emission will be very low. Recycling and reusing of plastic is also a better way to prevent its entry into theenvironment. PET bottles can be recycled to fibre, nylon, rope, net, tables, chairs, bottles etc.Shredded plastic can be used for the blackening of the roads along with the coal tar. Thisincreases the life and durability of the roads. Plastic bocks or bitumen can also be used in theconstruction industry. The major way to reduce the entry of plastic is by the avoidance and reductionmethod. The self initialization of reduced plastic usage must come from each and everyone.Education from a young age for the proper segregation, disposal and reuse of plastic must beencouraged. Government and Non-Government-Organizations working with similar interestsmust work together to reduce society’s reliance on plastics and eventually leading to itsgradual elimination..  
  • 18. Plastic is produced by the polymerisation of oil in the presence of a few catalystsunder specific conditions. Similarly, thermal depolymerisation is a process that reducescomplex organic materials usually biomas plastics into light crude oil. Utilizing pressure andheat, the process breaks down the long-chain polymers into short-chain petroleumhydrocarbons with the aid of a catalyst. MK AROMATICS, Alathur on Old Mahabalipuram road Tamil Nadu is a companyestablished 5 years ago that uses 10 tonnes of plastic per day to produce 10000 litres of crudeoil per day. Any plastic waste like industrial and municipal waste and others like the bumbersof cars and computer cases can be used. Halogenated plastic cannot be used as it producesdioxins. The plastic is turned into a molten state using a catalyst and vaporized before beingconverted to oil. The process is easy as it doesn’t need segregation or washing . they alsopocess distilling facilities to make diesel from crude . they claim to have a reslt of 12%petrol, 40% diesel 28% heavy oil and 20% furnace oil. The residual dry coke depends on thequality of the plastic used for the pyrolysis process.  
  • 19. 3. Institutional session Dr.T.O.Varghese Manager ( Project) CENTRE FOR BIOPOLYMER SCIENCE &TECHNOLOGY (A unit of CIPET) Eloor, Udyogamandal, Kochi, delivered the institutionalpresentation on the topic Plastics Recycling and Integrated Waste Management. Recycling of Plastics is a daunteding challenge as there are about 10-12 main polymertypes and thousands of different resin grades and blends available for commercialapplications. In addition to this, polymers have become increasingly multi-componentthrough the use of multi-layers, laminates and composites. Furthermore, many polymers arerarely additive free. Normally they contain additives, formulates and modifiers such asfillers, pigments, antioxidants and flame-retardants, which can further interfere with therecycling process. Indian Experience and Success in Plastics Waste Recycling  Estimate suggests that around 2500 mechanical recycling industries are spread over the length and breadth of the country involving around 3 lakh people.  The statistical informations on Indian scenario are enumerated as follows. Volume Recycled - 1.2 MMT No. of units - 2500 Pelletizers - 3200 Turnover (USD in Million) - 1124 Value Add (USD in Million) - 360 Ragpickers Employed - 130 K Employment - 300 K CENTRE FOR BIOPOLYMER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ( A unit of CIPET ) SP - 37 In the 90’s, emphasis was on the mechanical recycling of plastics. Today there is anintegrated approach to plastics recycling including feed-stock recycling and incineration withenergy recovery. Demand for post-consumer recyclates is steadily increasing due to theimplementation of legislation on recycling; a favorable cost of recyclates; an advancement inrecycling technology and an expanded collection network.  
  • 20. Innovative Centrifugal technology for Separation of Waste renders excellentseparation of Plastics of different density: fine separation independent of size or form of theflake with high through-put due to quick separation (300 - 5000 kg per hour ispossible with low energy-consumption and low ground-noise). Various size reduction methods used in the recycling technique are Cutting Process-Shredders, Rotary Grinder, Grinders, Rotary Knife Cutters, Wet Size Reduction, Slicers,Screw Cutters; Laminate separation; Densification-agglomerators.  
