Give an Itch, Scratch a Back


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Why do some messages resonate (per Nancy Duarte) and some messages fall flat? This is what I wondered as I watched a recent movement on Facebook go viral. The concept was simple, you changed your profile picture to a cartoon from your childhood and then copied and pasted a statement in your status requesting all your friends do the same. The statement said this movement was to raise awareness of child abuse. And the response was phenomenal.
After two months of research on the psychology of motivation and persuasion I have the answer to my questions.
i wanted to share what I’ve learned with you so I’ve taken this research, selected the theories that I felt were most useful to presenters and made a fully interactive tutorial. Through this tutorial you’ll learn what moves us and how to make your message more persuasive.

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  • Copyright 2011 Glenna Shaw
  • Give an Itch, Scratch a Back

    1. 1. The Psychology of Motivation and PersuasionA Tutorial for Presenters and Slide Designers By Glenna Shaw
    2. 2. Recently there was a campaign on facebookwhere friends were asked to change their profilepicture to a cartoon so there would be no humanfaces on facebook for XX number of days.Additionally the campaign was supposed topromote the awareness of child abuse.Within a short period of time the campaign wentviral and it got me thinking, “Why did all thosepeople participate in this? What is it thatmotivates people to action?”A lot of research later I now have my answer andI’ve put together this tutorial to assist you withcreating your own persuasive messages.This tutorial contains the theories on motivationand persuasion that I believe are most relevantfor presenters and slide designers. In mostcases, I elected to quote my sources and includethe reference. I follow each section with my ownsummary explaining how you, as a presenter, canuse the information in the section.The final chapter diagrams several processes andhas five practice scenarios to test yourcomprehension of the material.I hope you enjoy learning what motivates us asmuch as I did.
    3. 3. This tutorial is organized into sections. Each section contains an introductory page and multiple instructional pages. Instructional pages are organized into text and images. Use the navigation buttons Click on the menu items to jump to different sections shown below to move through the pages.Click this button to Click this button Click these buttons to go toreturn to this page to go to the menu the next/previous pages
    4. 4. The idea that organisms are motivated topursue pleasure and avoid pain wasproposed by the Greek philosopherEpicurus, who called this hedonism. [1]The English philosopher, JeremyBentham, developed his ideas based onhedonism in the early years of theIndustrial Revolution, around 1800.Bentham’s view was that all people areself-interested and are motivated by thedesire to avoid pain and find pleasure.Any worker will work only if the reward isbig enough, or the punishmentsufficiently unpleasant.This view - the ‘carrot and stick’ approach- was built into the philosophies of theage and is still to be found, especially inthe older, more traditional sectors ofindustry. [4]
    5. 5. Clark Hull conceived of all motivation as comingoriginally from biological imbalances or needs.The organism was thrown into movement (wasmotivated) when it needed something that wasnot present at its current location. A need, inHulls system, was a biological requirement of theorganism. Hunger was the need for more energy.Thirst was the need for more water.Motivation, to Hull, was aimed at making up orerasing a deficiency or lack of something in theorganism.Hull used the word drive to describe the state ofbehavioral arousal resulting from a biologicalneed. In Hulls system, drive was the energy thatpowered behavior. But drive was not pleasant.Drive was an uncomfortable state resulting froma biological need, so drive was something theanimal tried to eliminate. The animal searchedfor food in order to reduce the hunger drive. Hullbelieved the animal would repeat any behaviorthat reduced a drive, if the same need occurredagain. Therefore Hulls theory was called a drive-reduction theory of motivation.The abandonment of Hulls theory occurredabout 30 years after he proposed it, but notbefore it had a big impact on the field. [1]
    6. 6. In present day theories, the pursuit of pleasureand avoidance of pain are conceived ascomponents of a control system. When a systemmust be delicately controlled, this is bestaccomplished with two forces that act in oppositedirections.Pleasure and pain are powerful but opposedparts of a hedonic (pleasure/pain) control systemthat regulates motivation. Richard Solomon ofthe University of Pennsylvania suggested theyshould be regarded as opponent processessimilar to an accelerator and brake.Hedonic contrast is one of the phenomenaSolomon explains with the opponent processtheory. This is the tendency of the pleasure/paincontrol system to rebound in the oppositedirection after an intense experience of eitherpleasure or pain. [1]“Too much of a good thing” and the runner’shigh are examples of opponent process theory.Too much pleasure becomes pain and too muchpain becomes pleasure.
