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  1. 1. PLANKTON (Bio 511) Professor Stephen T. Tettelbach C.W. Post Campus of Long Island University
  2. 2. PLANKTON
  3. 4. Introducing the world's first exclusive formulation of nature's superfood , marine phytoplankton , micro-algae naturally grown, harvested and available in a powerful daily liquid nutritional supplement. For the first time in history, all the wonderous health benefits of Marine Phytoplankton , the source of ALL life in the oceans is now, readily available to man!   Phytoplankton is utilized by whales - the worlds longest living mammals .   This mammal lives for over 150 yrs, and is sexually active for life!
  4. 5. plankton , from Greek word for ‘ drifter ’ or ‘ wanderer ’ organisms that are free-floating or found in the water column (i.e. pelagic ) but are unable to swim against typical currents generally small neuston = plankton living at or just below the water surface (e.g. bacterial film) pleuston = plankton that live at the surface but protrude into the air (e.g. Portuguese Man O’War) nekton = pelagic animals that are powerful enough swimmers to move at will in the water column, under most conditions (e.g. fish, dolphins, squid) benthos = organisms living on or in the bottom (in the subtidal zone)
  5. 7. Size classes of the plankton (from Johnson & Allen (2005) see handout
  6. 8. Other definitions sometimes used: ultraplankton : < 2 µ m = femtoplankton + picoplankton
  7. 9. holoplankton = organisms that spend their entire life in the plankton meroplankton = organisms that spend only part of their life in the plankton, usually as larvae
  8. 10. <ul><li>Major groups of organisms that comprise the plankton: </li></ul><ul><li>phytoplankton </li></ul><ul><li>zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>protozooplankton (= protozoans) </li></ul><ul><li>mycoplankton (= fungi) </li></ul><ul><li>bacterioplankton (= bacteria) </li></ul><ul><li>viruses (sometimes called virioplankton) </li></ul><ul><li>For some amazing photographs of plankton – see: </li></ul><ul><li>Wim van Egmond’s Micropolitan Museum: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>viruses </li></ul><ul><li>– obligate intracellular parasites </li></ul><ul><li>when in the plankton: ‘between hosts’ </li></ul><ul><li>most abundant members of the plankton , </li></ul><ul><li>up to 10 8 -10 9 viruses/ml </li></ul><ul><li>mostly bacteriophages; also: </li></ul><ul><li>viruses of eukaryotic algae, others </li></ul><ul><li>#’s vary spatially, seasonally </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>tremendous diversity </li></ul><ul><li>exist virtually everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>heterotrophic forms: </li></ul><ul><li>most get nutrition via dissolved </li></ul><ul><li>solutes, plus, a few </li></ul><ul><li>predaceous bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>autotrophic forms: </li></ul><ul><li>chemosynthetic </li></ul><ul><li>photosynthetic: </li></ul><ul><li>cyanobacteria + others </li></ul><ul><li>2 Kingdoms of bacteria: </li></ul><ul><li>Eubacteria and Archaeobacteria </li></ul><ul><li>some important cyanobacteria: </li></ul><ul><li>Synechococcus , </li></ul><ul><li>Trichodesmium (marine) </li></ul><ul><li>Nostoc , </li></ul><ul><li>Anabaena (fw) </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>prochlorophytes: </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom Eubacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Division Cyanobacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Class Prochlorophyta </li></ul><ul><li>most: genus Prochlorococcus </li></ul><ul><li>picoplankton (<2 µ) </li></ul><ul><li>unique divinyl derivatives of </li></ul><ul><li>both chl a and chl b </li></ul><ul><li>tropical and subtropical oceans; </li></ul><ul><li>as deep as 150-200 m </li></ul><ul><li>may account for 30-80% of </li></ul><ul><li>1 ° productivity in oligotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>regions of the ocean </li></ul><ul><li> s </li></ul><ul><li>/prochlorococcus.htm </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>protozooplankton (= protozoa) </li></ul><ul><li>all heterotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>In 6 Kingdom scheme of Woese , </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom Protista </li></ul><ul><li>Subkingdom Protozoa </li></ul><ul><li>In plankton, most important are: </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Ciliata (ciliates) </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Sarcomastigophora </li></ul><ul><li>Subphylum Sarcodina </li></ul><ul><li>( amoebas, shelled amoebas) </li></ul><ul><li>Subphylum Mastigophora (zoo) flagellates </li></ul><ul><li>many authors group these with </li></ul><ul><li>photosynthetic flagellates - we will not. </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Ciliata (>7000 spp.) </li></ul><ul><li>move, feed with cilia </li></ul><ul><li>very important in the food chains </li></ul><ul><li>some filter feed on phytoplankton, some ingest </li></ul><ul><li>phytoflagellates, some ingest bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>a few get nutrition from endosymbiotic microalgae. </li></ul>Paramecium
  13. 15. protozooplankton Phylum Sarcomastigophora Subphylum Sarcodina as a group, feed on protozoa, very small metazoans (mostly microcrustaceans), bacteria, phytoplankton; many get nutrition from endosymbiotic microalgae amoebas (=amebas) pseudopodia used in locomotion and feeding Amoeba proteus extending pseudopodia to feed on a desmid (phytoplankter)
  14. 16. protozooplankton Phylum Sarcomastigophora Subphylum Sarcodina shelled amoebas (non-motile) extend actinopods - fine, stiff cytoplasmic projections, through openings in shell, for feeding and locomotion. Actinosphaerium , showing extended actinopods
  15. 17. <ul><li>protozooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Sarcomastigophora </li></ul><ul><li>Subphylum Sarcodina </li></ul><ul><li>Foraminifera (bearing many small openings) = forams (~ 4000 spp.) </li></ul><ul><li>made 1° of CaCO3 </li></ul><ul><li>exclusively marine and brackish; most common in coastal areas of the ocean. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Protozooplankton - Foraminifera
  17. 19. protozooplankton Phylum Sarcomastigophora Subphylum Sarcodina The radiolarians - exclusively marine and brackish; most common in open ocean. vast areas of deep ocean have sediment referred to as radiolarian ooze. shells made 1° of amorphous silica with organic inclusions
  18. 20. Protozooplankton - radiolarians
  19. 21. protozooplankton Phylum Sarcomastigophora Subphylum Sarcodina Acantharia - shells of strontium sulfate Lychnaspis miranda
  20. 22. protozooplankton Phylum Sarcomastigophora Subphylum Sarcodina Heliozoans – marine, brackish, but 1° fw. Some have silica Actinosphaerium
  21. 23. protozooplankton Phylum Sarcomastigophora Subphylum Mastigophora (flagellates)
  22. 24. <ul><li>Phytoplankton </li></ul><ul><li>photosynthetic organisms, usually unicellular, but may form colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Miller (2004) estimate: spp. ~ 5000 spp., </li></ul><ul><li>some authors: total # of phytoplankton spp. may be >100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>much debate about algal taxonomy: </li></ul><ul><li>for our purposes, cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic bacteria will all </li></ul><ul><li>be treated as bacteria (procaryotes) </li></ul><ul><li>eucaryotic algae are all placed in the Kingdom Protista </li></ul><ul><li>[see handout: Table 26.2 from Prescott, Harley and Klein (2005): </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative Summary of Some Algal Characteristics] </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>Phytoplankton - Diatoms </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom Protista </li></ul><ul><li>Division (=Phylum) Chrysophyta (golden plant) </li></ul><ul><li>Class Bacillariophyceae </li></ul><ul><li>Diatoms (Gr. dia: across, temnein: to cut ) </li></ul><ul><li>2 parts of cell wall fit together like parts of a Petri dish </li></ul><ul><li>unicellular (may form chains), or sometimes filamentous </li></ul><ul><li>cell wall: hard mineral shell (= frustule ) composed of </li></ul><ul><li>hydrated, polymerized silicic acid Si(OH 4 ) -same as opal </li></ul><ul><li>golden-brown (yellow-brown) when healthy; greenish when not </li></ul><ul><li>marine, brackish, fw </li></ul><ul><li>p lanktonic and benthic ; also in air and ice. </li></ul><ul><li>found from poles to tropics; most abundant in polar to temperate zones . </li></ul><ul><li>usually 5-200µm, but may be up to 4 mm . </li></ul>
  24. 26. Phytoplankton – Diatoms 2 major forms: centric – rounded; essentially radially symmetric Coscinodiscus Dityum brightwelli
  25. 27. Phytoplankton – Diatoms Chains of centric diatoms Thalassionema nitzschioides Eucampia zodiacus
  26. 28. Phytoplankton – Diatoms pennate ( L. pinnatus: feathered ) – elongate ; bilaterally symmetric pinnate refers to markings on walls of some of these forms Cymbella affinis Pseudo-nitzschia cleaned frustule of pennate diatom
  27. 29. Phytoplankton – Diatoms Chains of centric diatoms Chaetoceros affinis Actinoptychis
  28. 30. Phytoplankton – chain of Antarctic centric diatoms
  29. 31. <ul><li>Phytoplankton - Dinoflagellates </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom Protista </li></ul><ul><li>Division Dinophyta ( Gr. dinos: whirling; L. flagellum: whip ) </li></ul><ul><li>(=Pyrrophyta) (Gr. pyros: fire, and phyton: plant) </li></ul><ul><li>– refers to bioluminescence of many forms </li></ul><ul><li>most have 2 flagella </li></ul><ul><li>may be armored (thecate) </li></ul><ul><li> or </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> unarmored (naked ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Noctiluca Dinophysis Peridinium Ceratium
  30. 32. <ul><li>Phytoplankton – Dinoflagellates </li></ul><ul><li>marine, brackish, and fw </li></ul><ul><li>usually ~2-200µ , but may be up to 2 mm in size </li></ul><ul><li>very interesting ecologically: some forms do not have chloroplasts and are </li></ul><ul><li>therefore completely heterotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>- these may prey on diatoms, protozoans or even copepod nauplii </li></ul><ul><li>~ 60 species (Horner, 2002) have been identified to secrete powerful </li></ul><ul><li>neurotoxins (cause paralytic shellfish poisoning, ciguatera,etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>very important as endosymbionts in coral reef spp. ( e.g. Symbiodinium) </li></ul>
  31. 33. Phytoplankton – Dinoflagellates 2 main taxonomic groups, based on where flagella insert desmokonts : 2 flagella arise from anterior part of cell
  32. 34. Phytoplankton – Dinoflagellates d inokonts : – one flagellum in transverse groove (cingulum): whirls cell around, 2nd simpler flagellum in longitudinal groove (sulcus) helps pull cell thru water Important representatives: Alexandrium, Gonyaulax, Gambierodiscus, Pfiesteria
  33. 35. <ul><li>Phytoplankton – Green Algae </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom Protista </li></ul><ul><li>Division Chlorophyta (Gr. Chloros: green) </li></ul><ul><li>many multicellular examples, but also some unicellular and planktonic forms; </li></ul><ul><li>these include spherical, filamentous and colonial forms; </li></ul><ul><li>some w/ flagella, some without </li></ul><ul><li>marine, brackish, but mostly in freshwater </li></ul><ul><li>fw examples: </li></ul>Volvox Closterium (floater) Chlamydomonas
  34. 36. <ul><li>Phytoplankton – Green Algae </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom Protista </li></ul><ul><li>Division Chlorophyta (Gr. Chloros: green) </li></ul><ul><li>desmids ( Gr. desma: bond ) – cells are arranged in mirror image halves, </li></ul><ul><li>joined by isthmus , where spherical nucleus is located </li></ul><ul><li>all fw , usually in more oligotrophic waters </li></ul>© Wim van Egmond:
