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"Working with Youths-At-Risk" Participants Notes - Glenn Lim

"Working with Youths-At-Risk" Participants Notes - Glenn Lim



Workshop Participants Booklet for Youths-At-Risk workers in Singapore. All Rights Reserved 2010. Trained by Master Trainer Mr Glenn Lim

Workshop Participants Booklet for Youths-At-Risk workers in Singapore. All Rights Reserved 2010. Trained by Master Trainer Mr Glenn Lim



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  • Definition of Mid-Level Needs This include a spectrum of youths who exhibit certain characteristics and have a certain level of needs. May include those who are within the school system and exhibit low level of negative behaviour, to those who are out-of-school or facing a difficult life circumstances eg. single-parent or incarcerated families.

"Working with Youths-At-Risk" Participants Notes - Glenn Lim "Working with Youths-At-Risk" Participants Notes - Glenn Lim Presentation Transcript

  • Counselling Skills for Youths-At-Risk
    • Trainer: Mr Glenn Lim
    • ___________________________________________________________________________
    • __________________________________________________
    • _________________________
    Definitions / Descriptions of YAR
  • Singapore classification model of ‘youth needs’ (National Youth Mentoring, NYC, 2008) LOW-level needs MID-level needs HIGH-level needs (3) 2 + Advocacy (2) 1 + Trusting Relationship & Community Resources (1) Care, Commitment, Skills, Knowledge Mentee needs Mentor characteristics/requirements
    • Youths with mid-level needs may include those who are out-of-school or facing difficult life circumstances (eg: single-parent or incarcerated families). In addition, may include youths with learning disabilities, prone to substance abuse, self-harm, depression, other mental and eating disorders, truancy, bullying, violence and other delinquent behaviours.
    • (National Youth Council, 2010)
  • What makes them ‘At-Risk’? What are some skills that YARs lack?
    • ___________________________________________________________________________
    • __________________________________________________
    • _________________________
  • 4 Developmental Arenas in Youth
  • Social-Emotional Competencies Self A___________ Self M___________ S________ Awareness R____________ Management Responsible D__________ M_________ SEC Matrix
    • Youth who slip through the cracks of an E____________ S__________ due to a sense of deprivation of acceptance or belonging (‘social citizenship’), precipitating manifestation of negative behaviours.
    • (G.Lim, 2006)
    Disenfranchised Youth
  • Operational Domains in the World of a Youth
    • G.Lim, 2006
    • Adapted from The Hemingway’ Theory of Adolescent Connectedness
  • Primary Domains of a Youth’s World Youth
  • “ Cycle of Failure”
    • Generally youth can only accept failure so many times before they give up and start recreating their own ‘successes’ in a distorted and deviant manner…
    • (G.Lim, 2006)
  • Psycho-Mechanics of ‘FAILURE’
    • Each domain has a set of expectations on the youth, who is seen as a ‘Failure’ when he cannot meet them.
    • Failure in one domain means an increased reliance on the other domains to make up the difference.
    • Failure leads to creating new Expectations for himself as a means of feeling successful or significant (‘Compensated Success’).
    • Compensated Success is manifested in the forms of different expressions (Negative Behaviours) –
  • “ Cycle of Failure”
    • If we don’t intentionally ‘Replace’ a n____________ t________ (action, behaviour, habit, lifestyle etc) with a positive one, chances are the vacuum created when trait is ‘Removed’ will be subsequently filled up with another undesirable trait that the youth is accustomed to
    “ Remove & Replace”
    • A substitute domain serves to ‘s________’ as a nurturing ‘surrogate’ for youth to develop psychological, emotional and social competencies.