    7. 7. Sometimes the urge to do something worthy or good orpleasurable is directly opposed by the fact that itinvolves pain or inconvenience or hard work. Then theperson is in conflict between two opposite motives. Thatis one form of motivational conflict called anapproach/avoidance conflict. One may also feel tornbetween two different pleasures. Or one may be forcedto choose between two pains. Each of these is a classicmotivational conflict.Approach/avoidance conflicts. The person is attractedand repulsed by the same stimulus or situation.Approach/approach conflicts. The person is forced tochoose between two different desirable stimuli.Avoidance/avoidance conflicts. The person is forced tochoose between two different undesirable alternatives.Avoidance tendencies tend to grow stronger as an eventapproaches. This has implications you can observe inyour own life. A distant event such as a dentistappointment might seem desirable, and you make plansfor it. But as the day approaches, the event seems lessdesirable, or you are more inclined to avoid it. This canhappen with desirable goals as well as things you wouldrather avoid: it is called "getting cold feet."Vacillation (going back and forth) is common in situationsof motivational conflict. If you are attracted to a person(an approach tendency) but feel shy and inhibited (anavoidance tendency) you may "go back and forth" alot, in your thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. First youlean one way, then the other. [1]
    8. 8. You can choose to meet or deny youraudiences biological needs, i.e.hunger, thirst, waste elimination.While it may seem counter-productive, having your audience ina state of distress is moremotivational. The trick is to have themotivation geared to your goals asopposed to distracting from them.For example, it’s preferable thatyour slightly hungry audience paycloser attention to you than to havea ravenous audience wishing you’dhurry up and finish so they can get tolunch.A deft presenter can weave theanticipation of satiating that hungerto their own ends.
    9. 9. We have experiences, and as a result, our autonomic nervous system creates physiological events such as muscular tension, heart rate increases, perspiration, dryness of the mouth, etc. This theory proposes that emotions happen as a result of Event these, rather than being the cause of them. The sequence thus is as follows: Event ==> arousal ==> interpretation ==> emotion The bodily sensation prepares us for action, as in the Fight-or-Flight reaction. Emotions grab our attention and at least attenuate slower cognitive processing.Arousal This is not a new theory and was proposed in 1884. It combined the ideas of William James and Danish physiologist Carl Lange, who largely independently arrived at the same conclusion. [3] The James-Lange theory of emotion argues that an event causes physiological arousal first and then we interpret Interpretation this arousal. Only after our interpretation of the arousal can we experience emotion. If the arousal is not noticed or is not given any thought, then we will not experience any emotion based on this event. [2] It was largely supplanted by the Cannon-Bard theory, but of late, it has made something of a come-back, although the notion of causality is not as strong and there isEmotion ongoing uncertainty as to the chicken-and-egg question of which comes first, physiological and emotional feelings. [3]
    10. 10. When a stimulating eventhappens, we feel emotions andphysiological changes (such asmuscular tension, sweating, etc.) atthe same time.The sequence thus is as follows:Event ==> Simultaneous arousal andemotion [3] EventThe Cannon-Bard theory argues thatwe experience physiological arousaland emotional at the same time, butgives no attention to the role of Arousalthoughts or outward behavior. [2] EmotionThis was a refutation of the James-Lange theory (which proposed thatemotions followed arousal) byCannon and Bard in the late 1920s. [3]
    11. 11. In the absence of physiological arousal, we decide what to feel after interpreting or explaining what has just happened. Two things are important in this: whether we interpret the event as good or bad for us, and what we believe is the cause of the event. Event The sequence thus is as follows: Event ==> thinking ==> Simultaneous arousal and emotion This challenges the two-factor separation of arousal and emotion, supporting the Cannon and Bard theory albeit with the addition of theThought thinking step. In primary appraisal, we consider how the situation affects our personal well-being. In secondary appraisal we consider how we might cope with the situation. This is also called Cognitive Appraisal Theories of Arousal Emotion. [3] Emotion Lazarus Theory states that a thought must come before any emotion or physiological arousal. In other words, you must first think about your situation before you can experience an emotion.[2]
    12. 12. Darwin commented on the inborn emotionalexpressiveness of babies. Carroll Izard andcolleagues at the University of Delawareidentified 10 distinct facial expressions commonin babyhood:interest, distress, disgust, joy, anger, surprise, shame, fear, contempt, and guilt.Paul Ekman is a leading investigator of facialexpression. Ekman investigated Darwins beliefthat all humans interpret facial expressions thesame way. He showed pictures of humansexpressing the emotions ofhappiness, fear, surprise, anger, disgust, andsadness to people from cultures all over theworld. People in different cultures all interpretedthese expressions the same way.Ekman is famous for a coding system thatidentifies 80 distinct muscles in the face. Thissystem provides a precise way to define facialexpressions. That makes it a very useful tool forresearchers who wish to make precise definitionsof facial expressions. [1]Ekman has a number of publications if you’d liketo learn more.
    13. 13. Emotions are a key component ofmotivation and persuasion. Bothpositive and negative emotions areeffective.Although the theories conflict on theorder of occurrence, they all agreethat arousal is necessary to elicit anemotional response.As presenters, a visualcommunication is our most effectivetool for arousing an audience.For example, the image at left couldbe used for a presentation on guncontrol to elicit the emotion of fear.You should be able to judge theemotional impact of your messageby observing the facial expressions ofyour audience.
