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FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation
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FDRS Development for Land and Forest Fire Prevention and Mitigation

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  • By: Mulyono R. Prabowo, Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency

    ABSTRACT:

    Initiative for Indonesia Fire Danger Rating System (FDRS) commenced in 2000 at the Meteorological and Geophysical Agency (the former of currently called BMKG) Head Office. The system is being designed to support Indonesia Agencies Head Office in monitoring fire conditions and in developing national level actions to support activities of prevention, monitoring and mitigation at provincial level. In 2001, the FDRS at Head Office was adapted and operated in two provinces (Riau Province and in West Kalimantan Province) in Indonesia. All activities supported by CFS, BMKG, MoF, BPPT and LAPAN.

    Start in early 2002 BMKG, as an agency that has responsibility for to observe, collect, record weather data and disseminate daily weather information at national and local levels, have been operating daily FDRS nationally based on daily weather observation data. Therefore, BMKG is also responsible for to operate the FDRS which it is given support from Ministry of Forestry, BPPT and LAPAN.

    Since 2004 BMKG have been producing daily FDR Prediction base on France NWP (Synergie module – from Meteo France). In late 2007 the Research and Development Centre of BMKG has been running The Air Pollutant Model (applied for smoke from forest fire) base on Numerical Weather Prediction product output of CCAM (from CSIRO). The TAPM smoke trajectory was run based on hotspot data from MoF (output of Sipongi Program). Currently, BMKG is simulating the FDRS utilizing higher resolution of NWP prediction products and using various domain areas.
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  • 1. FDRS DEVELOPMENT FOR LAND AND FOREST FIRE PREVENTION AND MITIGATION BMKG Presented on:“ASEAN Technical Workshop on Development of the ASEAN Peat Land Fire Prediction and Early Warning System” Kuala Lumpur, 20-21 March 2012 AGENCY FOR METEOROLOGY CLIMATOLOGYL AND GEOPHYSICS
  • 2. Scope of presentation :1. Fire Danger Rating System2. FDRS Implementation Phases3. FDR Development (1999 – 2002)4. FDR Operation (2003 – now)5. Product Of FDRS: Current Status6. Smoke Dispersion and Trajectory Forecast Model7. Dessimination of FDRS information8. FDRS Future Development Program
  • 3. BMKG 1. Fire Danger Rating • Evaluation of (meteorological) factors that influence fire danger • A system for fire danger rating to evaluate the fire environment on regular intervals and in objective way. • Provides information and guidelines for fire management
  • 4. 2. FDRS Implementation Phases 1999-2002 2003 2004 2003 2005 2003 2006 2007 2008-Now BMKG Install and Runs FDRS (Pontianak, Palangka Raya, Jam-bi,MoU G to G (Indonesia & Canada) Palembang, Pekanbaru andSEA FDRS - Indonesia Initiative Lampung) & National Smoke(CFS, BPPT, BMKG and MoF) Trajectory 1. Adaptation BMKG R&D start to develop FDR Prediction 2. Operational for 7 days and TAPM base on NWP 3. Application (Collaboration CSiro and BMKG) 4. Haze Regional System BMKG Produce 3 days FDR Prediction (Synergies Module; MFI and BMKG). BMKG continued work on TOT and Capacity building of XLFWI Calculation in 3 Province (Jambi, Lampung and Palangka Raya) National Institute of Aeronautics And Space Agency (LAPAN)-sFMS based on RS MoU 3 Agencies (BPPT, MoF and BMKG- done TOT and Capacity Building (using XLFWI BMKG) FDRS Indonesia Calculation) in Riau and Pontianak 1. Operational of FDR 2. Capacity building in MoF Ministry of Forestry (MoF) start to produce AWS and 3. Product Dissemination XLFWI FDR Calculation in 29 areas – 8 Provinces
  • 5. 3. FDR Development (1999-2002) • Institutions: – Agency for Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) – National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) – Ministry of Forestry (MoF) – Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) – Canadian Forest Service (CFS) • Pilot project areas: – Riau Province – West Kalimantan Province
  • 6. 3. FDR Development (1999-2002)Development Adaptation Operation ApplicationComponent: BAPEDAL BMKG HO BMKG HOAgency roles: (electronic FDRS) DEPHUT PEMDA BMKG Local Office (manual/remote access) Media, dll. -Formulate FDRS teamBMKG Activities: -Decode weather data -Preparation of FDRS outputs -Integrate weather database -Map fire climate zones -Generate daily FDRS maps -Dissemination of outputs to users -Calibrate FDRS locally -Forecast FDRS -Assist with decoding -Output materialsFDRS Project -FDRS concepts training -Train FDRS operators -Communications with user groupsSupport: -Mission to Canada -Database training -Regional networking -Database/GIS training -Technical support -Technical support -Analysis of fire weather -Facilitate budget support -Build Link between fdrs members -Technical support from user agencies about FDRS dissemination