  • 21. Innovative Free-flowing agglomerate from mixed plastics waste materials CENTRE FOR BIOPOLYMER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ( A unit of CIPET ) SP - 15 The Innovative Free-flowing agglomerate from mixed plastics waste materialsundertakes careful handling of plastics by processing below melting temperature. Versatile,dry, and free-flowing recycled material with a bulk density of up to 480 kg/m3 Flexible useof recycled material as a result of its excellent dosability and storability. Any thermoplasticsheeting and blisterpack materials made of PE, PP, PA, PET and PVC can be processed.Also suitable for the compaction of foams, fibers, and flow-moulded plastics  
  • 22. Flow Diagram for Recycling of Consumer Waste Consumer Waste Household Waste Hotel/Hospital Waste Street Waste Dump yard Scrap Dealers Rag pickers Scrap wholesalers Grinding, Recyclers Sorting & Cleaning Cleaning, Drying Sold to processors/ Granulation & Lump formation & Product conversion to end Packaging grinding CENTRE FOR BIOPOLYMER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ( A unit of CIPET ) SP - 19 Flow Diagram for Recycling of Industrial Waste Industrial Waste End Users Street Waste Scrap Dealers Scrap pickers Scrap wholesalers Grinding, Recycler Sorting & Cleaning Cleaning, Drying Sold to processors/ Granulation & Lump formation & Product conversion to end Packaging grinding CENTRE FOR BIOPOLYMER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ( A unit of CIPET ) SP - 20  
  • 23. Essential elements for the successful recycling of plastics waste include a stablesupply source which involves reliable collection and sortation, an economical, proven andenvironmentally sound recycling process and end-use applications for the recycled polymerwhich yields economic market values and captures consumer confidence. Technology Options for the Recycling of Plastics Waste In – House recycling in processing industries Product to Product approach Monomer to Monomer Mixed plastics to oil Mixed plastics to plastics lumbers. Mixed plastics to energy INTERACTIVE SESSIONS. I. The delegates were given a questionnaire fill in. A time of 15 minutes was given and the completed answers were collected back. The statistical analysis of their answers is given below. 1. What  sector  are  you  in?     40.00%   35.00%   30.00%   25.00%   20.00%   15.00%   10.00%   5.00%   0.00%   Government   Industry  and   Fisheries   Educa3on   Plas3cs  and   Other   Corporate   recycling      
  • 24.     2. How  can  your  sector  work  together  to  reduce  plastic  pollution   with  the  local  government?     50.00%   40.00%   30.00%   20.00%   10.00%   0.00%   Educa3on  and   Recycle   decision   Collec3on  and   Alterna3ves   Development   awareness   making   disposal  of   of  new   plas3c   technology      3.  Please  circle  below  what  you  think  is  the  biggest  problem  of  plastic  pollution  in  Kerala?     80%   70%   60%   50%   40%   30%   Series1   20%   10%   0%   Aesthe3c   Health  and  safety   Nega3ve  effects  on   Others   tourism       4. Please  circle  below  what  ways  your  organisation  could  help  to   reduce  plastic  pollution:    
  • 25.     30.00%   25.00%   20.00%   15.00%   10.00%   5.00%   0.00%      5..  Which  sector  (rank  in  order)  do  you  think  contributes  most  to  plastic  waste?     35.00%   30.00%   25.00%   20.00%   15.00%   Series1   10.00%   5.00%   0.00%   Household   Backwater   Industry  and   Cruise  ships   Fisheries   Tourism   The  Public   villages   corporates      
  • 26. 6.What  do  you  think  are  the  solutions  to  plastic  pollution,  in  order   of  priority?     60.00%   50.00%   40.00%   30.00%   20.00%   Series1   10.00%   0.00%    waste          educa3on          investment                  new            economic          other   management   and  awareness   and  funding     technologies   incen3ves  to   facility   reduce  plas3c   pollu3on      7.  Please  circle  below  the  number  of  years  you  think  it  might  take  to  put  in  place  a  functional  waste  management  system  for  plastics,  if  all  the  sectors  face  the  challenges  together:     50.00%   45.00%   40.00%   35.00%   30.00%   25.00%   Series1   20.00%   15.00%   10.00%   5.00%   0.00%   2  years   5  years   10  years     never   other          
  • 27. 8.  What  is  the  biggest  challenge  plastic  is  having  on  your  business?     35%   30%   25%   20%   15%   Series1   10%   5%   0%   Disposal   Recycling   Unsegregated   Health  issues   Single  use   wastes   plas3cs          9.    Do  you  think  that  the  government  should  legislate  the    plastics  industry  to  behave  responsibly  towards  its  plastic  pollution?       80.00%   70.00%   60.00%   50.00%   40.00%   Series1   30.00%   20.00%   10.00%   0.00%   Yes   No   May  be      
