Aerial inventions in motorless flight   Kevin Kochersberger, Ph.D.          Virginia Tech,    Mechanical Engineering      ...
The first significant scientific research intomanned flight started with Sir George Cayley                     Sir George ...
Cayley’s coachman became the first aircraftpassenger in 1853       Derek Piggott flying the Governable Parachute in 1973
Jean-Marie LeBris was inspired byobservations of the AlbatrossJean-Marie LeBris (1817 – 1872)     Built a 50’ span glider,...
Francis Wenham built the first wind tunnel in1871 Francis Wenham (1824 - 1908)      His wind tunnel verified the advantage...
Insightful observations and a machine              Louis Mouillard (1834 – 1897)                   Published “The Empire o...
The experiments of Prof. John Montgomery                     John Montgomery (1858 – 1911)                       Montgomer...
Horatio Phillip’s wind tunnel used steaminjection to develop a clean airflow                        Horatio Phillips (1845...
Percy Pilcher conducted towed glider flightsin the hopes of building a powered machine                           Percy Pil...
Lilienthal was both a credible scientist andaerial experimentalist                      Otto Lilienthal (1848 – 1896)     ...
Lilienthal produced (for the first time)accurate lift and drag polars   The Wright brothers would refer to these published...
Lilienthal’s 1st successful glider design –Flown near Derwitz/Krielow in Brandenburg        Note flying apparel           ...
Lilienthal’s glider designs  They showed a classic hang glider configuration     Effective control was proven for thousand...
Octave Chanute – Railroad engineer turnedaerial experimentalist                    Octave Chanute (1832 – 1910)           ...
Chanute flew multi-wing glider designs withthe help of Augustus Herring                      Looking for collaboration, Ch...
The Katydid flights were short but safe                        “My assistants made some 150 –                        300 j...
Returning the Chicago, another glider wasquickly designed and built     The 1896 Chanute-Herring triplane/biplane glider w...
And then, the Wright brothers...       Wilbur (1867 - 1912)   Orville (1871 - 1948)
Early Experiments                    Flight experiments begun in 1899                    with a 5’ wingspan kite          ...
The 1900 glider – first to fly at Kitty Hawk                                 “For some years, I have been afflicted with t...
The 1900 glider flight test results                        Kiting the glider served to                        measure lift...
The 1901 glider was designed to correct thedeficiencies of the 1900 glider                 1901                           ...
Some success, but not enough...                    Pitch instability corrected by                    “trussing down” the w...
Engineering a solution                 The Wrights’ kiting experiments                 confirmed lift theory was incorrect...
1902 Glider
1902 glider: A modern airplane                     A high aspect ratio wing                     Anhedral added            ...
Adverse Yaw Corrected      0.008                   1901 Glider      0.006                   1902 Glider      0.004 Cn     ...
And more warp power                   0.03                  0.025                     1901 Roll Control Power             ...
But still have a variable stability aircraft          0.07      Unstable!          0.05                                   ...
Flight testing of the 1902 glider
The 1902 glider was used in 1903 forrecurrent training prior to the powered flightsOn October 21, 1903, Orville andWilbur ...
What is it like to fly the Flyer?                        Non-ergonomic design                           Canard lever and h...
What is it like to fly the Flyer?                          Laterally, the aircraft                          responds well ...
The 1903 Flyer was successful because ofthe Wrights’ extensive experience in gliders
The Wright 1909 Glider                    Responding to European                    demand for aircraft, the              ...
The Wright 1909 Glider                 Several successful flights of the                 1909 glider were documented, with...
The Wright 1911 Glider (Glider #5)                     October 7, 1911: Orville, Lorin and                     Alec Ogilvi...
The Wright 1911 Glider controls                   The same awkward control we see                   on the 1908 – 1911 pow...
The Wright 1911 Glider (Glider #5)                        October 16 – Orville notes                        shortcomings o...
The Wright 1911 Glider (Glider #5)                        October 18: Wind and rain                      “Made several gli...
A soaring endurance record is set                        October 19, 20: Repairs                        made and tail exte...
Epilogue           Orville stated in a 1919 letter to           Lawrence Driggs that “Our           early experiments at K...
The 9 min, 45 sec soaring endurance recordstood for 10 years, until Aug 20, 1921Wolfgang Klemperer and fellow students fro...
Conclusions Many aerial experimentalists contributed to the science of aviation, but no one was “putting it all together” ...
Acknowledgements  Simine and Jim Short  Neal Pfeiffer  Ken Hyde and the Wright Experience team  Rick Young
Gliding History Symposium          Symposium Coordinator: Dr. Tom Crouch, Senior Curator               Smithsonian Nationa...
Hang Gliding LegendsA once in a lifetime panel on the development of hang gliding and the visionary contributions ofFranci...
