Demographics of Aging


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Dr. Colin Depp of the UCSD Stein Institute on Aging presents on overview of our aging population and why elder abuse will rise during a powerful presentation at the June 7 Glenner Symposium on Elder Abuse and Neglect Training for health care professionals.

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  • When you ask older people –Recall that 11% were aging successfully per Rowe and Kahn criteiraIf you ask older people, they almost always believe they are aging well Subjective ratings are somewhat seen as second best but there is obviously a great deal foresearhc on self-rated health in predicting mortality
  • Demographics of Aging

    1. 1. Demography of AgingColin Depp, Ph.D.Stein Institute for Research on AgingUCSD Dept. of Psychiatry
    2. 2. Aristotle 384-322 BC
    3. 3. Aristotle on Older People“They have lived many years, they have often been taken in,and often made mistakes; and life on the whole is a badbusiness; The result is that they are sure about nothingand underdo everything. They “think” but they never“know” and because of their hesitation they always add apossibility” or a “perhaps”, putting everything in this way.They are cynical, they tend to put the worst constructionon everything. They are small-minded, not generous,because money is one of things they must have. Theyare cowardly. They are too fond of themselves. They arenot shy, but shameless rather…”Birren, J.E. & Schroots, J.J.F. The History ofGeropsychology. Handbook of the Psychology of Aging. 3-28,2001.
    4. 4. Humoral Theory of Aging• Aging– Intrinsic process (disease)– Drying and cooling of the body (lampmetaphor)Treatment = Add heat and water!Birren, J.E. & Schroots, J.J.F. The History of Geropsychology. Handbook of thePsychology of Aging. 3-28, 2001.
    5. 5. Cicero 106-40 BC
    6. 6. Cicero’s View of Aging• Cato Major De Senectute (On Old Age) 44 B.C.• “Old age withdraws us from active pursuits butone can [fulfill advisory functions]”• “Memory is impaired, that is, if you do notexercise it”• Aging is…– Not a disease, per se– Determined to some extent by behaviorTreatment = AdaptBirren, J.E. & Schroots, J.J.F. The History of Geropsychology.Handbook of the Psychology of Aging. 3-28, 2001.
    7. 7. Life ExpectancyINDICATOR 14
    8. 8. Life ExpectancyINDICATOR 14
    9. 9. 1900(inmillions)MALES FEMALES21st Century70-7465-6960-6455-5950-5480+45-4940-4435-3930-3425-2920-2415-1910-145-90-475-79AGE PYRAMID IN USA (Olshansky, 1997)75-7970-7465-6960-6455-5950-5480+45-4940-4435-3930-3425-2920-2415-1910-145-90-4
    10. 10. Age Pyramids in Japan
    11. 11. Rapid Changes in Health of OlderPeople: The Civil War StudiesFogel et al., 1998
    12. 12. Characteristics of the Civil WarCohort• 25% died in infancy• 40% died before age 15• Leading causes of death were infectiousdisease• Food clothing and shelter accounted for75% of costs (now 13%)• 3100 hours of work per year and twohours per day of leisure (now 50%)
    13. 13. The Rate of Aging Differs in Step withAdaptations100+ yrs30 yrs2-5 yrs3 yrs
    14. 14. Christensen et al. Nature Reviews Genetics 7, 436–448 (June 2006) | doi:10.1038/nrg187120 to 30% variability in longevity due toheredityA Proportion of Variation inLongevity is Due to Genes
    15. 15. Kirkwood, 2000; NatureSome Aging Phenotypes MayAvoid Selective PressureMaximum Reproductive Age
    16. 16. Some Variation in Lifespan isRandomLifespan in genetically identical worms raised in constantenvironments (Kirkwood, 2005)
    17. 17. Peak ages of physiologicalperformance• Hearing peaks at 5 years old• Smell peaks at 10 years old• Taste peaks at 10 years old• Flexibility and balance peaks at 13 years old• Muscle strength peaks at 18 years old• Tissue repair peaks at 13 years old• Short term memory peaks at 20 years old• Immune response peaks at 13 years old• Lung capacity peaks at 20 years oldCutler and Mattson (2007) Ageing Res Reviews
    18. 18. Incidence of Elder Abuse• 1998: National incidence of elderabuse study (U.S.)– 236,000 reports of Elder abuse in thehome in 1 year– 50,000 reports of Elder abuse in thenursing home in 1 year– Estimated that only 1 in 5 cases arereported
    19. 19. Elder Abuse: DemographicTrends in Risk FactorsRisk for elder abuse is increasedamong:• Women• “Older” older adults (over 80)• Those diagnosed with dementia orMH problem• Those who are socially isolated• Those with a caregiver in the home
    20. 20. Depressive SymptomsINDICATOR 19
    21. 21. Depressive SymptomsINDICATOR 19
    22. 22. Behavioral Determinants ofSuccessful Aging• Exercise• Diet• Cognitive stimulation• Optimism/resilience• Social integration• Positive attitudes toward aging• Stress reductionDepression
    23. 23. Functional LimitationsINDICATOR 20
    24. 24. Functional LimitationsINDICATOR 20
    25. 25. Sources of IncomeINDICATOR 9
    26. 26. The Successful AGingEvaluation (SAGE) StudyN=1006 Randomlysampled San Diegoadults aged 50-99;Jeste et al., AJP, InPress
    27. 27. DRM Studies
    28. 28. DRM: Top 3 Activities in termsof Positive Affect RatingsAge15-25Age26-35Age36-45Age46-55Age56-65Age66-75Age76+Exercise Exercise Exercise Socializing Exercise Exercise SocializingRelaxing/ThinkingEating/DrinkingSocializing Exercise Eating/DrinkingSocializing WorkingReading Socializing Eating/DrinkingEating/DrinkingSocializing Working Eating/Drinking
    29. 29. DRM: Bottom 3 Activities in termsof Positive Affective RatingsAge15-25Age26-35Age36-45Age46-55Age56-65Age66-75Age76+Work Work Work TV TV TV Relaxing/ThinkingTV Computer TV Computer Computer Computer TVComputer Reading Computer Work Reading Relaxing Exercise
    30. 30. Estimates of TV and Non-TVLeisure Activities by Age (n=3982)0510152025303515-25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56-65 66-75 76+AgePercentofEpisodesNon-TVLeisureTVDepp et al., 2010 AJPM
    31. 31. Positive Emotion by Time SpentAlone, with Spouse or with Others22.533.544.5515-25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56-65 66-75 76+Age (banded)with anyone elsewith spousealoneMeanPosAffectRatingDepp et al.,Unpublished;Princeton Affectand Time UseSurvey
    32. 32. Percent of Waking Time Alone(n=3982; DRM Study)02040608010015-25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56-65 66-75 76+Age (banded)MaleFemale% ofTimeAloneDepp et al.,Unpublished;Princeton Affectand Time UseSurvey
    33. 33. Thanks!