  35. 37. <ul><li>Phytoplankton – Pelagophytes </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom Protista </li></ul><ul><li>Division Heterokontophyta </li></ul><ul><li>Class Pelagophyceae </li></ul><ul><li>very small (<2 µ) = picoplankton </li></ul><ul><li>most in oceanic waters, recently discovered </li></ul><ul><li>most in genus Chlorococcus </li></ul><ul><li>now thought to be the principal </li></ul><ul><li>eukaryotic picoplankton: </li></ul><ul><li>extremely important in terms </li></ul><ul><li>of the amount of C they fix </li></ul>Chlorococcus
  36. 38. <ul><li>Phytoplankton - Silicoflagellates and relatives </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom Protista </li></ul><ul><li>Division Heterokontophyta </li></ul><ul><li>Class Dictyophyceae </li></ul><ul><li>external silica skeleton, 1 flagellum. </li></ul><ul><li>Phytoplankton – Raphidophytes </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom Protista </li></ul><ul><li>Divison Chromophyta </li></ul><ul><li>Class Raphidophyceae </li></ul><ul><li>(according to Horner (2002) </li></ul><ul><li>flagellates – all photosynthetic </li></ul><ul><li>marine, estuarine </li></ul><ul><li>i mportant fish killers (produce toxins) </li></ul><ul><li>especially important in aquaculture </li></ul>Dictyocha Heterosigma
  37. 39. <ul><li>Phytoplankton – Euglenophytes </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom Protista </li></ul><ul><li>Division Euglenophyta </li></ul><ul><li>unicellular flagellates, </li></ul><ul><li>with 1 very long and </li></ul><ul><li>1 very short flagellum </li></ul><ul><li>1 ° freshwater </li></ul>Assorted euglenoids
  38. 40. <ul><li>Phytoplankton – Prymnesiophytes </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom Protista </li></ul><ul><li>Division Prymnesiophyta </li></ul><ul><li>golden-brown flagellates, </li></ul><ul><li>usually have a thread-like, variable length </li></ul><ul><li>appendage called a haptonema </li></ul><ul><li>( Gr. haptein: to fasten ) located between </li></ul><ul><li>the 2 flagella of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>end of haptonema is sticky and used to </li></ul><ul><li>anchor cell to a substrate or to capture food </li></ul><ul><li>cells are covered by 1 or more layers of </li></ul><ul><li>unmineralized organic scales and/or </li></ul><ul><li>by CaCO3 scales called coccoliths </li></ul><ul><li>some harmful and produce toxins that harm </li></ul><ul><li>finfish, benthic inverts and even macroalgae </li></ul>Chrysochromulina
  39. 41. Phytoplankton – Prymnesiophytes Kingdom Protista Division Prymnesiophyta coccolithophorids (have CaCO3 scales called coccoliths) Scales can reflect light so water appears whitish during blooms Emiliana huxleyi
  40. 42. Coccolithophorid blooms in the Celtic Sea and Gulf of Biscay
  41. 43. Zooplankton <ul><li>many of the roughly 35 animal phyla have representatives in the plankton: </li></ul><ul><li>marine and/or fresh waters </li></ul><ul><li>some groups are exclusively holoplankton, </li></ul><ul><li>some are exclusively meroplankton, </li></ul><ul><li>many phyla have members in both categories </li></ul>
  42. 44. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Cnidaria (= Coelenterata) </li></ul><ul><li>simple body plan: with central mouth, usually surrounded by tentacles </li></ul><ul><li>radial symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>all members possess stinging cells ( cnidoblasts = nematoblast ) </li></ul><ul><li>2 major body forms: polyp and medusa </li></ul><ul><li>1st larval stage: planula </li></ul><ul><li>~9,000 spp. </li></ul><ul><li>4 classes: Hydrozoa (hydroids, Hydra , some jellyfish) </li></ul><ul><li>Scyphozoa (true jellyfish) </li></ul><ul><li>Anthozoa (corals, sea anemones) – only larvae are planktonic </li></ul><ul><li>Cubozoa (box shaped jellyfish , including sea wasp of Australia) </li></ul><ul><li>some authors include within Scyphozoa </li></ul>
  43. 45. Zooplankton Phylum Cnidaria Class Hydrozoa actinula larva hydromedusa: Maeotias hydromedusa: Benthocodon (deepwater)