    14. 14. In 1959 Robert W. White proposed a new concept:effectance motivation. Effectance was described as a"tendency to explore and influence the environment.“White suggested that the "master reinforcer" for humansis personal competence. He defined competence as "theability to interact effectively with the environment."Unlike biological motives such as hunger andthirst, competence motives are never really satisfied.They serve to enhance the abilities of theorganism, rather than to regulate a biological process.They are not based on a state of biological deprivation.Rather, they help an organism improve itself.Notice there is a subtle and possibly importantdifference between(1) seeking life activities which "play to your strengths,"which is certainly natural if people want to feelcompetent, and(2) the enjoyment of mastering new skills as typical ofsuccessful entrepreneurs.These are not the same thing. If you merely seeksituations that make you feel competent, you are likelyto exercise old skills, and you are unlikely to advance.The people who succeed as entrepreneurs were thosewho sought competency in new skills. [1]
    15. 15. Humans seem to enjoy combinatorial play. We take patternswe have learned, and we put them together in new anddifferent ways. Here are some varieties of cognitive play.Visual patterns People enjoy complex visualdesigns, images, and patterns in a variety of media, such aspaintings, sculpture, slides, movies, videos, sculptures, quilts, arabesques, scrimshaw...Language patterns People enjoy complex language patternsin a variety of media. They enjoy creating andcomprehendingbooks, magazines, newspapers, plays, poems, jokes, oratory,debate, lyrics, chants, prayers, questions, exhortations, raps,stories, novels, reviews, editorials, autobiographies, travelogues, histories...Motor patterns People enjoy complex motor activity in avariety of settings. They enjoy participating inbaseball, basketball, football, tennis, volleyball, skiing, running, jogging, playingFrisbee, dancing, marching, drilling, mime, kluge, lacrosse, cricket, tiddly-winks...Auditory and musical patterns People enjoysinging, humming, yodeling, playing about 5000 differentinstruments, listening to radio, records, tapes, and CDs...Mathematical and numerical patterns People enjoyarithmetic, algebra, trigonometry, geometry, topography, calculus, set theory...Whatever the form of information processing, somebodyenjoys making designs with it, trying experiments with it, orjust playing with it. Competence motivation definitelyinfluences our choice of such "play." We tend to play withskills and abilities that make us feel competent and, throughvariation and practice, further increase our competency. [1]
    16. 16. In mental activity of any sort, a moderate level of novelty and challenge is pleasurable. Too much change too fast is overwhelming and unpleasant. We seek to experience events which lie somewhere between chaos (on the one hand) and boredom (on the other). Edward L. Walker developed this concept in his hedgehog theory of behavior. The name "hedgehog theory" is a reference to a saying by the ancient Greek poet Archilochus, who said, "The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing." Foxes have a different trick for every situation. They are versatile and clever. Hedgehogs have only one trick (curling up into a spiny ball), and they use it in all situations, whenever they are vulnerable. And it is a very effective trick. Walker called his theory a hedgehog theory because, like 5 the hedgehog, it has one trick. It explains all behavior Optimal Level of Complexity using just one principle: the idea that subjective complexity determines preference. Preference is measured by giving a person free choice ofPreference alternatives to determine what he/she likes to do. Walkers theory holds that persons prefer to do things 0 0 that are neither too simple nor too complex. They seek activities that are at an optimum level of complexity. The relationship between preference and complexity can be shown on an inverted-U shaped curve. The zero point represents a neutral hedonic reaction, neither pleasure nor pain. When complexity is too low, the line drops -5 below zero. This means events are too simple, which Complexity makes them boring and unpleasant. When the complexity is moderate, enjoyment is greatest. When complexity is too great, events become unpleasant— chaotic and overwhelming. [1]
    17. 17. Mental arousal is necessary for effective 6functioning. We need a certain level of activation 5 Performancein order to be sufficiently motivated to achieve Upper Limit to Activationgoals, do good work and so on. 4The Yerkes-Dodson Law points out how people 3need a certain amount of activation to bemotivated but not have too much stimulation. 2We have an upper limit to activation, beyond 1which we become overly stressed.People will seek activation through different 0types of stimulation, including Arousal (Stress)novelty, complexity, variation and uncertainty.At a low level of activation, performance isdecreased due to three factors:• A lack of alertness• Dulling of the senses• Limited muscular coordinationThese in turn can lead to increased error oraccident, and slower completion of tasks.Underactivation also leads to boredom andseeking of alternative stimulation (including bysabotage), unless the person has a low activationpreference, where they are happy to daydream orotherwise be lazy. [3]
    18. 18. When our inner systems(beliefs, attitudes, values, etc.) all support oneanother and when these are also supported byexternal evidence, then we have a comfortablestate of affairs.We also have a very strong need to believe weare being consistent with social norms. Whenthere is conflict between behaviors that areconsistent with inner systems and behaviors thatare consistent with social norms, the potentialthreat of social exclusion often sways us towardsthe latter, even though it may cause significantinner dissonance.Ways we achieve consistency between conflictingitems include:• Denial or ignoring : I didnt see it happen.• Rationalization and excuses : It was going to fall anyway.• Separation of items :I dont use my car enough to make a difference .• Transcendence : Nobody is perfect.• Changing item : Ill be more careful next time.• Persuasion : Im good, really, arent I? [3]
