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  1. 1. English Developmental Continuum P-10Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing © 2007Developmental OverviewEach table contains the progression points and standards related to the WritingDimension and the Indicators of Progress for the focus on Ideas Communicated inWriting.Progressing towards Level 1Progression Point 0.5 At 0.5, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 1 demonstrates, for example: • understanding that their writing can communicate ideas, feelings and information • use of letters and some words in the writing of brief texts about topics of personal interest • emergent writing showing concepts about print, including left to right, top to bottom • reading back from their own writing at the time of writing • approximate use of letters for some letter–sound relationships and common words • use of a variety of writing tools, including crayons, pencils and computer software. Indicators of ProgressStudents write about They are aware that people They attempt to write in apersonally significant events write for various purposes, range of contexts includingand topics. Their attempts for example, they can: (1) on a card, in a note or in ancontain letters, and two or identify labels, signs and alphabet book. They discussmore letters may be used to captions in their classroom the purposes for writing inrepresent a word. Their and say what they do; (2) each case and the ways inwriting is often accompanied recognise and write at least which they use pictures or scribbles to part of their name and theconvey their intended names of others in theirmeaning. The students talk class; (3) identify writtenabout what they write and stories and explain that theyshow that they are aware tell a story; and (4) begin tothat: (1) speech can be develop a writingwritten by being recorded in vocabulary of high-symbols; (2) writing is used frequency convey ideas, feelings andinformation; and (3) writinga text usually has abeginning and an Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing, Level 1 to 6 - Page 1 of 31
  2. 2. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental OverviewStandard 1.0At Level 1, students write personal recounts and simple texts about familiar topics toconvey ideas or messages. In their writing, they use conventional letters, groups of letters,and simple punctuation such as full stops and capital letters. Students are aware of thesound system and the relationships between letters and sounds in words when spelling.They form letters correctly, and use a range of writing implements and software. Indicators of ProgressStudents write strings of Students access words using Students write a descriptionwords to recount resources such as books they of two or three simpleexperiences, and simple have read, personal sentences, for example,texts to describe familiar dictionaries, environmental about their family or theirtopics or to convey ideas or print and word lists pets.messages. Students write a simple Students write a caption forStudents form and express instruction using an a picture they have drawn.simple ideas, reasons, or informative form/structureopinions. In their writing that specifies an action. Students write some keythey use high-frequency information aboutwords that are relevant to the Students write a simple list themselves, where they live,topic, for example, they use of two or three items. their phone numberappropriate words for ascary film they have seen ora visit to a farm.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 2 of 31
  3. 3. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 2Progression Point 1.25 At 1.25, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 2 demonstrates, for example: • inclusion of their own experiences when writing for personal purposes and audiences such as in lists, letters, cards, posters • inclusion of one or more generally readable sentences • some correct use of capital letters and full stops • drawings that support the intended meaning of their writing • plausible attempts at spelling unfamiliar words, matching sound–letter relationships and using some simple spelling patterns. Indicators of ProgressStudents continue to write Students’ texts begin to Students begin to attempt toabout familiar events and identify a main idea and write directly for a particularpersonal experiences or subordinate or particular audience. They write forfeelings but use a greater ideas. They may write different purposes: to tell arange of ideas in a multiple sentences on a story, to entertain, to inform,coordinated way, for particular topic. Their texts to reflect, to describe or toexample, they support topic have a beginning, a body observe.with data, and reasons or and an end. Their texts beginopinions with simple detail by defining or describing theor comments. They extend topic. They begin totheir use of topic-relevant sequence ideas, data, reasonsand high-frequency and opinions.vocabulary. They combinetheir personal writing withsupportive drawings.Progression Point 1.5 At 1.5, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 2 demonstrates, for example: • experimentation with a range of short text types; for example, recounts, letters, lists, procedures • sequencing of a small number of ideas in short texts for different purposes and audiences • rereading of their own writing, checking that it makes sense • combination of writing with drawings or computer graphics to support meaningLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 3 of 31