  44. 46. Hydromedusa Colobonema sericeum Phylum Cnidaria Class Hydrozoa
  45. 47. Zooplankton Phylum Cnidaria Class Hydrozoa Physalia (Portuguese Man O’War) Vellela (by-the-wind sailor)
  46. 48. Phylum Cnidaria Class Hydrozoa Physalia (Portuguese Man O’War)
  47. 49. Zooplankton Phylum Cnidaria Class Scyphozoa Stomolophus
  48. 50. Lion’s Mane Jellyfish – Cyanea capillata Sea Nettle – Chrysaora quinquecirrha Phylum Cnidaria Class Scyphozoa
  49. 51. Zooplankton Phylum Cnidaria Class Cubozoa Chironex flexneri (sea wasp)
  50. 52. Zooplankton Phylum Cnidaria Class Anthozoa tube anemone larva
  51. 53. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Ctenophora (comb jellies) </li></ul><ul><li>closely related to Cnidaria </li></ul><ul><li>simple body plan, with central mouth, w/ or w/o tentacles </li></ul><ul><li>radial symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>have 8 cteni (rows of cilia) used in locomotion and feeding </li></ul><ul><li>often bioluminescent </li></ul><ul><li>only marine </li></ul><ul><li>~150 spp. </li></ul>Beroe
  52. 54. animaldiversity.ummz. Phylum Ctenophora: Mnemiopsis leidyi (sea walnut)
  53. 55. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Rotifera (Rotatoria) – wheel animals </li></ul><ul><li>very small, most < 1 mm </li></ul><ul><li>have circular corona of cilia that looks like a rotating wheel – used in </li></ul><ul><li>locomotion and feeding </li></ul><ul><li>radial symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>no planktonic larvae </li></ul><ul><li>mostly fw </li></ul><ul><li>~2,000 spp. </li></ul>Collotheca with egg Lecane
  54. 56. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Platyhelminthes – (flatworms) </li></ul><ul><li>flat, bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>many spp. are parasitic </li></ul><ul><li>of the free-living members of the Class Turbellaria - usually benthic, but </li></ul><ul><li>many spp. swim in water column for brief periods </li></ul><ul><li>Muller’s larva </li></ul><ul><li>~12,000 spp. </li></ul>Dugesia
  55. 57. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Nematoda (roundworms) </li></ul><ul><li>small, unsegmented, smooth; bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>mostly benthic </li></ul><ul><li>move via ‘lashing’ movement rather than ‘peristaltic’ motion </li></ul><ul><li>no planktonic larvae </li></ul><ul><li>~12,000 spp. </li></ul>
  56. 58. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Nemertea (ribbon worms) </li></ul><ul><li>large, flat, unsegmented; bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>mostly benthic but enter plankton as larvae (pilidium) or when swarm </li></ul><ul><li>during mass spawning </li></ul><ul><li>> 800 spp. </li></ul>Cerebratulus pilidium larva
  57. 59. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Annelid (segmented worms) </li></ul><ul><li>bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>initial larval stage is trochophore </li></ul><ul><li>~12,000 spp. </li></ul><ul><li>3 classes : Polychaeta (~9,000 spp.) </li></ul><ul><li>- pronounced head </li></ul><ul><li>- each segment with paired appendages called parapodia , plus </li></ul><ul><li> several bristles ( setae ) on each segment </li></ul><ul><li>- marine only </li></ul><ul><li>- several spp. holoplanktonic </li></ul><ul><li>- 3 families produce epitokes = reproductive adults that swarm en masse </li></ul><ul><li>into water column </li></ul>
  58. 60. Zooplankton Phylum Annelida Class Polychaeta holoplanktonic adult polychaete <ul><li>Class Oligochaeta (incl. earthworm) </li></ul><ul><li>few bristles </li></ul><ul><li>usually reduced head </li></ul><ul><li>no parapodia </li></ul><ul><li>fw and marine; usually benthic </li></ul><ul><li>Class Hirudinea (leeches) </li></ul><ul><li>no setae </li></ul><ul><li>reduced head </li></ul><ul><li>have suckers for attachment </li></ul><ul><li>often parasitic </li></ul>
  59. 61. Swarming polychaete epitokes at night, Glover's Reef, Belize