    19. 19. Leon Festingers theory of cognitive dissonance isthe best-known variation of consistency theory.Festinger assumed that, because people valueconsistency in their attitudes and behavior, theyseek to avoid tension and contradiction.One form of dissonance or contradiction is doingsomething you do not really want to do. Peoplewant to avoid feeling that way. Therefore, if askedto perform some behavior, people will usuallyrationalize doing it, say they enjoyed it, ordescribe it as worthwhile. They change theirattitudes to be consistent with their behavior.Ben Franklin gave some peculiar advice thatmakes sense in the context of cognitivedissonance theory. Franklin said “If you wantsomeone to like you, get that person to do you afavor.”This works because, once the person has put outtime and energy to help you, the person mustdevelop an attitude consistent with the behavior.So, to avoid dissonance, the person likes you. [1]
    20. 20. Intrinsic motivation is when I am motivated by internal factors, as opposed to the external drivers of extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation drives me to do things just for the funExtrinsic Intrinsic of it, or because I believe it is a good or right thing to do. Extrinsic motivation is when I am motivated by external factors, as opposed to the internal rewards of intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation drives me to do things for tangible rewards or pressures, rather than for the fun of it. There is a paradox of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is far stronger a motivator than extrinsic motivation, yet external motivation can easily act to displace intrinsic motivation. When I do something, I have to explain why I do it. If I am being rewarded extrinsically for doing it, then I can explain to myself that I am doing it for the reward. In this way, rewards can decrease internal motivation as people work to gain the reward rather than because they like doing the work or believe it is a good thing to do. In effect, extrinsic motivations can change a pleasurable into work. [3]
    21. 21. Psychological reactance implies thatpeople will react against anything thatimpinges on their freedom. This includescommands and opinions andsuggestions. So, if you want to getsomebody to do something, sometimesit helps to ask for the opposite. This ispopularly termed reverse psychology.Reverse psychology and the forbiddenfruit principle work in themarketplace, when certain products arebanned as dangerous or undesirable.Some advertising executives say "there isno such thing as bad publicity." If a bookgets banned in one area, sales soar inanother area. If a movie is criticized asbeing in bad taste, many people want tosee the movie, apparently because theyare told not to. [1] Photo by Ralton Bentley
    22. 22. To take advantage of cognitive theoriesyou need to learn as much about youraudience as possible.Your message should have a challengingelement but not so much that theaudience cannot achieve the goal. Theactions associated with your messageshould fit within the audience’sperception of themselves and their socialnetwork. Rewards of their actions shouldbe intrinsic.It also doesn’t hurt if you can get youraudience to do you a favor or if there’s abit of naughtiness required.Apple is especially effective at usingcognitive motivation by convincing usthat their products are hip and cool, eventhough they’re more expensive thansimilar products and use proprietarysoftware.
    23. 23. Abraham Maslow could be considered a motivationtheorist or a personality theorist. Maslow dealt with"higher motives" of human beings, what might be calledexistential or spiritual motives. They are some of themost powerful and uniquely human motivations.The two dominant theoretical perspectives in psychologywhen Maslow started his work in the 1940s werebehaviorism and Freudianism. Both seemed inadequatefor dealing with "ideal aspirations of the human being."Maslow felt that neither had much to say about whatmade people happy and psychologically healthy.Maslow proposed an alternative: a Third Force inpsychology. This type of psychology would deal withimportant topics neglected by the other two: topics likehuman fulfillment, the search for meaning, and what itmeant to be psychologically healthy. Maslow teamedwith Rogers, Fromm, and other psychologists to formnew professional associations and launch new journalsdevoted to Third Force psychology, also known ashumanistic psychology. [1]Maslow’s need theory has received widerecognition, particularly among practicing managers. Thiscan be attributed to the theory’s intuitive logic and easeof understanding. [4]Maslows motivational theory is vague and general andadmits to many exceptions, so it cannot be testeddefinitively. This vagueness has made Maslows pyramidas immortal as the great pyramids of Egypt. [1]
    24. 24. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow believed that humans have specific needs that must be met and that• Helping others self-actualize Transcendence if lower level needs go unmet, we can not possible strive for higher level needs. The Hierarchy of Needs shows that at the• Personal Growth, Self-fulfillment Self-Actualization lower level, we must focus on basic issues such as food, sleep, and safety. Without• Beauty, Balance, Form Aesthetic food, without sleep, how could we Needs possible focus on the higher level needs such as respect, education, and• Knowledge, Meaning, Awareness Cognitive recognition?[2] Needs• Achievement, Status, Reputation Esteem Needs B (Being) Needs• Family, Love, Relationships Social Needs D (Deficiency) Needs• Protection, Security, Stability Security Needs• Air, Food, Drink, Sleep Physiological Needs
    25. 25. Maslow believed self-actualizers were living up totheir full potential, bringing their best selves intobeing. They were not motivated by greed andself-interest; they seemed sociallyresponsible, devoted to moving humanity in agood direction, no doubt aware of the problemsin the world, yet fully engaged with life andhappy to be alive.Maslow identified the following characteristics of"self-actualizing people."• They are productive and creative.• They are spontaneous, with a sharp wit and sense of humor.• They appreciate higher values such as truth, beauty, and justice, often combining them in various endeavors.• They are happy with life.• They are open to new ideas, curious, and fascinated by reality itself.• They are "invariably involved in a cause outside their own skin."[1]