Acknowledgements        Neal Pfeiffer        Simine Short        Jim Short        Paul Dees        Rick Young        Ken H...
Aerial inventions in motorless flight, SSA 2011 Banquet Presentation by Dr. Kevin Kochersberger
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Aerial inventions in motorless flight, SSA 2011 Banquet Presentation by Dr. Kevin Kochersberger

  1. 1. Aerial inventions in motorless flight Kevin Kochersberger, Ph.D. Virginia Tech, Mechanical Engineering Blacksburg, VA
  2. 2. The first significant scientific research intomanned flight started with Sir George Cayley Sir George Cayley (1773 - 1857) Successful engineer Designed several airplanes, flew a successful glider model, measured lift using a whirling arm device Had limited success with full scale aircraft 1804 1852
  3. 3. Cayley’s coachman became the first aircraftpassenger in 1853 Derek Piggott flying the Governable Parachute in 1973
  4. 4. Jean-Marie LeBris was inspired byobservations of the AlbatrossJean-Marie LeBris (1817 – 1872) Built a 50’ span glider, the Albatross, and (maybe) managed a short gliding hop in 1856 – some flight reports were greatly exaggerated which puts into question his credibility Improved on the design in 1868 (below), but only flight may have been unmanned and out of control
  5. 5. Francis Wenham built the first wind tunnel in1871 Francis Wenham (1824 - 1908) His wind tunnel verified the advantages of long, slender wings (observed in soaring birds) Wenham was the first to suggest superposing planes to increase lift and structural efficiency – published paper “On Aerial Locomotion…” (1866) Wenham’s superposed wing concept
  6. 6. Insightful observations and a machine Louis Mouillard (1834 – 1897) Published “The Empire of the Air” in 1881on the observations of bird flight, which Chanute took interest in Proposed fixed wing gliders Designed and built a simple winged apparatus and achieved a 138 ft glide Mouillard’s work inspired Chanute to fund him to build a two-axis control machine, but no success came from this
  7. 7. The experiments of Prof. John Montgomery John Montgomery (1858 – 1911) Montgomery was the first person in the U.S. to successfully fly a glider Although the documentation is sketchy, he is likely to have flown a glider with pitch control in 1883 in Otay Mesa, CA This flight was short – 100 feet despite reports of longer flights Later, David Maloney flew a successful tandem wing glider for exhibition (1905) from balloon launch Clip from Gallant Journey 1946, starring Glenn Ford as John Montgomery, directed by William Wellman
  8. 8. Horatio Phillip’s wind tunnel used steaminjection to develop a clean airflow Horatio Phillips (1845 – 1912) Tested cambered airfoil shapes He was the first to recognize that low pressure created on the upper surface of the wing contributed to lift Designed a steam powered, venetian-blind type test vehicle to evaluate lift of superposed wings
  9. 9. Percy Pilcher conducted towed glider flightsin the hopes of building a powered machine Percy Pilcher (1866 – 1899) Pilcher was focused on flight at a young age, and experimented in aeronautics at the University of Glasgow The most 1892 – 1893, built the Bat and famous yaw flew 30 – 40 ft from a shallow string! hill He designed the Hawk and flew many towed flights 1897 – 1899 Pilcher was fatally injured in the Hawk on Sep 30, 1899
  10. 10. Lilienthal was both a credible scientist andaerial experimentalist Otto Lilienthal (1848 – 1896) Measured lift and drag on cambered airfoils with a whirling arm device and a balance in natural wind Men do laundry! Noted the effect of camber lift on clothes in the wind
  11. 11. Lilienthal produced (for the first time)accurate lift and drag polars The Wright brothers would refer to these published tables and graphs for their wing designs Parabolic shape, 1/12 camber ratio From “Birdflight As The Basis Of Aviation”
  12. 12. Lilienthal’s 1st successful glider design –Flown near Derwitz/Krielow in Brandenburg Note flying apparel 1891 – 80 foot flight achieved
  13. 13. Lilienthal’s glider designs They showed a classic hang glider configuration Effective control was proven for thousands of glides and five hours of flight time, 800 ft glide achieved in 1893 1893 1895 1894 – the “Normal glider” 1896 – crashed normal glider
  14. 14. Octave Chanute – Railroad engineer turnedaerial experimentalist Octave Chanute (1832 – 1910) Chanute left the Erie Railroad as a successful railroad bridge designer and executive in 1883, but continued to work in a variety of engineering interests In 1886, Chanute chaired the AAAS Mechanical Science Section meeting in Buffalo, NY where he introduced flight as a topic In 1894, published Progress in Flying Machines