  4. 4. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental Overview • correct spelling of some high-frequency words and plausible attempts at spelling unfamiliar words. Indicators of ProgressStudents write short texts Students describe or explain Students made at least fourabout personal experiences events, selected phenomena ideas in the text andand familiar ideas that or processes, and sequence the ideas logicallydescribe, for example, what instructions or questions. In in sentences.happened and how the writer their writing they begin withfelt or was thinking. They a simple definition of the Students use simple analogylogically and correctly theme or topic, sequence or or similes based on theirsequence the sentences in a prioritise ideas and data and experiences to express theirstory to support the purpose finish with a simple review. meaning.of their text. Students writing begins to include basic data and very Students use more context-Students express their simple reasons. They specific vocabulary, such asopinions and support them respond to words that relevant technical terms.with reasons or evidence. In question relationships suchthis writing they begin to as why, how, where by using Students become aware thatsequence details and the appropriate terms, for writing is for differentcomments for persuasive example, they answer when purposes, for example,effect, although the links or how questions by using writing to instruct or teachbetween ideas may not be terms such as first, then or uses a different form fromclear. They begin to state next or respond to why? writing to tell a story, totheir position in the first questions by using terms explain or to describe whatsentence, and use simple that indicate cause and effect was observed. They becomeconjunctions such as and or such as because or then. aware of a greater range ofbut to link ideas logically. purposes for writing, for Students show an awareness example, a list, a learning of audience through the log or an invitation. specific content and language they use; they begin to take account of whether the reader is familiar with the topic of the writing. They begin to reflect on the specific audience for their writing and describe how they will adjust their text accordingly.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 4 of 31
  5. 5. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 2Progression Point 1.75 At 1.75, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 2 demonstrates, for example: • inclusion of information and ideas in short texts for known audiences and selected purposes • use of strategies to revise writing; for example, reading aloud, use of feedback from others • mostly correct use of capital letters, full stops, and question marks • correct spelling of unfamiliar words, using knowledge of sound–letter patterns. Indicators of Progress Students continue to extend Experiences or events The texts continue to use the contexts in which they described in the text may simple analogy or similes write. They write about one contain two or more based on readers’ or two recent experiences, subordinate ideas. The texts experiences to express their familiar events or imagined at level 1.75 have more meaning. ideas in: (1) short detail and the topics are narratives; (2) short letters more differentiated than The writer continues to and cards; (3) messages; those in level 1.5. build an awareness of the and (4) notes. different purposes for which The texts continue to use one writes, for example, The texts convey more context-specific writing to report an event information to a known vocabulary, such as relevant that was not experienced by audience and have the technical terms. the reader versus an event following characteristics: that the writer wants to The ideas in the text are repeat. There is anThe focus of each text is sequenced logically and the increasing awareness ofrelevant to the format and students begin to use some of the forms used forpurpose of the text, for paragraphing to organise and different purposes, forexample, narrative versus a link the main ideas. example, a recipe or a funnyletter. The students develop story.focus in a greater range of The text may link ideascontexts and for a wider using conjunctions and The writer continues tovariety of topics than those adverbs that indicate time or identify with and writes forin level 1.5 place (for example, using specific audiences, for before or there). example, writing a personal letter to an older sibling The texts show a greater versus a younger sibling. attention to the selection ofLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 5 of 31
