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  • 1. What is it like to live and work in...? Relocation Guides Making a career change is a big decision that needs advice, consultation and careful planning and this is especially important if you are moving countries. Whether it is making visa applications, investigating certain tax implications or simply knowing the country dialling code we have tried to collate some information to make your planning that little bit easier. We’re sure that you will be able to find out the best restuarants and places to visit in your new place of work but we’ve brought together the aspects that are not as exciting to research yourself - we hope you find it useful. If you have any questions or any other aspects you would like us to look into then please contact your consultant or on the details below.
  • 2. Working in... Contents CONTENTS 2 www.earthstaff.com The information contained in this document is of a general nature and is for information purposes only. Whilst we have taken every effort to ensure that the information provided is accurate and timely, you should not rely solely upon nor act upon anything here without seeking specific professional advice should you require it. Earthstaff Limited does not accept any responsibility for any damage or loss occurring by any person as a result of any use or any action you take or do not take in reliance on any information or materials available in this document. 1. Algeria Page 3 2. Argentina Page 4 3. Australia Page 5 4. Azerbaijan Page 6 5. Brazil Page 7 6. Canada Page 8 7. Congo Page 9 8. Gabon Page 10 9. Iraq Page 11 10. Kazakhstan Page 12 11. Kurdistan Page 13 12. Mexico Page 14 13. Morocco Page 15 14. Nigeria Page 16 15. Qatar Page 17 16. Russia Page 18 17. Saudi Arabia Page 19 18. Singapore Page 20 19. Tanzania Page 21 20. Turkmenistan Page 22 21. U.A.E Page 23 22. U.S.A Page 24 23. Ukraine Page 25 24. Uzbekistan Page 26
  • 3. Working in... Algeria Algeria 3 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Dinar (DZD) Dialling Code: 00 + 213 Visa All non-Algerians need to apply for a visa to enter Algeria. The Consulate of Algeria in London will process visa applications made by applicants residing in the UK and the Republic of Ireland only Documents needed for work visa : • 2 application forms duly completed, dated and signed by the applicant • 2 recent passport size photographs to be affixed on each application form • The original passport valid for at least 06 months + 02 sets of copies of all the pages (even the blank ones). Those holding more than one passport, please provide them • The original + a copy of the work contract • A work permit and letter of repatriation issued by the Algerian authorities, department of labor; • A prepaid self-addressed special delivery envelope for nationals residing in the UK and postal order of £8 for nationals living in Ireland if the application is sent by post (processing time: at least 3 weeks. The Consulate is not responsible for delays of postal services) • Fees must be paid in GB Pound only, either by cash or postal order, payable to the Consulate of Algeria, if the application is sent by mail. Do not send cash by post. Check the list for the fees. Tax Expatriates living in Algeria are eligible to pay a personal income tax; Annua Taxable Income Bracket Tax rate on income bracket From DZD To DZD Percent 0 60,000 0 60,001 180,000 10 180,001 360,000 20 360,001 1,080,000 30 1,080,001 3,240,000 35 3,240,000 Over 40 Medical Prior to departure you should get hepatitis A, typhoid and hepatitis B vaccines, as well as obtaining medical insurance.
  • 4. Working in... Argentina Argentina 4 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Peso (ARG) Dialling Code: 00 + 54 Visa If you are not a foreign resident from a MERCOSUR country, you require a special visa and work permit. Most expatriates need a visa of temporary residence that qualifies as a working visa for migrant workers or scientists and specialized personnel. The application process can be started at the Argentine Embassy in your country of origin or in Argentina, via your future employer. Both applications will be handled by the Dirección Nacional de Migraciones (National Immigration Office). It is recommended to let your employer apply for your permiso de ingreso (entry permit) at the DNM. When you have the entry permit, you can make an appointment to apply for a working visa. In addition to showing your valid passport and your permiso de ingreso, you have to take care of the following: • Complete two application forms. • Have three passport photographs taken. • Present your employment contract (pre-signed by your future employer) OR a notarized certification for your intra-company transfer (verified according to the Hague apostil convention). • Bring your verified birth certificate, marriage certificate, and divorce decree (as applicable). • Get a certificate of good conduct and an affidavit that you don’t have an international police record. • Submit an official certified copy of your degree certificate or professional credentials. • Attend a personal interview with consular staff and pay the application fees. Tax Non-residents pay a withholding tax of 21% on Argentine-sourced income only.