    26. 26. The ultimate in uplifting moments is thepeak experience: the moment ofecstasy, spiritual fulfillment, and bliss.According to Maslow, “Those momentsof pure, positive happiness when alldoubts, all fears, all inhibitions, alltensions, all weaknesses were leftbehind.”Peak experiences are often accompaniedby a peculiar and distinctive feeling of"oneness with the universe." The feelingof separateness, distance, or alienationfrom the world disappears.During a peak experience, people feelloving and accepting of all creation.Maslow told of a subject who said thatduring a peak experience "I felt like amember of a family, not like anorphan."[1]
    27. 27. Maslow called his final theory “Theory Z”.In Theory Z, Maslow described a new type of person.This type was called the transcender.Transcenders were people who consciously built thecharacteristics of peak experiences into everyday life.For the transcender, Maslow said, peak experiencesbecome the high spots and validators of life.Transcenders "speak easily the language of being,"finding it relatively easy to express thoughts and feelingsabout the nature of existence.They are "perpetually in awe of reality" and perceivesacredness in everyday things. In their daily work theyare "conspicuously metamotivated," pursuing the B-needs such as truth and justice.Transcenders tend to beautify things, and they are morelikely to have feelings of oneness with the environment.They are likely to be innovators, coming up with trulynew ways of doing things instead of just followingestablished paths.With Theory Z, anybody who was a reasonably goodperson leading a constructive life could legitimately claimthe title of self-actualizer.A new niche (the transcender) was created for theAbraham Lincolns and the Mahatma Gandhis—the highlyunusual types who take our awareness to new levels. [1]
    28. 28. Maslow’s theory focused onachieving the highest level of beinghuman. From this perspectiveassociating a noble cause with yourmessage can influence your audienceto action or least make them feelgood about it.Al Gore’s movie “An InconvenientTruth” is a great example of this.People shelled out millions to see amovie that was essentially a slideshow but that was pretty much as faras it went.Although it did raise awareness andelicit some positive results, themessage wasn’t persuasive enoughto motivate the audience to actionfor more significant changesaddressing global warming.
    29. 29. .. .. ..
    30. 30. In our need to control ourworld, being able to chooseis an important freedom. Ifsomething is scarce, weanticipate possible regretthat we did not acquireit, and so we desire it more.This desire is increasedfurther if we think thatsomeone else might get itand hence gain socialposition that we might havehad. [3]
    31. 31. This is a very common social normwhich says that if I give something toyou or help you in any way, then youare obliged to return the favor.This norm is so powerful, it allowsthe initial giver to:• Ask for something in return, rather than having to wait for a voluntary reciprocal act.• Ask for more than was given. You can even exchange a smile for money.Reciprocity also works at the level ofliking. We like people who likeus, and dislike those who dislike us.This can create a self-fulfillingprophecy.[3]
    32. 32. Social influence is the change in behavior that oneperson causes in another, intentionally orunintentionally, as a result of the way the changedperson perceives themselves in relationship to theinfluencer, other people and society in general.Three areas of social influence areconformity, compliance and obedience.Conformity is changing how you behave to be morelike others. This plays to belonging and esteem needsas we seek the approval and friendship of others.Conformity can run very deep, as we will evenchange our beliefs and values to be like those of ourpeers and admired superiors.Compliance is where a person does something thatthey are asked to do by another. They may choose tocomply or not to comply, although the thoughts ofsocial reward and punishment may lead them tocompliance when they really do not want to comply.Obedience is different from compliance in that it isobeying an order from someone that you accept asan authority figure. In compliance, you have somechoice. In obedience, you believe that you do nothave a choice. Many military officers and commercialmanagers are interested only in obedience.[3]
    33. 33. Research and experience have found that certainwords are more persuasive than others. These areoften called power words. Note that overuse of apower word has the opposite effect.The table below illustrates some effective powerwords. [3]Needs Positive Terms Negative TermsSafety Guarantee, Proven DangerousControl Powerful, Strong Uncertain, ScarceUnderstanding Truth, Real Change, ComplicateGreed Money, Cash, Save Lose, StolenHealth Healthy, Good Sick, OldBelonging Happy, Feel Wrong, AloneEsteem Admire, Only Ridicule, ExcludeIdentity You, We They, ThemNovelty New, Discover Outdated
    34. 34. A Yale University multi-year, multi-projectresearch into persuasive communication showed(amongst other things):Who (source of communication):The speaker should be credible and attractive tothe audience.Says what (nature of communication): Messages should not appear to be designed to persuade. Present two-sided arguments (refuting the ‘wrong’ argument, of course). If two people are speaking one after the other, it is best to go first (primacy effect). If two people are speaking with a delay between them, it is best to go last (recency effect).To whom (the nature of the audience) Distract them during the persuasion Lower intelligence and moderate self-esteem helps. The best age range is 18-25.ExampleWatch politicians. They do this wonderfully well.They look great. They talk through the othersides argument, making it first seem reasonablethen highlighting all their problems. It all seemsto be just common sense spoken by a really niceperson. [3]
    35. 35. The snake oil salesman of yesteryearmay have become a cliché, but theywere the masters of persuasion intheir day. And the techniques theyused are still applicable today.First and foremost, you need to beperceived as credible andtrustworthy.Dress in appropriate business attireand know your topic. If you’re not anexpert, lend yourself expertisethrough sources.Use (but don’t overuse) power wordsand don’t use a message that’sobviously persuasive.If possible, present a two-sidedargument of your message showingyour side as the right side.