  • 7. 4. FDR Operation (2003 – now)• Information providers: – BMKG (since February 2002) → weather station based, spatial information – LAPAN (since 2005) → satellite remote sensing-based, spatial information – Ministry of Forestry (since 2005) → Single weather station based- ExcelFWI Calculation (29 Operation areas for 8 Provinces)• Users: – Ministry of Forestry – Ministry of Environment – Disaster Management Agency – ASEAN Secretariat – CARE Indonesia – Etc.
  • 8. SYNOPTIC (SURFACE) WEATHER DATABASE WEATHER DATA FIRE WEATHER INDEX WEATHER DATA SYSTEM CONVERSION INPUT INPUT DATA FTP SCRIPT ODBC MS Access Modules Open database connection File Transfer Protocol 3-hourly synoptic data from ~163 BMKG Real time fire weather database consists of 3 tables: weather observing stations in Indonesia is - “CMSSData” contains 3 hourly synoptic data Raw weather data from CMSS collected in the Computer Message Switching - “FIRE_ASEAN_VSTN” contains South East Asia weather station (FTP) stored in FDRS-BMKG System (CMSS) which automatically decodes catalog computer in Relational Database and retranslates it at every 16.00LST. Data is - “FWIInput” contains Fire Weather Input. System using Microsoft Access. stored for a week and renewed. - Each table has similar relational structure. • Temperature • Temperature • Relative Humidity • Relative Humidity • Temperature Fire Weather Index • Wind Speed • Wind Speed • Rainfall • Rainfall Inputs • RainfallSPATIAL ANALYSIS COUNTRY - WIDE Fuel Moisture Code Fine Fuel Moisture Code Duff Moisture Code Drought Code Maps (FFMC) (DMC) (DC) Initial Spread Index Buildup Index (ISI) (BUI) Fire Behavior Index Maps Fire Weather Index (FWI)Purpose of the Indonesia FDRSinitiative is to strengthen thecapacity of resource management EARLY WARNING SYSTEMorganizations to prevent andcontrol unwanted vegetation firesand associated haze. Communication Daily report Weekly Synopsis and Monthly Report products (Website) ForecastThe FDRS is designed to supportIndonesia agencies in monitoringfire conditions and in developingactions to support prevention,monitoring and mitigation activities • Fire Brigades • Forestry Department • Forestry Department Users • Forestry Offices • Agriculture Department • Agriculture Departmentat local levels.The Meteorological Climatological • Regional BMG • Environment Ministry • • Industry Department National Coordination Board For Natural BMKGand Geophysical Agency (BMKG) Disasteroperates the FDRS according to the • Local Governmentprocedures explained.
  • 9. CURRENT FDRS OPERATIONAL STATUS IN INDONESIA The Global Telecommunication System (GTS) is a global network, which exchanges meteorological data and products in the framework of the World Weather Watch (WWW) program of the World The purpose of the Indonesia Forest Fire Danger Rating System initiative is to Meteorological Organization (WMO). The GTS links three World Meteorological Centers (WMC) located strengthen the capacity of resource management organizations to prevent in Washington, Moscow and Melbourne, fifteen Regional Telecommunication Hub (RTH) and NMS. BMG is connected with one WMC (Melbourne) and one Regional Meteorology Center (RMC and control unwanted vegetation fires and associated haze. Singapore). The FDRS is designed to support Indonesian agencies in monitoring fire WMC – Melbourne conditions and in developing actions to support prevention, monitoring and Global telecommunication system, GTS RMC - Singapore mitigation activities. INDOSAT The Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG) operates MFI - France the FDRS according to the procedures explained below. Weather Observations Indonesian Regional Meteorology Office Computer Messages Switching System, Jakarta From Indonesia Synoptic (Region I, II, III, IV and V) (CMSS) Station Network File transfer protocol BMKG-RDBMS Telex, Fax or phone (FTP) Single Side Band (SSB) Real time meteorological data (T, RH, fff, RR) is Very Small Aperture Terminal Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) processed in Relational Database Management (VSAT) System to be used as input for GIS processing. Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Single Side Band (SSB) Single Side Band (SSB) Telex, Fax or phone Fire Danger is an assessment of the fixed and variable factors of the fire environment, which determine the ease of ignition, rate of fire spread, GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) difficulty of control and fire impacts. Fire Danger Rating is the process of systematically evaluating the individual and combined factors influencing fire danger. Weather station network In many fire danger rating systems only the weather elements are considered. The other legs of the fire environment triangle, fuel and Land system Elevation topography, are assumed constant. In other systems, fire and topography Land Cover are explicitly included in the system. Station Collecting Center (SCC) Site specific weather is needed to project the behavior of a specific fire. Fire danger rating, on the other hand, uses weather observations at a fixed site to give a broad area assessment of fire potential. The difference between fire behavior and fire danger is essentially a matter of scale. Weather raw data Fire danger rating system which implemented at BMKG is using the Spatial Weather station catalogueThe fire danger rating system helps fire control managers to make decisions on: Fire Management System (FMS). Static data layers, such as landcover and • Land use activities and regulations topography are used along with meteorological data to calculate daily fire • Fire suppression planning and allocation of fire suppression resources danger maps. • Daily incidence response • Burning plans and permits FDRS PRODUCTS FDRS USERS Drought Code - Palembang 1000 900 800 700 BMKG 600 500 Main data communication 400 300 200 100 0 Alternative data communication 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
  • 10. BMKG Temperature TemperatureWeather Relative Humidity Wind Temperature Relative HumidityElement Wind Velocity Velocity Rainfall Rainfall Rainfall Wet Level Wet LevelFuel humidity Top Layer of Soil low layer of soil Dry Levelcodes Fine Fuel Moisture Code Duff Moisture Code Drought Code (DC) (FFMC) (DMC) Flame level Fire Spread Level Buildup Index Initial Spread Index (ISI) (BUI)Fire behavior index Fire Weather Index (FWI) (0 until 13)
  • 11. BMKGDaily Operational FDRS at BMKG Head Office Existing FDRS configuration at BMKG WEATHER OBSERVATION Bawil I Satelli Geostationary te Medan Satellite (GMS) Polar Orbiting Satellite (NOAA) Aircraft Aerosonde Radiosonde Bawil II Satellite Ciputat Seawatch Buoy CMSS MAIN DATA SERVER MaritimeShiping observation observation Bawil III BMG VSAT Denpasar Link Satellite dish CCU1 CCU2 STRATUS CUMULUS Weather Radar Rainfall station Bawil IV Surface observation Ujung Pandang station Automatic weather Satellite Control Router Station (AWS) Station Cisco 2611 Bawil V Switch 100 mbps BMG LAN Jayapura Modem DOV BACKBONE Router Cisco 2509 DATA ENTRY Computer 1 Computer 4 Computer 2 Computer 3 Indosat - British Telecom Frame Relay Telephone Meteorological Center Climate & Air Quality Center RDBMS FDRS & GIS NMC RMC processing Melbourne Singapore Internet Multimedia Studio Fire Danger Fire Danger Fire Danger Long Term Forecast Short Term Forecast Daily Information Monthly and Yearly Weekly synopsis Seasonal External Agencies Forestry Dept, Agriculture & Web Web Web, Monthly Report Plantation Dept, LAPAN, BPPT, Seasonal Publication Environtment Dept, NGO,TV media, etc
  • 12. 5. PRODUCT OF FDRS: CURRENT STATUS Based On Synoptics Data
  • 13. 5. PRODUCT OF FDRS: CURRENT STATUS Based On Forecast Data
  • 14. 6. HAZE DISPERSION ANDTRAJECTORY FORECAST MODELS
  • 15. SMOKE DISPERSION AND TRAJECTORY FORECAST FOR SOUTH SUMATERA VALID FOR 26 AGUSTUS 2011; 07.00, 13.00, and 19.00 WIB 07:00 WIB 13:00 WIB 19:00 WIB MTSAT IR 19.00 WIBSource: BMKG TAPM (The Air Pollution Model)
  • 16. SMOKE DISPERSION AND TRAJECTORY FORECAST FOR CENTRAL KALIMANTAN VALID FOR 26 AGUSTUS 2011; 07.00, 13.00, and 19.00 WIB 07:00 WIB 13:00 WIB 19:00 WIB MTSAT IR 19.00 WIBSource: BMKG TAPM (The Air Pollution Model)
  • 17. 7. DESSIMINATION OF FDRS INFORMATION
  • 18. Daily Operational FDRS at BMKGExisting FDRS information at BMKG (http://www.bmkg.go.id/BMKG_Pusat/Meteorologi/Kebakaran_Hutan.bmkg)
  • 19. 8. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
  • 20. WEATHER STATION NETWORK IN INDONESIA
  • 21. Integrated Radar Network
  • 22. Integrated Radar Network
  • 23. NWP Product
  • 24. BMKG REALTIME ANALYSIS SHORT RANGE FORECAST MEDIUM LONG RANGE (2 - 3 DAY FORECAST) FORECAST (1–2 MONTH FORECAST) FINE FUEL H + 2 DAY FORECAST H+1 MONTH FORECAST MOISTURE CODE FINE FUEL MOISTURE FINE FUEL MOISTURE (FFMC) CODE (FFMC) CODE (FFMC) H+2 DAY FORECAST FIRE WEATHER H+1 MOTNH FORECAST FIRE WEATHER INDEX INDEX (FWI) FIRE WEATHER INDEX (FWI) (FWI) H + 3 DAY FORECAST HAZE MONITORING H+2 MONTH FORECAST FINE FUEL MOISTURE FINE FUEL MOISTURE CODE (FFMC) CODE (FFMC) HORIZONTAL H + 3 DAY FORECAST VISIBILITY FIRE WEATHER INDEX H+2 MONTH FORECAST MONITORING (FWI) FIRE WEATHER INDEX (FWI) SATELLITE DATA H +2, AND +3 DAY INTEGRATION FORECAST H +1 AND H+2 MONTH (HOTSPOT/FIRE SPOT/ 10 METER WIND FIELD FORECAST 10 METER HAZE MONITORING) WIND FIELD H +2, AND +3 DAY FORECAST HAZE DISPERSION/ TRAJECTORY MODEL

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