  • 5. Working in... Australia Australia 5 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Dollar (AUS) Dialling Code: 00 + 61 Entry To begin with, there is a list of basic requirements which all applicants, no matter the category, should meet. These conditions include: • English language proficiency: everyone whose native language is not English must achieve a certain score specified for their visa category and/or sign up for English classes in Australia before arrival. • Skills, qualifications and/or work experience relevant either to an occupation nominated on Australia’s Skilled Occupations List, or to the employer who sponsors you. • Health: all permanent visa applicants and some temporary visa applicants (depending on their profession) must meet certain health requirements. These will be specified in your visa application form. • Character: visa applicants are assessed according to the character requirement and may have to provide a penal clearance certificate. • Australian Values Statement: by signing the Australian Value Statement, you signal that you are willing to accept the Australian way of life and obey the local laws. Visa for People with Job Offers If you already have a job offer in Australia, you will apply for an Employer Sponsored Migration visa. Your prospective employer will probably apply for this visa on your behalf. Types in this category include temporary and permanent visas. The most common temporary visa is the Business (Long Stay) Visa: employers use it to sponsor an overseas skilled worker for a maximum period of four years. This visa is tied to the employer who acts as a sponsor and to your general occupation, but not to one particular position within the company. Taxation Before you start your job, you should apply for a tax file number (TFN). This can be done online via the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) website. Every type of resident who could take up employment in Australia needs this unique number. Tax Rates Annual Taxable Income Bracket Tax rate on income bracket From AUS To AUS Percent 0 80,000 32.5 80,000 180,000 37 180,000 Over 45
  • 6. Working in... Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 6 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Manat (AZN) Dialling Code: 00 + 994 Residency Visitors staying in private accommodation for more than 30 days must register their passports with the local passport registration authorities at the Ministry of Internal Affairs within 5 days after arrival. Visa All nationalities require a business visa to enter. • Single business visas are valid for 90 days and can be issued for a length of stay of 7/30 days. • Multiple entry visas are valid for one year with the duration of stay no more than 90 days. Only holders of diplomatic passports are allowed to extend their visas in Azerbaijan. All other visitors will have to leave the country and extend their visa at an Azeri embassy abroad. Application Process Visa applicants must provide a set of documents identified by the authorities. Besides the standard documents, an invitation from the host company in Azerbaijan is needed. Preceding visa application at the Azeri embassy or consulate in applicant’s home country, an entry permission must be obtained from the consular department of the ministry of foreign affairs. Citizens of countries geographically situated in Europe, nationals of USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Turkey, Japan, Iran can submit the invitation letters directly to the embassy in home country without additional approval from the ministry of foreign affairs. All foreigners must have their visa ready upon arrival to Azerbaijan. Visas are no longer issued on arrival. This law came into action October 15, 2010. Tax Annual Taxable income bracket Tax rate on income bracket From AZN To AZN Percent 0 24,000 14 24,000 Over 30 The taxable income of an individual who conducts entrepreneurial activities without creating a legal entity is subject to tax at a flat rate of 20%.
  • 7. Working in... Brazil Brazil 7 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Real (BRL) Dialling Code: 00 + 55 Residency A residence permit allows a foreign national to transfer his or her residency to Brazil for an indefinite period of time, beginning on the date he or she enters the country under the permit. Most expats opt for renting a home in Brazil. If you have just arrived and the local housing market is still unfamiliar territory, try to get a local to help you find a suitable home, you should consider the distances in a big city and the less than ideal traffic conditions when looking for accommodation. Visa Temporary visas in category V are intended for those who have already signed a temporary employment contract with a Brazilian employer. As work contracts have to be examined and approved by the Ministry of Labor before the visa application is processed, the success rate remains relatively low. To obtain a type “V” visa under a service contract, a foreign individual must file the following documents: • Copy of the passport (including those of dependants, if they will accompany the applicant to Brazil) • Address in country of origin • Curriculum vitae, validated by the Brazilian consulate abroad • Supporting documents for the curriculum vitae Applying for a permanent visa would allow you to change jobs without losing their residence permit and to avoid applying for a visa renewal. Permanent visas for Brazil can be granted to expats with specific qualifications and a working contract in Brazil, to those seeking to start a business in Brazil, provided they bring a certain minimum amount of financial capital, and retirees with a monthly pension of at least US $2,000. Tax Non-residents individuals are taxed IRRF (at source) of 25% for any type of work carried out in Brazil. Social Security Everyone working in Brazil is obligated to contribute, including expats. Social security contributions are paid by both employee and employer. Between 8 and 11% of the employee’s pre-tax salary is deducted for social security by the Ministry of Social Affairs.