    “ Surrogation”
    • A “Wake Up Call” is a significant defining moment in their lives, often in the form of a c________, where their p______________ and v_______ begin to change, as they wake up to the really important matters in life
    “ Wake-Up Call”
    • Neuro-Development of Youth
  • The ‘Triune Brain’
    • C___________ C_________
    L_______ S________ B________ S______
  • Brain Stem “ Centre of Instinctive Behaviour”
    • Breathing, Sweating, Blood Pressure, Arousal, Sleeping…
    • Automatic Nervous System, Reflexes
    • Fight or Flight responses
    • Reactive & Impulsive
    • Relay Station for incoming signals
    • Hormone release & control centre
    • Memory encoding & assignment centre
    Limbic System “ Centre of Emotions”
  • Frontal Lobes “ Centre of Executive Function”
    • Impulse Control
    • Considering Consequences
    • Decision Making
    • Foresight & Planning Ahead
    • Hindsight & Reflective thinking
    • The LIMBIC SYSTEM is fully operational during puberty at
    • _________ years old
    The FRONTAL LOBES begin to develop during puberty, but only fully matures at age… __________ years old
    • Relating to youths is more f_________-based than logic-based.
    • Youths become v______________ to influences when their emotional doors are open.
    • Youths learn better when they can make
    • an e_____________ connection to the lesson.
    • 4) Positive emotions create o__________ conditions for learning / change.
    • 5) Youths need ‘T______- O_____’ to cool down, and process their emotions.
  • How youths process signals with their brains TRIGGER
    • EL is education that occurs as a direct p___________ in the e_______ of life. The learning is achieved through reflection upon the experiences.
    • (Houle, 1980)
    Experiential Learning
    • Participant or Observer of:
      • Activity
      • Class lesson
      • Conversation
      • Project (CIP, SL etc)
      • Outing
      • Games, Movies etc
    • Review or Discussion of:
      • What I Saw
      • What I Heard
      • What I Felt
      • What I Thought
    Extract learning points, lessons & principles from what I reflected… Apply my new learning into another situation or experience… Experiential Learning Cycle
  • “ WHAT?” Learning Model
  • “ 3-2-1” Learning Model What are _______ I saw, heard, experienced, observed? What are _______ I learnt from what I reflected? What is _____ I will apply from today onwards?
    • Having the experience is not the main focus... R__________ on the experience is.
    • Be engaged in the activities with your group members to create ‘S_______ Experience’ to reflect together upon.
    • Keen O__________ is critical in leveraging on learning moments.
    Experiential Learning Principles
  • Faulty Processing
      • Faulty learning occurs when we short-circuit the reflection process and make assumptions based purely on what we experienced
  • The YAR Worker
  • Essential Skills of YAR Workers…
    • ___________________________________________________________________________
    • __________________________________________________
    • _________________________
  • Factors of Influence / Change E___________ Therapeutic and positive relationship with client E___________ Counsellor’s techniques & strategies E_____________ Client’s expectations of counsellor / Placebo effect E_________ F_________ Client’s resources & support system from family, friends etc (M. Lambert, 1992)
    • “ If I can provide a certain type of relationship, the client (or youth) will discover within himself the capacity to use that relationship for g ________
    • and c __ , and personal development will occur”
    • (Carl Rogers, 1961)
  • Authority Matrix
    • A__________
    C_________ I__________
  • Working with YARs A question to ask ourselves: “ What or Who is informing our work?”
  • Working with YARs Theories Approaches Techniques
  • Positive Youth Development Traditional Youth Services Positive Youth Development Focus on problems Focus on positive outcomes Deficit-based Strengths-based Reactive Pro-active Targeted Youth All Youth involvement Youth as recipients Youth as active participants Programs Community response Professional providers Community members
  • Some useful attitudes toward YAR-work
    • Instead of viewing them as P_______ Y______, let’s view them as Y______ with P_________.
    • Instead of changing the S________, let’s change the S_________.
    • Instead of trying hard to m_________ them, let’s find out w_____ motivates them.
    • Instead of trying to P_______ youth problems, let’s P________ youth development.
  • The 5 ‘C’s of PYD C_________ C________ C________ C_____ / C_________ C_________ C__________ PYD5Cs
  • “ Many Helping Hands”
    • Peers
    • School
    • Family
    • _______________
    • _______________
    • _______________
    • _______________
  • Positive Youth Development
    • A__________
    D__________ P_________
    • Leadership appointments
    • Certificate of completion
    • Talent showcase
    • Life skills
    • Leadership skills
    • Roles & responsibilities
    • Mentoring
    • Counselling
    • ‘ Contracting’
    • Discipline
    • Learning journeys
    PYD Strategies
  • “ Strengths-Based” Approach
  • w h at w e foc u s o n Glenn Lim Consultancy 2007 B I G G E R bec om e s
  • How do we search for strengths?