  6. 6. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental Overview vocabulary according to the writer’s purpose and intended audience.Standard 2.0At Level 2, students write short sequenced texts that include some related ideas aboutfamiliar topics. They write texts that convey ideas and information to known audiences.They select content, form and vocabulary depending on the purpose for writing, anddescribe the purpose and audience for their own and others’ writing. They use appropriatestructures to achieve some organisation of the subject matter. They link ideas in a variety ofways using pronouns, conjunctions and adverbial phrases indicating time and place. Theyaccurately spell frequently used words, and make use of known spelling patterns to makeplausible attempts at spelling unfamiliar words. They use capital letters, full stops andquestion marks correctly. They reread their own writing and use a range of editing resourcesto revise and clarify meaning. They write upper- and lower-case letters legibly withconsistent size, slope and spacing. Indicators of ProgressStudents write texts that are clearly Vocabulary and word choiceorganised and integrated around a is influenced by the writer’scentral theme. The subordinate beliefs about the likelyideas in the text are linked with the readership.main idea. Across the sequence ofsentences the meanings havecohesion or ‘flow’.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 6 of 31
  7. 7. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 3Progression Point 2.25 At 2.25, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 3 demonstrates, for example: • composition of short, sequenced factual and imaginative texts in print and electronic forms • related ideas, linked in sequence, to convey meaning to known audiences • simple, and some compound, sentences joined by appropriate conjunctions • effective vocabulary to convey meaning, including nouns, verbs and adjectives • correct spelling of words with regular spelling patterns and plausible attempts at some words with irregular spelling patterns. Indicators of ProgressStudents write examples of The texts combine a range of Students show that they arethe texts in both electronic sentence forms and expanded beginning to distinguishand print form. The texts sentences. Fluency and between the following text-vary in length from several cohesion across sentences in level ideas, the purpose ofparagraphs for narratives each paragraph are achieved each type of text and howand imaginative texts (such through the beginning use of the information will beas a familiar event, a recent connective terms. organised; they can writeexperience, a story they narratives in order to tell a Appropriate nouns, adjectiveshave heard or a video they story and to entertain, and verbs have been selectedhave seen) to typically expository texts to teach and by the writer, for example, tothree to five paragraphs for learn, persuasive texts to say how a horse moves, thefactual, descriptive, convince, personal narrative writer uses gallops, trots,instructional and persuasive and autobiographical texts to jumps and canters.texts. The texts contain the record journal entries andfollowing characteristics: The text elaborates its main reviews and summaries to idea or topic in the details it convey a message moreEach paragraph has two or provides. Each paragraph briefly. They can write in athree sentences that are deals with an aspect of the variety of forms withsequenced in a logical order main idea; the writer begins awareness for differentto develop its main idea, for to use paragraphs to separate audiences and purposes. Asexample, the students write ideas. well, they begin to showtwo or three sentences thatrefer to characters in a Narrative texts begin to make humour, descriptivenarrative and describe the explicit reference to the language and visualevents in an appropriate features of character, plot and elements to enhance theirsequence. setting. texts.Progression Point 2.5 At 2.5, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 3 demonstrates,Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 7 of 31
  8. 8. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental Overviewfor example: • composition of short texts of more than one paragraph to describe experiences, tell a story, express a point of view • appropriate ordering of events and ideas in print and electronic texts • compound sentences linking two ideas or events, with correct use of verb tenses • development of character, setting and plot in short narrative texts • correct use of full stops and question marks, and experimentation with other punctuation; for example, commas, quotation. marks Indicators of ProgressStudents write a range of (3) A text may consist of up Opinions, explanations andtext types, including to three paragraphs and descriptions are supportednarratives, imaginative and describes a familiar event or by ideas, data and reasonsinformative texts, in both a sequence of actions. It that are usually objective.print and electronic forms, begins with one main idea The texts may use analogy,for various purposes. They followed by two or three similes or metaphors to helpbegin to take account of the related ideas that extend or present their message.audience for the text and illustrate the main idea, for example, the description of a The texts show somepurposes for which they are person, a house or a game. awareness of audience needswriting, through the content Ideas are linked in time and are written for a varietythey include and their choice relationships using terms of different audiences andof language. Examples of such as first, then or next. purposes.the types of text include thefollowing: (4) A text may consist of up The texts are cohesive.