  • 8. Working in... Canada Canada 8 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Dollar (CAD) Dialling Code: 00 + 1 VIsa Requirements Québec is not only the sole Canadian province where French is the main language, but it also has its own additional regulations concerning work permits. The following information applies to the English-speaking provinces only. If you are planning to settle in Québec, make sure to check for additional regulations or consult our article on moving to Montreal. First things first: In order to enter the country, you need a valid temporary visa – unless you are from one of the countries exempt from this requirement. In the latter case, you only need a valid travel document. Those wishing to work in Canada need a work permit in addition to their temporary visa or travel document. The Temporary Foreign Workers Program In order to be considered under the Temporary Foreign Workers Program, an applicant needs to have a confirmed job offer for a specific position from an employer in Canada. But there’s more to it: The potential employer has to obtain a positive “Labor Market Opinion” from the Human Resources and Social Development Canada (HRSDC). This is sometimes difficult to get and causes the employer a lot of bureaucratic hassle. Therefore, not many companies are willing to go through this. Intra-company transfers are usually much easier, as they do not require a labor market opinion. The Federal Skilled Workers Program (Permanent) If you possess the personal and professional qualifications the Canadian authorities are currently looking for, you have the chance to be awarded permanent citizenship. During the application process, applicants are evaluated according to education, professional experience, language skills, age, adaptability criteria and the type of job offer they have in Canada. Tax Annual Taxable income bracket Tax rate on income bracket From CAD To CAD Percent 0 43,561 15 43,562 87,123 22 87,124 135,054 26 135,055 Over 29
  • 9. Working in... Congo Congo 9 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Franc (CDF) Dialling Code: 00 + 242 Residence Permits Temporary residence permit. A temporary residence permit (carte de résident temporaire) is a pink card. It is valid for one year, and is granted exclusively by the General Director of Immigration Services in Brazzaville. To obtain a temporary residence permit, the applicant must submit, in addition to the documents required for a temporary permit, the following documents: • A duty stamp of XAF 5,000 • A valid passport or substitute document, with a visa if the foreigner is a national of a country that has not signed an immigration treaty with Congo • Four photographs of the applicant • An international vaccination book • A receipt for payment of a deposit guaranteeing repatriation (for applicants who are neither citizens of the CEMAC countries nor of the Democratic Republic of the Congo) • A work contract signed by the Congolese Minister of Labor if the applicant is a salaried employee, a certificate of inscription in a school or university if the applicant is a student, or a commercial agreement if the applicant is an independent worker. Visa To work in the Democratic Republic of Congo, you should first apply for a short-stay visa (some visas are issued for 1, 3, 6 or 9 months). Then, once in the country you can apply for a work visa. • A letter from the employer stating the mission is required. • The papers must be drawn up by a lawyer. • In addition, a valid passport and a yellow fever vaccine certificate are required to process the request. To apply, it is best to contact the nearest Democratic Republic of Congo Embassy or High Commission directly. If there is none in your home country, all enquiries should be sent via telegram to the Immigration office in Kinshasa. Tax Nonresidents are subject to withholding tax at a rate of 20% on payments for work or services carried out in Congo.
  • 10. Working in... Gabon Gabon 10 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Central African Franc (XAF) Dialling Code: 00 + 241 Residence Permits Residency cards are issued by the immigration authorities. They are required for all foreign nationals over the age of 16 who are staying longer than 3 months in Gabon. Visa Gabonese business visa is for partaking in short term commerce in Gabon. To obtain one, you require: • Valid passport (an additional copy) with at least 6 months validity remaining • Fully completed Gabonese business visa application form • Passport type photographs (no older than 6 months) • Valid resident visa and one copy • Current bank statement and one copy • Proof of travel insurance coverage for trips and one copy • Business references (letter from your employer, invitation from Gabonese company or organization) • Proof of Gabonese hotel reservation and airline booking reservation for Gabon. Working Permits Individuals who will stay in Gabon for a period longer than three months for the performance of a remunerated activity must take the following actions: • Must apply to the Ministry of Labor for an employment authorization and a foreign worker card. • Must apply and submit appropriate documentation to the Ministry of Immigration for an entry authorization. • Must apply to the immigration authorities for a residency card and an exit visa if applicable. Tax Annual Taxable income bracket Tax rate on income bracket From XAF To XAF Percent 0 1,500,000 0 1,500,000 1,920,000 5 1,920,000 2,700,000 10 2,700,000 3,600,000 15 3,600,000 5,160,000 20 5,160,000 7,500,000 25 7,500,001 11,000,000 30 11,000,000 Over 35