    36. 36. Environment Opportunity Needs & Tension Effort Performance Rewards Drives Goals AbilityNeed Satisfaction In the initiation a person starts feeling lacknesses. There is an arousal of need so urgent, that the bearer has to venture in search to satisfy it. This leads to creation of tension, which urges the person to forget everything else and cater to the aroused need first. This tension also creates drives and attitudes regarding the type of satisfaction that is desired. This leads a person to venture into the search of information. This ultimately leads to evaluation of alternatives where the best alternative is chosen. After choosing the alternative, an action is taken. Because of the performance of the activity satisfaction is achieved which than relieves the tension in the individual. [4]
    37. 37. William McGuire proposed a model of attitude changethat helps understand the Yale approach to persuasion. Presentation“Presentation” is McGuire’s term for the persuasivemessage. He then reasoned that people cannot be The presenter delivers the persuasive messagepersuaded by a message they ignore, so after themessage is presented to the audience the next step inthe persuasion process is paying “attention.” Third, theaudience must understand the message before it can Attentioninfluence their attitudes, so “comprehension” follows The audience pays attentionattention in his model. “Yielding” is McGuire’s term for acceptance, the point atwhich attitude change occurs. When a persuasivemessage succeeds at changing a listener’s mind Comprehension(attitudes), McGuire says that the receiver has yielded tothe message. The audience understandsThe fifth step is “retention,” and it concerns how longthe attitude change lasts. McGuire recognized thatattitudes do change; if they were permanent, of Yieldingcourse, we couldn’t hope to change them with ourpersuasive messages. But the very fact that attitudes do The audience accepts the messagechange (and can be changed) means that when wesucceed at changing someone’s attitude, that changeprobably won’t last forever -- some other persuasivemessage (or experience) could change their attitudes Retentionagain. How long the message lastsFinally, McGuire considered “behavior” to be theultimate goal of persuasive discourse. If we look at thepersuasion that surrounds us -- sales messagesadvertising goods and services, political messages asking Behaviorus to vote for politicians, public service messages urging The audience acts on the messageus not to drink and drive, friends trying to get us to gosee a movie or a concert -- we can see that persuasionoften has action as the ultimate goal.[6]
    38. 38. Positive Positive Goals Capable Context Motivation FeelingsThere are four basic factors that build a positive motivation to change, both for individuals and groups:• Every person and every group has a collection of goals that are either straightforward and declared, or vague and sub-conscious. People feel motivated to act when the action will fulfill one or more of these goals. In fact, motivation to change increases when one action will fulfill an increasing number of personal• goals.• Motivation increases if you believe that you are capable of achieving this change (called “Capability Beliefs” or “efficacy beliefs”)• Motivation increases if you believe that those around you (your family, your boss, your church, your neighborhood) will grant you the opportunity and the support to do this new thing (called “Context Beliefs”)• Having positive emotional feelings about achieving this new thing increases motivation as well.[5]
    39. 39. Information Attitude Elaboration Route Processing Change Depends on High Level Central Careful argument quality Persuasive Message Depends on Low Level Peripheral Not Careful presence of persuasive cuesPetty and Cacioppo state that there are two “routes” to persuasion: central and peripheral. The central route to persuasionconsists of thoughtful consideration of the arguments (ideas, content) of the message. When a receiver is doing centralprocessing, he or she is being an active participant in the process of persuasion. Central processing has two prerequisites: Itcan only occur when the receiver has both the motivation and the ability to think about the message and its topic. If thelistener doesn’t care about the topic of the persuasive message, he or she will almost certainly lack the motivation to docentral processing. On the other hand, if the listener is distracted or has trouble understanding the message, he or she will lackthe ability to do central processing.The peripheral route to persuasion occurs when the listener decides whether to agree with the message based on other cuesbesides the strength of the arguments or ideas in the message. For example, a listener may decide to agree with a messagebecause the source appears to be an expert, or is attractive. The peripheral route also occurs when a listener is persuadedbecause he or she notices that a message has many arguments -- but lacks the ability or motivation to think about themindividually. In other words, peripheral cues, like source expertise (credibility) or many arguments in one message, are a short-cut. I don’t want to or can’t think carefully about the ideas in this persuasive message, but it is a fair gamble to go ahead agreewith the message if the source appears to be knowledgeable or if there are many arguments in support of the message. Thisroute occurs when the auditor is unable or unwilling to engage in much thought on the message. Receivers engaged inperipheral processing are more passive than those doing central processing.[6]
    40. 40. V B &/or A Behavior MThe Rational Model of Persuasion is a theory which suggests that people think and behave in ways based onreasons and are relatively predictable. While it is true that some of the time people are not entirely logical orconsistent; nevertheless, the rational model is useful in persuasion more often than not. The elements of therational model can be represented by the formula above.That is, Beliefs plus Values (and/or Motives) combine to produce Attitudes and attitudes influence ourbehavior. For example, if a person BELIEVES (that it is a fact) that the death penalty will deter serious crimeand if this person VALUES (thinks it is good to have) a crime free community, then it is likely this person willhave a favorable attitude toward the death penalty. If such a person is sufficiently motivated s/he may takeaction (BEHAVIOR) to encourage passage of the death penalty by the state legislature.People who hold different beliefs or values on the death penalty will typically have different attitudes. Aperson who does not believe that the death penalty deters crime will not favor capital punishment as a way tomake the neighborhood safer. For individuals who value the preservation of life in all circumstances, a beliefthat capital punishment deters crime is not likely to produce a favorable attitude toward the death penalty. [7]
    41. 41. The processes covered in thissection provide a visual“roadmap” for you to use whencrafting and delivering yourmessage.Keep in mind that all motivationand/or persuasion begins with aneed. It is up to you to convinceyour audience that they have aneed and a desire to act on thatneed.In other words, if you want yourpersuasive message to besuccessful, you must give youraudience an itch that they have toscratch.