(1) A text may consist of to five paragraphs and The texts can use a varietyparagraphs that describe a explains a selected of structures to convey theirrecent experience such as a phenomenon, occurrence, or different meanings. Somestory, imaginative text, a process. It has a main idea texts may, for example, linkshort letter, or a diary entry followed by related ideas sequentially, some linkwith the events in an objective ideas, data and/or them in cause and effect andappropriate sequence and reasons that support it. The others make comparisonsthat makes explicit reference ideas answer how and/or between characters and to the why questions, and are The texts use transitionsetting and includes the linked using terms for cause words (for example, when,student’s purpose for writing and effect such as if, then or while, since, before, after)it. because. and paragraphs to construct(2) A text may consist of up The texts typically have the logical three paragraphs and following characteristics: The texts attempt to useexpresses a point of view The texts present one main precise, topic-relatedabout a familiar topic, idea or topic that is vocabulary that may includeintended to persuade or elaborated with details to adjectives, adverbs, orconvey an opinion. It begins enhance or support the main synonyms to convey theirby stating the position of the idea. The details or message.writer, includes supporting subordinate ideas areLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 8 of 31
  9. 9. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental Overviewreasons or opinions and ends organised with reasonablewith a summary or review. clarity and logic.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 9 of 31
  10. 10. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 3Progression Point 2.75 At 2.75, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 3 demonstrates, for example: • composition of texts for different purposes; for example, to narrate, inform, describe, present a point of view or explain • composition of texts of three or four logically ordered paragraphs • composition of texts that take account of the needs and interests of familiar and some unfamiliar audiences • combinations of written and visual elements in print and electronic texts • correct spelling of two-syllable words with regular spelling patterns, and plausible attempts at spelling two-syllable words with irregular spelling patterns. Indicators of ProgressA narrative text may be an The typical A text may use analogy,imaginary letter or diary characteristics of the similes or metaphors to helpentries based on a story they texts are those specified present its message.have heard or a video they for level 2.5 but are Awareness of audience needshave seen. The events are more established and is recognised, for example,sequenced appropriately and stable in the students’ whether readers are likely tothe text refers explicitly to writing at level 2.75. have experienced the eventcharacters and to the setting. or know as much about theThe evolving plot, the The main idea and supporting ideas are topic as the writer. Studentscharacters and the setting are do this through the contentclearly discernible. clearly presented and organised in a logical they include and choices ofAn informative text could way in the text. language they make.present or explain a point of Texts can be modified to takeview about a familiar topic, for They convey different types of meanings for account of differentexample, why you need to audiences and purposes.wear warm clothes in winter or different purposes, forwhy you should take care of example, linking ideas Texts are cohesive, forpets. The text identifies two or sequentially to describe example, a number ofthree main ideas and the an order of actions or features such as and,subordinate ideas that relate to events or linking them in however, because, andeach of them. It is punctuated cause and effect to pronouns are used to make itcorrectly and includes the explain something. coherent.purpose for writing it. Ideas are organised into Texts use transition wordsA text may begin to use sections such as and paragraphs to constructimagery to communicate an paragraphs, verses or logical order.idea, for example, how bullet points, where each Texts attempt to use precise,choosing to wear particular section deals with a set topic-related vocabulary thatsocks can affect how others of related ideas. may include adjectives,respond to you. The students Opinions, explanations adverbs, or synonyms toLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 10 of 31
  11. 11. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental Overviewwrite poems, songs or jokes and descriptions are convey their message.about a specific event. supported by one or two pieces of evidence.Standard 3.0At Level 3, students write texts containing several logically ordered paragraphs thatexpress opinions and include ideas and information about familiar topics. They writenarratives which include characters, setting and plot. They order information andsequence events using some detail or illustrative evidence, and they express a point ofview providing some information and supporting detail. They combine verbal and visualelements in the texts they produce. They meet the needs of audiences by includingappropriate background information.They write a variety of simple and compound sentences and use verb tenses correctly.They use punctuation to support meaning, including exclamation marks and quotationmarks, and accurately use full stops, commas and question marks. They use vocabularyappropriate to context and spell most one- and two-syllable words with regular spellingpatterns, and frequently used words which have less