  • 11. Working in... Iraq Iraq 11 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Dinar (IQD) Dialling Code: 00 + 964 Residence Permits Temporary residence is granted to foreign nationals who intend to work in Iraq. The permit is valid for 1 to 12 months and is renewable once. The renewed permit is valid for three months. To apply for temporary residence, foreign nationals must provide the following items: • A passport valid for at least six months • Passport copies (relevant pages) and one passport-size photograph • Employment contract • Sponsor’s letter indicating the employee’s name, organization, commercial and registration number • Proof that the applicant for residency will be able to meet his or her living costs during his or her stay in Iraq • A medical document proving that the applicant is clear of communicable diseases Entry Requirements All visitors to Iraq, with the exception of those travelling on a tourist visa, are required under Iraqi health regulations to undergo a blood test for HIV and hepatitis within 10 days of arrival. Guidance on where to go for the blood test is available at the airport when you arrive. Work Visa Issued to individuals who wish to take up employment in Iraq. It entitles the employee to stay in Iraq for a maximum period of one year from the date of entry and may be extended. Visa applications may be made from either the foreign national’s home country or from Iraq. Social Security The Iraqi social security authorities have confirmed that they may be willing to exempt expatriate employees working in Iraq from making social security contributions in Iraq in cases in which they are able to demonstrate that they are covered by retirement and social security benefits in their home countries. Tax Annual Taxable income bracket Tax rate on income bracket From IQD To IQD Percent 0 500,000 3 500,000 1,000,000 5 1,000,000 2,000,000 10 2,000,000 Over 15
  • 12. Working in... Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 12 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Tenge (KZT) Dialling Code: 00 + 7 Residence Permits Kazakhstan issues residence permits. No quota system is in effect for immigration into Kazakhstan. Work Permits Applicable for Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan & Azerbaijan. The employer must obtain the Work Permit, while the employee must obtain the Permit for Employment. Only one document needs to be obtained for a foreign employee to work in Kazakhstan (Work Permit or a Permit for Employment). Work Permits are issued in accordance with the quota established by the government of Kazakhstan. The process of obtaining the Work Permit may take up to four or five months. A company, after employing a foreigner with a work permit (and also in the case of the further dismissal), is obligated within the three-day period to inform territorial UFMS of Russia about the making of work contract with a foreign citizen. List of required documents • Copies of all passport • Copy of migration card • Copy of notification of arrival (registration) • Photo 3x4 centimetre (2 pieces, mat surface paper, colored) • Medical certificate • Personal application • Original of the pay commission with the mark of bank about the payment of state duty at a rate of 2000 rubles for 1 foreign worker employed or receipt about the payment of state duty through Sberbank. Tax The income tax rate applicable to non-residents on employment income is 10%
  • 13. Working in... Kurdistan Kurdistan 13 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Dinar (IQD) Dialling Code: 00 + 964 Residency The American village in Erbil, provides high quality housing to expatriates from the USA and other parts of the world. The village consists of approximately 400 individual villas with all modern amenities and security services. Erbil American village is located 15 minutes from the centre of Erbil and the International airport of the city. Prices range from $1700 to $3500 per month. Visa If you have a Western passport you will not need a visa before or upon arrival so do not go to the visa counter but straight through passport control and on to the baggage claim. You will automatically receive a 10-day visa stamp upon arrival. If you plan to stay longer than 10 days, your company will help arrange the necessary permissions and/or residency card. Currency • The Kurdistan Region of Iraq operates mostly on a cash basis so bring enough funds with you to cover your stay. • Credit cards are gradually becoming more accepted but still limited and usually involve an additional transaction fee. • ATM machines are around town but are not reliable so bring plenty of spare cash with you. Tax Personal income tax rates are 3-15% based on the individual taxable income (bracket rules are applied). Income tax paid abroad on behalf of expatriates employed in Iraq shall be off set against personal income tax liability incurred in Iraq. Safety • Kurdistan is officially an autonomous region of Iraq but much safer than the rest of Iraq. • The crime rate in Kurdistan is also very low. • You will find the local population eager to meet you and very interested in learning more about you and your country. Dress • It is strongly recommended that long trousers and long-sleeved shirts or blouses be worn by both men and women when on the streets, especially in central and shopping areas. • Avoid wearing baseball caps and other western-style attire which draws attention or which could be found offensive. • Business Dress - When meeting work associates and the authorities you will be expected to wear business attire, and this will be seen as a sign of respect.