    • “ Strengths
    are often found in… W__________ ”
  • POSITIVE REFRAMING A technique of viewing things you cannot change in a positive light
  • “ CONTEXTUAL Reframing” PROBLEMS STRENGTHS Youth runs away from home Youth is ‘street-smart’; has survival skills Youth indulges in dangerous activities like skateboarding Youth spends too much time, money on ‘weird’ fashion Youth is defiant & rebellious Youth is into gangs
  • “ CONTENT Reframing” PROBLEMS SOLUTIONS Physics is my weakest subject, I hate it… This is an opportunity for growth for me! I should take it as a personal challenge and put in more effort to overcome this! I tried so hard and still failed my test…I want to give up! My teacher scolded me again, and my parents nag me to study all the time!
  • How do we listen for ‘strengths’?
    • E
    • A
    • R
  • Working with the YAR
  • Invisible Suitcases
    • C ___________________
    • C ___________________
    • C ___________________
    Unpacking their ‘Stories’
  • Narrative Theories “The Power of Stories”
  • Principles of NT
    • All stories have predictable endings based on their themes (adventure, tragedy, comedy, romance etc).
    • There is a ‘Success Story’ in every youth.
    • Help youth think about ‘Re-scripting’ their stories by envisioning new and different subsequent ‘Chapters’.
    • Youth need to be empowered to be ‘Authors’ of their own destinies.
    • Youth are not readily inspired by laws, rules and authoritarian-style information (Meta-Narratives).
    • Youth become inspired to ‘rewrite’ their own stories when they ‘read’ other stories (Local-Narratives) of success and victory.
    • Stories (Personal, Fictitious, Real, Fable, Folklore etc)
    • Jokes / Anecdotes
    • Metaphors / Imagery
    • Parables / Idioms / Symbols
    • Movie, Music Reviews
    • Character Studies
    • Role Plays
    • Interactive Drawing, Theatre etc
    Usages of NT
    • Create o________ by engaging their participation
    • Stimulate l_________ by getting them to research on subject; homework etc
    • Instill sense of a__________ by positioning it as a project, mission, learning journey etc
    Exposing without Imposing
  • DESIRED OUTCOMES of Youth Programs
  • EVENT vs PROCESS Examples of Youth -Helping Events: Examples of “Processes”:
  • Youth Work is a Process, not just an Event… … a Journey
  • Growth and change takes place in a PROCESS
  • Youth Developmental Domains
    • “ I ____, you _______”
    • Intentional observation by mentee
    • Review & reflection by mentee
    The “COACHING” Model
    • “ We ____ it __________”
    • Intentional modeling in real-time
    • Mistakes & pauses are allowed to explain processes
    • “ You ___, I _______”
    • Mentor now observes mentee at work
    • Mentor provides feedback & affirmation
  • Social-Emotional Competencies Self Awareness Self Management Social Awareness Relationship Management Responsible Decision Making SEC Matrix
    • Awareness & understanding of one’s own:
      • Habits / Personality / Character
      • Experiences / Feelings / Thoughts / Behaviours
      • Strengths / Weaknesses
      • Desires / Interests / Passions
    • E __________
    SELF AWARENESS A ________ T __________ E.A.T. Event
  • SELF AWARENESS Event: Client is late for appointment again, called to say he will not come...
    • I feel disappointed that he played me out again.
    • I actually feel angry (deeper).
    • I feel he doesn’t respect me.
    • I am impatient & fidgety, and keep shaking my feet.
    • My teeth are clenched.
    • I’m going to tell him how irresponsible he is.
    • What a waste of time!
    • I think he did this on purpose.
    • I think he doesn’t like me.
    • I think he finds me boring.
    Emotions Actions Thoughts
  • SELF AWARENESS Event: Mentee made a remark after session today to say that she really appreciates & looks up to me, & wish that her parents were like me… Emotions Actions Thoughts
  • Johari Window (Joseph Luft & Harry Ingham, 1955) Known to Self Unknown to Self Known to Others Unknown to Others
  • Johari Window (Joseph Luft & Harry Ingham, 1955) Known to Self Unknown to Self Known to Others Unknown to Others
    • S –
    • T –
    • O –
    • P –
  • Restorative Approach
  • What is Restorative Practice?