  15. 15. Chanute flew multi-wing glider designs withthe help of Augustus Herring Looking for collaboration, Chanute found Augustus Herring, a builder of some moderately successful gliders in 1894 In 1896, several experiments were conducted on the south shore of Lake Michigan with the Katydid
  16. 16. The Katydid flights were short but safe “My assistants made some 150 – 300 jumps during the two weeks we were at camp, say from 30 to 100 feet in length and not the slightest accident occurred.” The Katydid patent incorporated automatic stabilization by hinging the rear portion of the wings, or a tail surface
  17. 17. Returning the Chicago, another glider wasquickly designed and built The 1896 Chanute-Herring triplane/biplane glider was designed and flown later in the summer Utilizing the Pratt truss design, this glider resembled a railroad bridge from the front view 1896
  18. 18. And then, the Wright brothers... Wilbur (1867 - 1912) Orville (1871 - 1948)
  19. 19. Early Experiments Flight experiments begun in 1899 with a 5’ wingspan kite Proved the wing warping concept The Wrights realized that control was still an unsolved problem (unlike the majority of aerial experimentalists) Weight shift and flexible surfaces were commonly used
  20. 20. The 1900 glider – first to fly at Kitty Hawk “For some years, I have been afflicted with the belief that flight is possible to man…” Wilbur Wright to Octave Chanute, May 13, 1900 1900 The 1900 glider was sized around Lilienthal’s calculations The front “rudder” position was settled on after trying a rear mounted configuration It was believed that the center of pressure was kept more constant with angle of attack and prevented a nose dive attitude 1900 Glider Specifications Wingspan: 17.5’ (2’ less than planned due to wood availability) Chord: 5’ Wing area: 165 ft 2
  21. 21. The 1900 glider flight test results Kiting the glider served to measure lift and drift (drag) 2001 Because of the smaller-than- planned size and low aspect ratio, angles of attack were large, resulting in more drag “…hours of practice we had hoped to obtain finally dwindled down to about two minutes…” Distances of 300’ – 400’ achieved with a 6:1 glide angle descending down hill
  22. 22. The 1901 glider was designed to correct thedeficiencies of the 1900 glider 1901 More kiting experiments proved the lifting capacity was still less than predicted Without pilot, the glider lifted 98 lbs. with 15 lbs. of drag. Effective L/D = 6 But lifting capacity 1/3 of predicted for given wind speed and AOA Lilienthal’s lift coefficients were correct, but: The Smeaton coefficient was incorrect The AR was low1901 Glider Specifications There was a huge gap in the lower wing Wingspan: 22’ Chord: 7’ Wing area: 290 ft 2
  23. 23. Some success, but not enough... Pitch instability corrected by “trussing down” the wings Longest flight: 389 ft. Actual lift was much less than predicted And a turn to the right... View looking Forward ...Became a turn to the left! ???
  24. 24. Engineering a solution The Wrights’ kiting experiments confirmed lift theory was incorrect They needed to quantify airfoils, so a wind tunnel was built to determine accurate lift and drag for over 200 tested shapes Effects of camber, thickness and aspect ratio were documented as a function of angle of attack
  25. 25. 1902 Glider
  26. 26. 1902 glider: A modern airplane A high aspect ratio wing Anhedral added Improved camber (curvature) L/D increased from 5 to 7 Three axis control: with the addition of a moving tail, turns were now predictable 250 flights made in a 5-day period in October Longest flight: 622 ft. Time aloft: 26 seconds
  27. 27. Adverse Yaw Corrected 0.008 1901 Glider 0.006 1902 Glider 0.004 Cn 0.002 0 0 5 10 15 20 -0.002 -0.004 Angle of attack, degrees
  28. 28. And more warp power 0.03 0.025 1901 Roll Control Power 1902 Roll Control Power Roll Coeff, Cl 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 0 5 10 15 20 Angle, degrees
  29. 29. But still have a variable stability aircraft 0.07 Unstable! 0.05 1901 Glider 1902 Glider 0.03Cm 0.01 -5 -0.01 0 5 10 15 20 25 -0.03 -0.05 Angle of Attack, degrees
  30. 30. Flight testing of the 1902 glider
  31. 31. The 1902 glider was used in 1903 forrecurrent training prior to the powered flightsOn October 21, 1903, Orville andWilbur made several glides in the1902 glider, setting new endurance “The early part of the glidesrecords. was practically soaring, our speed over ground beingGreatest endurance: 1 minute, ½ sec from one to two feet per second, often for distances of 25 to 75 feet…Many of these flights were at heights from 40 to 60 feet, by far the highest gliding we have ever done.” Orville Wright
  32. 32. What is it like to fly the Flyer? Non-ergonomic design Canard lever and hip cradle controls awkward Back must be arched for forward visibility No throttle, fuel cut-off operated by right hand shuts down engine On rail, the pilot concentrates on keeping wings level to avoid wingtip strike No instrumentation!