  • 14. Working in... Mexico Mexico 14 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Peso (MXN) Dialling Code: 00 + 52 Visa Your Mexican employer or firm has to get in touch with the National Institute of Immigration and arrange a work permit for you. Only when your work permit has been granted can you apply for a visa. You must then appear at the Consular Section of the nearest Mexican embassy for an interview and turn in your paperwork. You will receive your visa within two working days. • Passport (valid for at least 6 months from date of entry) • Photocopies of relevant pages of your passport • Completed application and FM1 form • 3 recent passport size photos (frontal) • 2 right profile photos (without glasses or covered head, white background) • Original and copy of return airline ticket, if applicable • Payment of consular fees FFM: Short-term non-immigrant visas are intended for visits not surpassing six months and are usually the type of visa tourists are likely to choose. The FFM also is the best option for business visits of up to 180 days. Please note that during this time, you are treated as a tourist and may not take up a job working for a Mexican employer. Citizens of a large number of nations do not even need to apply for the FFM in advance, applications are usually handed out in the airplane. FM3: Long term non-immigrant visas are the type of visa that is most commonly chosen by expats and meets all of their needs. This renewable visa is given to individuals who plan to stay in Mexico for more than six months. With the FM3, you will gain the status of temporary resident, giving you the right to live in Mexico for the time specified in your visa. Tax The following withholding tax rates apply to income from salaries paid in a calendar year to non-resident employees by Mexican resident employers or by employers with a permanent establishment in Mexico. Annual Taxable income bracket Tax rate on income bracket From MXN To MXN Percent 0 125,900 0 125,900 1,000,000 15 1,000,000 Over 30
  • 15. Working in... Morocco Morocco 15 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Dirham (MAD) Dialling Code: 00 + 212 Residence Permits Residence permits are issued to foreign nationals for one year and may be renewed an indefinite number of times. The renewed permit is valid for one or two years. To obtain a residence permit, a foreign national must present a copy of the stamped work contract and an information record card to the police authorities in his or her area of residence in Morocco. • Rents vary depending on the districts and the city. In Casablanca, Rabat and Marrakech, renting an apartment could cost between 2,500 and 6,000 MAD. • In Meknès, Fès, Oujda and Tangier, prices are slightly lower. You may need some time to find an apartment, so it is advisable to call a real estate agency before leaving your country. • Owners and landlords will require a three-year contract, which you should get translated before signing. You will probably also be required to pay a bond, usually the same amount as one month’s rent. Visa Moroccan business visa is for partaking in short term commerce in Morocco. Documents required; • Valid passport (an additional copy) with at least 6 months validity remaining • Fully completed Moroccan business visa application form • Passport type photographs (no older than 6 months) • Valid resident visa and one copy • Current bank statement and one copy • Proof of travel insurance coverage for trips and one copy • Business references (letter from your employer, invitation from Moroccan company or organization) • Proof of Moroccan hotel reservation and airline booking reservation for Morocco. Tax Annual Taxable income bracket Tax rate on income bracket From MAD To MAD Percent 0 30,000 0 30,000 50,000 10 50,000 60,000 20 60,000 80,000 30 80,000 180,000 34 180,000 Over 38
  • 16. Working in... Nigeria Nigeria 16 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Naira (NGN) Dialling Code: 00 + 234 Visa The following documents are required for application for temporary employment visas: • A telex from the Comptroller-General of the Immigration Service approving the grant of visa • Proof of financial means or written confirmation by the Nigerian company that it will provide financing and be responsible for any necessary immigration responsibilities for the journey • Curriculum vitae of the expatriate • Photocopy of the first page of the expatriate’s international passport • Documentary evidence showing the nature of the job to be performed by the expatriate • Company’s profile • Copy of certificate of incorporation • Copy of business permit • Social Security Permanent Visas : Companies that require the services of foreign nationals for permanent employment must apply to the relevant federal government authority. Before the authorities approve expatriate quota positions for a company, the following conditions are considered: • The technical nature of the job • The academic qualifications, professional expertise and years of experience of the expatriate who will occupy the position • A job description of the position, showing that local labor cannot easily be found • Foreign nationals taking up employment in Nigeria are divided into the following categories for visa application purposes: • Those taking up employment with government departments, corporations and institutions of higher learning. This category is not subject to expatriate quota restriction. • Those taking up employment with partially government-owned organizations and private sector companies and organizations. This category is subject to expatriate quota restrictions. Tax Annual Taxable income bracket Tax rate on income bracket From NGN To NGN Percent 0 30,000 5 30,000 60,000 10 60,000 110,000 15 110,000 160,000 20 160,000 Over 25
  • 17. Working in... Qatar Qatar 17 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Riyal (QAR) Dialling Code: 00 + 974 Residence Residence permits are generally granted to foreigners only if they have valid employment visas. For expats, accommodation is usually based on self-contained compounds. These comfortable places are ideal for families and often includes; swimming pools, tennis courts, satellite TV and security. Doha also has a choice of spacious villas and comfortable furnished apartments close to the city centre. Whatever you choose, all properties will have air conditioning. Visa Your visa will be organised by your employer once you have received a job offer from them. For the duration of your stay in the country they will act as your sponsor, and all documents such as driving licence, bank account, health cards etc are reliant on you being in possession of a Residence Visa, which will be organised by your employer. Tax Qatar does not levy personal income taxes on employee earnings. Exit Visa All expats need an exit visa before