    • “ Restorative justice is a process whereby all the parties with a stake in a particular offence come together to resolve c__________ how to deal with the a_________ of the offence and its i__________ for the future”
    • (Tony Marshall, 2002)
  • Punitive-Permissive Continuum P________ P________
    • Results of employing solely traditional PPC:
    • Loss of R__________
    • Loss of R__________
    • Alienation from C__________
    • Inability to hold students A_____________
    Punitive-Permissive Continuum
  • Social Discipline Window LOW HIGH HIGH CONTROL (Limit-Setting; Discipline) SUPPORT (Nurture; Encouragement)
  • Principles of RP
    • Increase Awareness
    • Avoid Scolding or Lecturing
    • Involve students Actively / Directly
    • Accept Ambiguity
    • Separate Deed from Doer
    • View every wrongdoing as opportunity for learning
  • Key Values of RP
    • Impartial and Non-judgemental
    • Respect and Relationships
    • Accountability and Responsibility
    • Inclusion and Collaboration
    • Solutions and Restoration
    • Empowerment and Commitment
  • “ Conferencing”
    • 4 Key Questions:
    • What has h__________? (the wrongdoing)
    • Who is a___________? And how?
    • How can we involve everyone who has been affected r__________& find a way forward?
    • How can everyone do things d_____________ in the future?
  • Motivational Interviewing
    • A therapeutic approach based on the concepts of Ambivalence (conflict between indulgence & restraint)
    • Targets client’s intrinsic motivation to resolve ambivalence & internal conflicts
    • Helping clients build commitment & reach decision to change
    • Lays a motivational foundation for other therapeutic approaches
  • Motivational Interviewing
    • Express E_____________
    • Avoid A_______________
    • Roll with R_____________
    • Develop D______________
    • Support S_______________
    5 Principles of MI ( Miller and Rollnick, 1992)
  • Motivational Interviewing
    • Creating a safe environment unconditional positive regard & empathy
    • Active listening
    • Giving clear & concrete feedback about youth’s behaviour, motives & personal situation
    • Providing choice alternatives
    • Initiating & staying in contact with youth
    5 Key MI Techniques
  • “ Stages of Change” Model by Prochaska & DiClemente (1983)
  • “ Stages of Change” Model STAGE OF CHANGE CHARACTERISTICS TECHNIQUES 1) PRECONTEMPLATION Not considering change “ Ignorance is bliss” Encourage exploration of options while evaluating current behaviours. 2) CONTEMPLATION Ambivalent “ Sitting on the fence” Encourage pros/cons Identify, promote positive outcome expectations 3) PREPARATION Trying to change; experimenting “ Testing the waters” Identify social support and intrinsic resources. Encourage small initial steps 4) ACTION Practicing new behaviour “ Forming new habits” Focus on restructuring cues Encourage self-efficacy Reiterate long-term benefits 5) MAINTENANCE Continued commitment “ Sustaining new behaviour” Reinforce internal rewards. Discuss relapse 6) RELASPE Resumption of old behaviour “ Fall from grace” Evaluate triggers for relapse. Plan stronger coping strategies.
  • NOTE: Relapse is not the end!
    • A recovering client who relapses rarely returns back to the ‘Point of No Return’. In fact, the relapse helps him evaluate his strategies, goals, motivation and commitment to change. Most clients grow stronger and more resolved after their relapse.
    • * On average, about 70% of recovering clients (gambling & substance abuse addicts) will experience 3 to 4 relapses in his journey.
    • 4 impairments to look out for when working in the ‘helping’ field:
    1) D__________ – exhaustion, fatigue, burn-out 2) D__________ – too many life event or crises, tasks, roles all taking place at once 3) D_____________ – due to personal failure or setbacks 4) D_____________ – loss of vision, purpose etc
    • 1) A________ TO S_________ – Personal therapy; Personal development & growth; Personal & group supervision; Balanced lifestyle includes healthy relationships with family & friends.
    SELF CARE 2) A______________ S___________ – System & routine of reporting; Personal openness to leadership, colleagues & spouse; 3) A___________ – Transference & Counter-transference issues; Blind Spots; Reflections (Journaling) help increase self-awareness.
    • ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________