  60. 62. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Mollusca (mollusks) </li></ul><ul><li>most important groups have calcareous shells </li></ul><ul><li>initial larval stage is trochophore </li></ul><ul><li>some classes have holoplanktonic adults, </li></ul><ul><li>but mostly meroplanktonic larvae </li></ul><ul><li>~100,000 spp. </li></ul><ul><li>7 classes in all: </li></ul><ul><li>Class Cephalopoda </li></ul><ul><li>includes squids , octopus , Nautilus </li></ul><ul><li>considered nekton as adults </li></ul><ul><li>marine only </li></ul>larval octopus trochophore larva
  61. 63. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Mollusca </li></ul><ul><li>Class Gastropoda (snails and slugs) </li></ul><ul><li>usually 1 shell (or none) </li></ul><ul><li>mostly benthic </li></ul><ul><li>have radula for feeding </li></ul><ul><li>some holoplanktonic; many with planktonic larvae: </li></ul><ul><li>trochophore, veliger (shelled) </li></ul><ul><li>terrestrial, fw, marine </li></ul>Conus spp. Conus larva Cypraea guttata
  62. 64. Zooplankton – adult holoplanktonic gastropods pteropod (sea butterfly) Glaucus glaucus hydrozoan Porpita porpita
  63. 65. Zooplankton – adult holoplanktonic gastropods heteropod
  64. 66. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Mollusca </li></ul><ul><li>Class Pelecypoda (Bivalvia) </li></ul><ul><li>– clams, scallops, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>2 shells </li></ul><ul><li>benthic </li></ul><ul><li>most filter feeders </li></ul><ul><li>most with planktonic larvae: </li></ul><ul><li>trocophore, veliger (shelled) </li></ul><ul><li>fw and marine </li></ul>8 mm bay scallop on eelgrass bivalve veliger larvae S. Tettelbach
  65. 67. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chaetognatha (‘bristle jaws’) (arrow worms) </li></ul><ul><li>small ( < 2 mm) </li></ul><ul><li>torpedo or arrow shaped </li></ul><ul><li>bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>rapid swimmers (many can avoid most plankton nets) </li></ul><ul><li>all marine – very specific temperature/salinity preferences </li></ul><ul><li>holoplanktonic </li></ul><ul><li>~100 spp. </li></ul>
  66. 68. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Arthropoda (jointed feet) </li></ul><ul><li>includes insects, spiders, crustaceans </li></ul><ul><li>> 1 million spp. </li></ul><ul><li>mostly marine; some fw; some terrestrial </li></ul><ul><li>many holoplankton as well as meroplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Subphylum Chelicerata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Merostomata </li></ul>Horseshoe crabs ( Limulus ) trilobite larva © Joan Krispyn, 2007
  67. 69. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Arthropoda </li></ul><ul><li>Subphylum Crustacea </li></ul><ul><li>mostly marine, also fw, terrestrial </li></ul><ul><li>~50,000 spp. </li></ul><ul><li>Copepods – (> 10,000 spp.) </li></ul><ul><li>most abundant animals in oceans </li></ul><ul><li>mostly holoplankton (some parasitic) </li></ul><ul><li>swim with antennae, thoracic legs, </li></ul><ul><li>or mouthparts </li></ul>Candacia Cyclops
  68. 70. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Arthropoda </li></ul><ul><li>Subphylum Crustacea </li></ul><ul><li>Ostracods </li></ul><ul><li>bivalved shells (mostly opaque) </li></ul><ul><li>small (<2 mm) </li></ul><ul><li>many benthic, </li></ul><ul><li>some holoplanktonic </li></ul>
  69. 71. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Arthropoda </li></ul><ul><li>Subphylum Crustacea </li></ul><ul><li>Cladocerans (4 orders) </li></ul><ul><li>most with calcareous shell </li></ul><ul><li>( usually clear) </li></ul><ul><li>mostly fw </li></ul><ul><li>holoplankton </li></ul>Polyphemus Daphnia pulex
  70. 72. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Arthropoda </li></ul><ul><li>Subphylum Crustacea </li></ul><ul><li>barnacles (Cirripedia) </li></ul><ul><li>meroplankton only </li></ul><ul><li>larvae: nauplius, </li></ul><ul><li>then cypris (cyprid) </li></ul>