leaving Qatar. They need the permission of the sponsor, and sometimes even an additional guarantor agreeing to repay all of the applicant’s debt if necessary. Social Etiquette & Alcohol Visitors should be aware of Muslim religious laws and customs. Alcohol is restricted within the Muslim religion, and therefore can only be purchased in license bars, restaurants and hotels. For consumption off the premises a Liquor licence must be purchased. How to obtain one here: www. qdc.com.qa Cultural Do’s and Do Nots • Western bathing attire should only be worn at hotels or private beaches • When seated with a Qatari, avoid showing the sole of your shoe • Traditionally, the right hand is used for shaking hands and eating – even if you’re left-handed • As alcohol is forbidden for Muslims, expats should not expect to receive any at a Qatari- hosted function, and should not offer it to Muslims at their own events • During the month of Ramadan, eating, drinking, smoking and chewing gum in public is prohibited, and it is considered extremely taboo to do so
  • 18. Working in... Russia Russia 18 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Ruble (RUB) Dialling Code: 00 + 7 Work Permit The first steps are entirely the responsibility of your employer .Almost a full year before actually hiring an expat, companies operating in Russia have to apply for corporate work permits for their future foreign employees. In the application, they are required to state both the position they intend to fill as well as the nationality of the expat. Once the corporate work permit is secured, your employer has to apply for and secure your personal work permit. Visa You can apply for a work visa at your nearest Russian consulate or embassy. They will also supply you with a list of all necessary documents. Within three days of your arrival, you need to register your address with the migration services. Luckily, your employer usually takes the responsibility of notifying local authorities. Your company also needs to notify the labor and tax authorities about your employment. The work visa you acquired from your local embassy is limited to three months. Please check with the immigration authorities in Russia for an extension of your work visa, which is commonly issued for the duration of one year. This is a crucial step: Never forget to keep all permits and visas valid, as failure to do so is not lightly tolerated in Russia. Social Security As an expat in Russia you will be covered by a social security scheme that, while it may not be as all-encompassing as in your home country, covers all the most important aspects, from sickness to work injury and unemployment. This is perhaps the most interesting fact for every expat about to start working in Russia: Only your employer is required to pay into the various social security and insurance funds. As an employee, you do not have any responsibility to contribute. Tax As an expat, or rather non-resident, in Russia, you will be taxed on your income from Russian sources at a rate of 30%. However, you will be considered a resident under Russian taxation law if you spend at least 183 days in a 12-month period in the country. Then, all income, including that from non-Russian sources, will be taxed at a rate of 13%.
  • 19. Working in... Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 19 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Riyal (SAR) Dialling Code: 00 + 966 Residency Issued after arrival in Saudi Arabia to those entering the country with work visas. Residence permits are called iqamas and must be carried at all times. In Saudi, expats only have the option to rent, with ownership being restricted to Saudi nationals. A variety of accommodation is available, from unfurnished apartments to fully furnished villas. Foreign workers generally live on compounds. Work Permits • You cannot get a permit for working in Saudi Arabia unless you have a concrete job offer. • In fact, individuals cannot apply for a work permit themselves; their sponsor must apply for one on their behalf. • Every expat working in Saudi Arabia has a sponsor – usually their employer – who acts both as a guardian and a guarantor. Visa Your sponsor will also help with obtaining you a visa and finding you accommodation. Women Expats Females planning on travelling to Saudi Arabia must observe certain additional requirements, which may seem rather extreme. Women arriving in the Kingdom must be met by their sponsor at the airport, or they will face problems upon entry. This is a non-negotiable. Tax A flat income tax rate of 20% is applied to the tax-adjusted profit of non-Saudi residents. No social security needed either and no major deductions from salary. Legal System Saudi Arabia possesses a strict legal system based on the for of Sunni Islam. Although life inside the compounds of expat workers is not subject to these traditional laws, as the religious police are not permitted within them. Ramadan The month of Ramadan is a feature of life in the Middle East. During this month of fasting, eating, drinking and smoking are not permitted in public, from sunrise to sunset. This is strictly adhered to, and even as a non-Muslim it is unacceptable to partake in any of the above in view of anyone who is observing Ramadan.
  • 20. Working in... Singapore Singapore 20 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Dollar (SGD) Dialling Code: 00 + 65 Residency • Initial leases usually require commitment for one or two years. The standard practices is to pay a deposit equal to one month’s rent as well as two months of rent in advance. • Housing and Development Board accommodation, Singapore’s public housing, is the most affordable option, with excellent transport links and local amenities servicing the estates. Work Permits Foreign nationals who intend to take up employment or to engage in a business, profession or occupation in Singapore must first apply for either a work permit or an employment pass. A Singapore entity, which is normally the employer, must sponsor the work pass application. Visa Non-residents must hold a valid work pass before they can work in Singapore. Tax Annual Taxable income bracket Tax rate on income bracket From SGD To SGD Percent 0 20,000 0 20,000 30,000 2 30,000 40,000 3.5 40,000 80,000 7 80,000 120,000 11.5 120,000 160,000 15 160,000 200,000 17 200,000 320,000 18 320,000 Over 20 Business Etiquette Business in Singapore is more formal than in many western countries. There are strict rules of protocol that must be observed. The group (company or department) is viewed as more important than the individual. People observe a strict chain of command, which comes with expectations on both sides. In order to keep others from losing face, much communication will be non-verbal and you must closely watch the facial expressions and body language of people you work with.