    42. 42. As I’ve said before, psychology is animperfect science. And the theoriesrelating to motivation and persuasion,like most things in psychology, are opento interpretation.The lessons you’ve just completed aremy own choices of motivational theoriesthat I believe are most useful forpresenters.They are offered as guidance to helprefine your persuasive communications.The following pages offer you fiveopportunities to practice your ownanalysis of scenarios using the theoriesyou’ve just learned.Read each scenario and determine whichitems you think are most applicable tothe scenario.You then have the opportunity to see myanalysis of the scenario.
    43. 43. Click the boxes to select the items that apply to the scenario Humanistic PersuasiveBiological Motivation Emotion Cognitive Motivation Psychology Communication Carrot & Stick James-Lange Theory Competence Hierarchy of Needs Scarcity Principle Drive Reduction Cannon-Bard Theory Joy of Processing Reciprocity Norm Opponent Process Lazarus Theory Hedgehog Theory Social Influence Motivational Conflicts Facial Expressions Arousal Theory Persuasive Terms Cognitive Consistency Yale Attitude Change Cognitive Dissonance Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reverse Psychology Scenario Click here to see my analysis You’re an author on a speaking tour promoting Obviously this scenario is using the scarcity your new book that’s soon to be released. principle. Persuasive terms like sold out and first Although it’s expensive, your book has already printing reinforce this principle. Social influence sold out in pre-orders so no more first printings and cognitive consistency come into play because are available. You let your audience know that you of the popularity of the book. There is an element have several copies with you and for 25% above of motivational conflict because of the retail they can purchase a book with your expense, however this is mitigated by the signature and a personal message. The additional humanistic action of donating the extra cost to a 25% cost will be donated to a local charity. You charity. Cognitive dissonance and reciprocity norm also let them know they’ll be doing you a favor are used by convincing the audience they’re doing because the books are heavy and difficult for you you a favor. The emotions of fear and envy are in transport while you’re on tour. play which could be any of the emotional theories.
    44. 44. Click the boxes to select the items that apply to the scenario Humanistic PersuasiveBiological Motivation Emotion Cognitive Motivation Psychology Communication Carrot & Stick James-Lange Theory Competence Hierarchy of Needs Scarcity Principle Drive Reduction Cannon-Bard Theory Joy of Processing Reciprocity Norm Opponent Process Lazarus Theory Hedgehog Theory Social Influence Motivational Conflicts Facial Expressions Arousal Theory Persuasive Terms Cognitive Consistency Yale Attitude Change Cognitive Dissonance Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reverse Psychology Scenario Click here to see my analysis You’re giving a training presentation. You Competence and the joy of processing, as include a quiz or similar activity well as hedgehog and arousal theories are periodically throughout the presentation. active in this scenario because of the You let the audience know that whoever challenges of the activities. The tangible wins each activity will receive a prize with rewards use extrinsic motives and the a grand prize going to the person with the carrot and stick approach. You use facial most wins. You observe that the audience expressions to observe the excitement of becomes more excited as you get closer the audience. There could also be a bit of to each of the activity slides. hierarchal needs met through the competition and fun of the activity.