  33. 33. What is it like to fly the Flyer? Laterally, the aircraft responds well to warp input Crosswind conditions should be ignored…keep wings level! The airplane does fine in a sideslip
  34. 34. The 1903 Flyer was successful because ofthe Wrights’ extensive experience in gliders
  35. 35. The Wright 1909 Glider Responding to European demand for aircraft, the Wrights suggested that pilot training begin in a glider Messrs. T. W. K. Clarke and Co. constructed a glider for Alec Ogilvie and Ted Searight, who had ordered a 1909 Wright Model A The glider looked very much like the 1908 machine flown in Europe by Wilbur, with a 32.5’ wingspan
  36. 36. The Wright 1909 Glider Several successful flights of the 1909 glider were documented, with Orville recording a 250 yd flight The controls were awkward – the standard for Wright aircraft!
  37. 37. The Wright 1911 Glider (Glider #5) October 7, 1911: Orville, Lorin and Alec Ogilvie leave Dayton for Kitty Hawk with Glider #5 A design based on the Wright EX Note Wright Flyer – A.K.A. the Vin Fiz controls The trip’s reported purpose was to test an automatic stabilization system, however only manually controlled flights were made 1911 Glider #5 Specifications Wingspan: 32’ Chord: 5’ Gap: 3’ 9” Wing area 300 ft 2 Weight 170 lbs
  38. 38. The Wright 1911 Glider controls The same awkward control we see on the 1908 – 1911 powered machines Rudder is interconnected to the wing warp control, biased with wrist motion Wright Model B controls in Grover Berghdoll’s Machine at the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, PA
  39. 39. The Wright 1911 Glider (Glider #5) October 16 – Orville notes shortcomings of the design: “Shot up at landing and dropped about 6’…Horizontal rudder too small…Vertical rudder too small” - Tail surfaces are enlarged and a front vane added from 1905 rudder “After one glide in which I pitched out of machine, put in larger rudder using center of 1905 rudder” O. Wright
  40. 40. The Wright 1911 Glider (Glider #5) October 18: Wind and rain “Made several glides. In last one machine turned around in spite of all I could do and run into hill turning over. Broke both left wings and rear horizontal surface.” O. Wright “…Wright climbed to an upright position of safety…This experience suggests that it is a mistake to strap the aviator to his seat as is done in many of the monoplanes, and that frequent accidental injury might be avoided by a good use of similar cool-headedness in time of danger” Hayward, Practical Aeronautics, 1912
  41. 41. A soaring endurance record is set October 19, 20: Repairs made and tail extended 4.5’ October 24: “Wind 20 – 25 on ground. Wind at KD Hill 40 miles at 6 ft, as high as 50 miles 12 ft.” O. Wright 20 flights made, three longest were: 9 min, 45 sec 7 min, 15 sec 5 min, 29 sec
  42. 42. Epilogue Orville stated in a 1919 letter to Lawrence Driggs that “Our early experiments at Kitty Hawk were conducted…to learn something about soaring flight.” Paul Schweizer concluded that Orville’s flights were mainly “for fun.” They were the first recreational soaring flights.
  43. 43. The 9 min, 45 sec soaring endurance recordstood for 10 years, until Aug 20, 1921Wolfgang Klemperer and fellow students from Aachen University designedand built the Schwarze Teufel in 1920. Improvements to the design in 1921resulted in the Blaue Maus, and a 13 minute flight that took the endurancerecord from Orville
  44. 44. Conclusions Many aerial experimentalists contributed to the science of aviation, but no one was “putting it all together” Control was the Wrights’ big contribution to aviation Flight research prior to their work was focused on lifting surfaces, which limited the functionality of aircraft The 1911 Flights were undoubtedly the most whimsical of any that were conducted by the Wrights, and for this reason, the sport of recreational soaring was born
  45. 45. Acknowledgements Simine and Jim Short Neal Pfeiffer Ken Hyde and the Wright Experience team Rick Young
  46. 46. Gliding History Symposium Symposium Coordinator: Dr. Tom Crouch, Senior Curator Smithsonian National Air & Space Museum SOARING VISIONARIES Jockey’s Ridge State Park Auditorium Tom Crouch: Birth of Gliding, Cayley to Lilienthal Peter Jakab: Wright Gliders 1900-1902 John Anderson: The Wright Brothers as Engineers Russell Lee: The Impact of Soaring on Aviation Bernd Lukasch: Otto Lilienthal and Sailing Flight Simine Short: Octave Chanute and Company Rick Young: Orville Wright and the 1911 Glider Trials Paul Dees: Engineering Wright Gliders
  47. 47. Hang Gliding LegendsA once in a lifetime panel on the development of hang gliding and the visionary contributions ofFrancis Rogallo
  48. 48. Acknowledgements Neal Pfeiffer Simine Short Jim Short Paul Dees Rick Young Ken Hyde The Wright Experience Discovery of Flight Foundation Rochester Institute of Technology

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