  • 21. Working in... Tanzania Tanzania 21 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Shilling (TZS) Dialling Code: 00 + 255 Living In Tanzania A fairly good selection of accommodation is available in regularly visited urban centres such as Dar es Salaam, Arusha and Zanzibar. But in other areas, accommodation does not meet international standards. The monthly rent for standard Western accommodations is around 600 USD (April 2008). Although online ads are available, you should contact various real estate agencies upon arrival. The best time to rent a place is from June to September. Work Permits Applicants for the Class B permit must complete Tanzania Immigration Form I and submit it to the Labour Commissioner for a recommendation. The recommendation will be attached to the form and forwarded to the Director of Immigration Services for further action. The necessary attachments to the application are the following: • Covering letter or letter of appointment • Five photographs • Curriculum vitae • Academic qualifications (preferably copies of diplomas); • Job description for each individual expatriate; • Organizational structure o f a company showing clearly the number and types of posts filled in or lined up for expatriates; • A letter of clearance from the Government for anyone to be employed in a parastatal organization; • Membership certificates or clearances from local professional bodies for testing and monitoring the professional integrity of expatriates – i.e. doctors, lawyers, nurses, engineers, pilots, surveyors, accountants and the like; • Employment contract; • Photocopy of passport pages to authentify nationality, validity, and the current immigration status (if the applicant is already in the country); • Evidence to show that the company has tried to fill the position with a Tanzanian by producing copies of advertisements announcing the vacancy as well as the C.V. of a Tanzanian alternative. Tax For non-resident employees of a resident employer the income is subject to withholding tax at the rate of 15%. However the total income of a non-resident individual is charged at the rate of 20%.
  • 22. Working in... Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 22 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Manat (TMT) Dialling Code: 00 + 993 Visa All nationals must obtain a short-term visa for business purpose before entering Turkmenistan. A visa is issued for the period of 30,90,180 or 365 days. Application Process: The authorities may grant single/double/multiple entry visas valid for the period of up to one year. Applications must be submitted at the embassy or consulate of Turkmenistan in country of residence. Nationals without an embassy/consulate of Turkmenistan can obtain a visa on arrival, but prior permission to enter the country must be obtained before traveling. Standard documents required; • Passport • Application form • Photo • HIV Certificate (for visas issued for a period longer than 90 days) • Invitation letter from host company certified by the State Migration Service of Turkmenistan Upon Arrival - Visitors intending to stay for more than 5 days, must register at the State Migration Service within 3 working days after arrival. Travellers must de-register upon departure. Foreigner’s sponsor must arrange registration and indicate where foreigner is staying. Tax Tax rate of 10% on gross income of employees (both monetary and in kind) is applicable Expatriates residing in Turkmenistan for more than 183 days in a year are generally taxed on their worldwide income. Things to Note Credit cards and traveller’s checks have little acceptance in the country, so plan on using cash for your expenses Photographing official buildings is forbidden. Check before taking photographs near potentially sensitive sites such as airports, military barracks, police stations, government buildings, embassies and the Presidential Palace.
  • 23. Working in... United Arab Emirates U.A.E 23 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Dirham (AED) Dialling Code: 00 + 971 Residence Permits All expats living in the UAE, including expat spouses and children, must apply for a residence permit within 30 days of arrival. This residence permit is valid for 2 years in main U.A.E and 3 years in the free zones and allows expats to register with the local Emirates National Identity Authority. • Copy of the employee’s passport • Copy of the trade license of the sponsoring company • Letter of guarantee of employment from the sponsor • Authenticated educational certificates of the employee • Five passport photos Visa Business Visas takes 4 to 6 weeks to obtain. In order to apply for a business visa, expats need a sponsor (an employer or UAE resident) to arrange the application for them. All visa applications should be addressed to the nearest embassy of the UAE in your country of residence. They must include a comprehensive letter from your sponsor and an application form, which can be downloaded from the Travel Centre on the UAE Interact website. Tax One of the big attractions of working in the UAE is its tax regime: it charges no income tax on salaries paid there. If you move part way through a UK tax year you may have some tax to pay at home, but after that your income will be earned tax-free. Things to Note The weekend is Friday and Saturday. Alcohol The law is clear, for a person to buy or transport alcohol in the UAE, they must have a liquor licence. The Police operate a ‘no tolerance’ policy. Any persons found without a licence in their car or at home will have all alcohol confiscated, and depending on the amount they have, will face a prison sentence.