    45. 45. Click the boxes to select the items that apply to the scenario Humanistic PersuasiveBiological Motivation Emotion Cognitive Motivation Psychology Communication Carrot & Stick James-Lange Theory Competence Hierarchy of Needs Scarcity Principle Drive Reduction Cannon-Bard Theory Joy of Processing Reciprocity Norm Opponent Process Lazarus Theory Hedgehog Theory Social Influence Motivational Conflicts Facial Expressions Arousal Theory Persuasive Terms Cognitive Consistency Yale Attitude Change Cognitive Dissonance Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reverse Psychology Scenario Click here to see my analysis You’re presenting in favor of gun control and This scenario uses the Yale attitude change nearly every slide in your deck has an image of a approach by presenting both sides of an argument gun pointing at the audience. You present the pros and showcasing your credibility. Motivational and cons of gun control ensuring your side has the conflicts and cognitive dissonance are strongly in most favorable results. You cite experts and play here. You’re forcing your audience to look at present expert data. You show images of children uncomfortable images and then playing on their who’ve been killed by accidental shootings. You social values. This scenario arouses fear in the also tell your audience that their support for gun audience which is a very powerful motivator. control may elicit some disfavor in their Reciprocity norm and cognitive dissonance almost community. You give your audience your personal certainly ensures your audience will sign your phone number and then ask them to sign a petition. You also use a little reverse psychology by petition in favor of gun control. speaking about potential social repercussions.
    46. 46. Click the boxes to select the items that apply to the scenario Humanistic PersuasiveBiological Motivation Emotion Cognitive Motivation Psychology Communication Carrot & Stick James-Lange Theory Competence Hierarchy of Needs Scarcity Principle Drive Reduction Cannon-Bard Theory Joy of Processing Reciprocity Norm Opponent Process Lazarus Theory Hedgehog Theory Social Influence Motivational Conflicts Facial Expressions Arousal Theory Persuasive Terms Cognitive Consistency Yale Attitude Change Cognitive Dissonance Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reverse Psychology Scenario Click here to see my analysis You’re giving a 2 hour presentation on pollution This scenario uses all the elements of biological and it’s scheduled for right after lunch. You use motivation. Your audience is very likely to feel the need to many unpleasant images of the effects of pollution eliminate waste during this time frame and you are heightening their discomfort. While this may seem especially the contamination of waterways. You counter-productive, since this is also a time when many include the sound of running water with these audiences experience sleepiness, a little discomfort will images. You make sure that pitchers of water and help ensure their attention. Additionally you’re arousing glasses are available at the back of the room. You the emotion of disgust by following lunch with let the audience know that during the final 15 deliberately provocative images. Reciprocity norm is used minutes of your presentation, your assistant will by giving them the opportunity to leave early and compelling them to return the favor by pledging to your be available for the audience to collect pledges for cause. The motivator is extrinsic with the reward being your cause and they can leave during that time if able to “get away.” This is a tricky scenario to pull off they want. without having your audience resent you afterwards.
    47. 47. Click the boxes to select the items that apply to the scenario Humanistic PersuasiveBiological Motivation Emotion Cognitive Motivation Psychology Communication Carrot & Stick James-Lange Theory Competence Hierarchy of Needs Scarcity Principle Drive Reduction Cannon-Bard Theory Joy of Processing Reciprocity Norm Opponent Process Lazarus Theory Hedgehog Theory Social Influence Motivational Conflicts Facial Expressions Arousal Theory Persuasive Terms Cognitive Consistency Yale Attitude Change Cognitive Dissonance Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reverse Psychology Scenario Click here to see my analysis You’re giving a presentation about the benefits of yoga. This scenario uses the Yale attitude change approach by You wear a set of hospital scrubs. Your presentation showcasing your credibility using both appearance and contains images of simple yoga poses. You also include abilities. Competence and the joy of processing, as well as statistical information about the benefits of yoga. At hedgehog and arousal theories are active in this scenario regular intervals you ask the audience to stand and because of the activities. This scenario also relies on perform simple yoga positions. After each of these cognitive consistency and social influence. By involving stretching sessions you ask members of the audience to the audience so physically, members will experience a raise their hands if they think they will sign up for your significant amount of peer pressure to become a member yoga class. At the end of the presentation you give each of your classes. You’re using reciprocity norm and member of the audience a knotted bracelet and give them cognitive dissonance by gifting them with a bracelet. This an opportunity to register for one of your classes. You also scenario can be made even more effective by using the give them the opportunity to purchase herbal scarcity principle (I only have room for XX students in my supplements that you’ve brought with you. class) and using persuasive terms such as healing, good, happy, discover, etc.
    48. 48. 1. Russell A. Dewey, PhD (2008) 5. Rev. Peter Coutts Psychology: An Introduction. (2006), Leadership. A Chapter 9: Motivation and Framework for Emotion Understanding Motivation2. Dr. Christopher L. Heffner 6. William L. Benoit, Ph.D (2001), AllPsych (2010), Communication Online, Psychology 101. Institute for Online Chapter 7 Motivation and Scholarship on Persuasion. Emotion The Yale Approach3. David 7. Lee A. McGaan, Ph. D. Straker, M.Sc., P.G.C.E., Dip.M (2010), Monmouth College ., FRSA (2010) Communication Studies., Theories Introduction to Persuasion . Motivation, Persuasion, Emo tion4. Ken Shah, Prof. Param J. Shah (2009) Motivation
    49. 49. As I’ve previously stated, the purpose of this tutorial is to provide presenters and slide designers with the informational tools to increase the effectiveness of their persuasive communications.All findings and conclusions expressed within this tutorial are my ownopinions. For more authoritative findings, please refer to my sources anddraw your own conclusions. Glenna Shaw January 2011