  71. 73. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Arthropoda </li></ul><ul><li>Subphylum Crustacea </li></ul><ul><li>Pericaridans </li></ul><ul><li>no carapace </li></ul><ul><li>no free larval stages </li></ul><ul><li>young brooded in ventral pouch </li></ul><ul><li>Mysids (opposum shrimp) </li></ul><ul><li>usually < 15 mm </li></ul><ul><li>prominent thoracic legs, </li></ul><ul><li>large eyes ▼ </li></ul>Cumaceans ▲ small quasi-shrimplike usually <5 mm big heads, little tails eyeless
  72. 74. Zooplankton Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Pericaridans Amphipods (‘beach fleas’) - laterally compressed - mostly benthic, some planktonic ▼ <ul><li>▲ </li></ul><ul><li>Isopods (‘pill bugs’) </li></ul><ul><li>dorso-ventrally compressed </li></ul><ul><li>mostly benthic, some </li></ul><ul><li>planktonic </li></ul>gammarid amphipod
  73. 75. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Arthropoda </li></ul><ul><li>Subphylum Crustacea </li></ul><ul><li>Decapods – shrimps, crabs, lobsters, euphausids (=krill) </li></ul><ul><li>most benthic; some holoplanktonic (e.g. krill) </li></ul><ul><li>complex life cycles with many larval stages (some shrimp with ~16); </li></ul><ul><li>larvae: nauplius, protozoea, zoea </li></ul><ul><li>planktonic postlarvae : </li></ul><ul><li>crabs ( megalops ) </li></ul><ul><li>lobsters ( puerulus </li></ul><ul><li>or phyllosoma ) </li></ul>euphausid Meganyctiphanes
  74. 76. Euphausids (krill) comprise the greatest biomass of any animal in the ocean
  75. 78. Zooplankton Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Decapods Crab zoea 2 Spiny lobster phyllosoma
  76. 79. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Echinodermata </li></ul><ul><li>( sea stars, urchins, cucumbers, etc. ) </li></ul><ul><li>hard calcified endoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>pentaradial symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>marine only </li></ul><ul><li>in plankton usually only as larvae </li></ul>brittle star pluteus coral planula larva sea star bipinnaria, branchiolaria
  77. 80. Phylum Echinodermata swimming sea cucumber, Enypniastes eximia
  78. 81. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Hemichordata (acorn worms) </li></ul><ul><li>wormlike, with 3 body parts, </li></ul><ul><li>with collar being middle section </li></ul><ul><li>pharyngeal gill slits </li></ul><ul><li>unsegmented </li></ul><ul><li>larva: tornaria </li></ul>tornaria larva adult
  79. 82. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Urochordata </li></ul><ul><li>primitive chordates </li></ul><ul><li>notochord and dorsal hollow neural tube </li></ul><ul><li>Class Ascidacea (=Tunicata ) (sea squirts) </li></ul><ul><li>adults benthic </li></ul><ul><li>( tadpole larva ) – has notochord </li></ul><ul><li>and dorsal hollow neural tube </li></ul>tadpole larva Molgula adults
  80. 83. Sea squirts, Molgula manhattensis , on lantern nets used for growing bay scallops S. Tettelbach
  81. 84. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Urochordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Thaliacea ( salps) </li></ul><ul><li>holoplankton </li></ul><ul><li>no larval form </li></ul><ul><li>gelatinous </li></ul><ul><li>may form colonies >2 m long </li></ul>solitary adult
  82. 85. A string of salps in the Red Sea. Phylum Urochordata Class Thaliacea ( salps)
  83. 86. <ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Urochordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Larvacea = (Appendicularia) </li></ul><ul><li>gelatinous house with </li></ul><ul><li>filter feeding animal inside </li></ul>
  84. 87. Zooplankton Phylum Chordata Class Vertebrata fish larvae eel leptocephalus larva
  85. 88. THE PHOTOGRAPHIC WEB GUIDE TO THE LARVAE OF CORAL REEF FISHES: THE 21st CENTURY Benjamin C. Victor Late Stage Coral Reef Fish Larvae Collected at Night
  86. 89. Zooplankton Phylum Chordata Class Vertebrata adult Mola king mackerel larvae