  • 24. Working in... United States of America U.S.A 24 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Dollar (USD) Dialling Code: 00 + 1 Visa Temporary visitors for business must apply for a B1 visa in order to conduct commercial activities in the U.S.A for up to six months. All people who come to the USA for a specified period of time without the intention to settle permanently will require a non-immigrant visa. Executives and Managers (L1A/B) People applying for this visa must have worked for their employer for one continuous year within the three years preceding the transfer. Employees can initially be transferred for one year in order to set up an office in the US or for three years in order to work in an already established office. Expats with Special Abilities (O1) This visa is intended for those who have reached national or international acclaim, recognition or distinction. This applies to the fields of science, education, business, sports, arts, motion pictures or the television industry. The O1 visa is for expats who want to work in the US for a maximum of three years. Treaty Traders (and Employees) (E1) Applicants need to be nationals of a country with which the United States maintains a treaty of commerce. No proof of residence in a country outside the US is required, and family members of the applicant are allowed to work without applying for a separate visa. A list of treaty countries can be found on the website of the Bureau of Consular Affairs. Visa Application Process The initial steps are often taken by the applicant´s employer. Depending on the visa category, employers might need to obtain an approved Labor Certification from the US Department of Labor. In most cases, they also have to file a petition on behalf of the applicant with the US Citizenship and Immigration Services. Tax Foreign nationals living and working in the US on a permanent basis are taxed as US citizens. Annual Taxable income bracket Tax rate on income bracket From USD To USD Percent 35,350 85,650 25 85,650 178,650 28 178,650 388,350 33 388,351 Over 35
  • 25. Working in... Ukraine Ukraine 25 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Hryvna (UAH) Dialling Code: 00 + 380 Visa The State Employment Center of the Ministry of Labor issues work permits, which are usually for a period of up to one year and may be extended. The employer of a foreign national must apply for a work permit with the local employment center and you will need to submit the following documents: • An application • A copy of the your individual’s passport and document confirming the education or qualifications of the foreign national (legalized, apostilled or notarized, depending on the country of issuance, and translated into Ukrainian by a certified interpreter) • Two color photographs of 3.5 by 4.5 centimeters • Official document confirming absence of previous convictions of the foreign individual (who is present in Ukraine at the time of the issuance of the work permit) or the documents confirming that the foreign individual (who is outside Ukraine at the time of work permit issuance) is not serving a sentence for a crime and is not on trial. Residence Permits Foreign nationals may temporarily stay in Ukraine on the basis of their passport and relevant entry visa. The stamp affixed to the foreigner’s passport by legal authority after initial entry into Ukraine is considered an automatic registration. If a foreigner stays in Ukraine more than 90 days during 180-days period - the passport must be registered with the local immigration authority (Ukrainian abbreviation UGIRFO, formerly OVIR). A written application of the foreign national and the inviting party must be submitted not later than three working days before the three-month period expires. The extended registration will be evidenced by the registration stamp in the passport. Tax A 17% tax rate applies to resident and non-resident individuals who have taxable monthly income exceeding the amount of 10 minimum wages (established on 1 January of the reporting tax year; currently, 10 minimum wages equal UAH 10,730 [US$1,343]). The 17% rate applies to the excess amount. Otherwise, a 15% tax rate applies, regardless of the tax residency status.
  • 26. Working in... Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 26 www.earthstaff.com Currency: Som (UZS) Dialling Code: 00 + 7 Expats moving to Uzbekistan will be witness to the massive political and economic change that has taken place in the country since it gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Thanks to the Uzbek government’s efforts to transform the country, Uzbekistan is now the richest of the five Central Asian republics. Visa A foreign citizen may work in Uzbekistan only if he or she obtains a confirmation for the employment (work permit), and his or her Uzbek employer obtains a license for employment of foreign specialists (license). The Consulate Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs issues a work visa to the foreign citizen only if the foreign citizen and his or her Uzbek employer obtained the work permit and license. Uzbek law does not contain any measures allowing a foreign citizen to be self-employed in Uzbekistan. Residence Permits The local offices of the Ministry of Internal Affairs can issue residence visas to foreign citizens residing in Uzbekistan for at least six months on the submission of the package of required documents.The residence visa is issued for up to five years and can be renewed five times for the same period. Economy Expats should be aware that Uzbekistan is still a cash economy and therefore credit cards and travellers cheques are only accepted in selected banks and hotels. Tax The following is an annual tax rate table using U.S. dollars, based on the exchange rate of UZS 1,871.44 = US$1 (as of 1 June 2012). Annual Taxable income bracket Tax rate on income bracket From USD To USD Percent 0 2,017 9 2,017 4,035 16 4,035 Over 22