  • 28.    10.  Do  you  think  toxic  plastic  needs  to  be  declared  by  the  Pollution  Board  a  pollutant?   80.00%   70.00%   60.00%   50.00%   40.00%   Series1   30.00%   20.00%   10.00%   0.00%   Yes   No   May  be      11.  Do  you  think  single  use  plastics  should  be  banned  in  the  State  of  Kerala?   80.00%   70.00%   60.00%   50.00%   40.00%   Series1   30.00%   20.00%   10.00%   0.00%   Yes   No   May  be   s    
  • 29. 3. The Delegates were divided into 6 groups at random and given 8 titles for group discussion.1. How can discarded plastic be recycled forindustrial use in Kerala? The various ways in which plastics can be reused are:  Use of shredders and converting it to bitumen.  Use of shredded plastic in road construction  Increasing the reuse of plastics  Conversion of plastics to fuel  Use of plastic for construction  Use recycled plastic as a substitute to wood  Use of plastic as an art form2.How can we implement a regular monitoringprogram of plastics in the water bodies ofKerala?The different monitoring methods are:  Installation of cameras at sensitive areas  Constant checkups by local government  Strict and stringent rules and its enforcement  Introduction of penalty for polluters  Engaging local fishermen to conduct regular monitoring  Giving financial incentives to well maintained areas  Involvement of Government or Non-Government-Organizations to boost the locals  Introduction of ‘Coastal Police’ ( volunteers to monitor the status and check on the polluters) or a professional ‘Marine Team’ or ‘Coastal Watch Squad.’  
  • 30. 3.How can we set up a measurable standard todeclare plastic a toxic pollutant?It can be attained by:  Sincere involvement of technical experts.  Thorough and solid research work.  Duty of the Pollution Control Board4.How can families achieve effective separationand collection of plastic from household waste?  Proper awareness to the people.  Convince them of the need for its collection and segregation.  Providing people with segregation bins.  Incentives for good performance.5.What solutions are there for single usedisposable plastics such as bottles of drinkingwater and aerated drinks?  Reduce the usage of single use plastic to the maximum.  Replace with glass bottles.  Use of alternatives such as paper or at the least, recyclable plastic. 6.How do we engage the media to promote a green society?  Constant awareness programs  Advertisements with celebrities  
  • 31.  Call for reduction in the use of plastics  Promotion of alternatives to plastics  Conduct training programs for school students7.How can the fishing industry be encouraged toreduce the problem of plastic pollution in theocean?  Avoid taking plastic to the sea  Avoid dumping of plastic waste in the sea  Use of better and cheap alternatives  Use of eco-friendly fishing gear  Setting up discarded fishing-net collection units  Giving incentives to the people who return old fishing gear8. How can we persuade the state government toencourage the formation of eco-friendlyindustries?  Strong recommendation by the local self governments and NGOs  Setting up a model village in this respect and asking for similar enforcement.  Strong student movements  Introduction of tax relaxation for organizations or individuals who perform eco- friendly practices.  
  • 32. RECOMMENDATIONSThese are the Recommendations that came out of the Symposium and a follow-up presentation by Global Ocean on Impacts of Plastic Debris and Marine andHuman Health on 28 November at the Centre for Heritage, Environment andDevelopment. • To find out the sources of thermocoil pollution on Kerala’s coastline and to put collection systems in place for its safe disposal. • An awareness and education campaign for schools in Kerala incorporating the 3Rs – Reduce, Re-use and Recycle. • Government legislation to make the Plastics Industry responsible for plastic pollution - the polluter pays principal? • Banning Single Use Plastics in the State of Kerala • To fine coastal vendors for selling plastic and to incentivize vendors to use eco- friendly materials. • Tax incentives such as heavily taxing the use and manufacture of non-biodegradable, non-sustainable plastics in the State of Kerala. • Facilitating private investment in technology that converts plastic debris to oil and/or plastic to plastic. • Introducting a dedicated “Marine Team” to keep the coastline clean and to monitor the sources of plastic pollution and health of the sea. • To facilitate/incentivize the replacement of petrol-derived synthetics with natural materials that are sustainable and biodegradable. • To create a working group to voice the Vision of The Corporation to the relevant Ministries. • To commission a socio-economic and feasibility report on green energy and eco- products for the State of Kerala.  
  • 33. • To incentivize fishers and boaters to collect plastic from the ocean.Please contact Melanie Salmon (melanie@globalocean.tv) for feedback.