regular spelling patterns. They usesound and visual patterns when attempting to spell unfamiliar words. Indicators of ProgressStudents’ texts include Students’ texts focus on the Students’ texts begin to usenarratives set in less specified topic and provide figurative language.familiar contexts, for detail and examples. Students’ texts begin to use anexample, the texts Students’ texts draw on and explicit introduction.begin to show some collate information from aawareness of being set Students write in a variety of range of sources and styles or text types for differentin other cultures or in combine parts of it.other historical periods, audiences and purposes.which include Students’ texts organise the Students write about less familiarcharacters, setting and ideas in a logical sequence topics for a variety of audiencesplot. in terms of time, topic and and purposes; they can tell or details, the issue or problem recount a topic in a specificStudents’ texts include and its resolution.expressions of opinions context, describe a series ofabout less familiar Students’ texts begin to events or phenomena using atopics and include show an awareness of the descriptive style, explain ornovel information and need to reference or cite direct using an expository stylesupporting detail. sources when writing and persuade, and argue a point reports or technical of view or request using aStudents’ texts show documents. persuasive style.some awareness of themeans for meeting the Students’ texts begin to use Students write in a range ofneeds of audiences by vocabulary appropriate to forms such as fiction, verseincluding appropriate the context and purpose and (poetry, song), and transactionalbackground select words strategically to or factual text convey the precise (directions/instructions, letters,Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 11 of 31
  12. 12. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental Overviewinformation. intention. reports and news articles).Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 12 of 31
  13. 13. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 4Progression Point 3.25 At 3.25, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 4 demonstrates, for example: • inclusion of familiar ideas and information for different purposes and audiences in print and electronic texts • use of strategies for planning, drafting, proofreading, editing and revising • appropriate vocabulary, punctuation and tense according to context, purpose and audience • typical features and structures of different texts such as narratives and reports • correct spelling of frequently occurring two- and three-syllable words and use of strategies to spell unknown words. Indicators of ProgressStudents’ texts show greater Students’ texts draw on Students’ texts use figurativeuse of the means for taking and collate information language and begin to useaccount of the needs of from a range of sources similes to express ideas inaudiences by including and summarise or their writing.appropriate background synthesise information.information. Students’ texts include an Students’ texts use introduction and a conclusionStudents’ texts focus on the vocabulary appropriate to in their writing.specified topic and provide the context and purpose,substantial detail and for example, writing about Students’ texts indicateexamples. an adventure or a fantasy clearly their intended purpose set in space and selecting through their use of an words strategically to introduction, conclusion and convey the precise repeated reference. intention.Progression Point 3.5 At 3.5, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 4 demonstrates, for example: • production of texts for a range of different audiences and purposes in print and electronic forms • use of strategies for planning; for example, using models of others’ writing or mind mapping • deletion of unnecessary information or addition of new information when editing and revising writing • inclusion of appropriate visual images and information in print and electronic texts.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 13 of 31
  14. 14. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental Overview Indicators of ProgressStudents write about less 2. Texts are written for 7. Texts contain languagefamiliar topics from different purposes in relevant to the specificperspectives other than their particular content areas, topic and content area,own. for example, narratives to for example, when retell, to contextualise a writing about ideas inStudents continue to write set of ideas, or to history, science orfor the range of purposes. entertain; expository technology, for example, texts to inform others, to specific vocabulary toStudents write on prescribed explain ideas or state convey precisely thetopics, expanding or procedures; and intended meaning for thenarrowing their topics as persuasive texts to audience and purpose isappropriate. convince, present a point used. of view or to request. 8. Texts experiment withStudents evaluate their first 3. Texts elaborate the main using figurativedrafts in terms of the extent ideas for the topic, for language, imagery andof elaboration of the topic example, by describing metaphor and languageand key ideas, their or by providing reasons patterns such asorganisation of the ideas, and selecting relevant alliteration and rhymingtheir choice of vocabulary information from patterns, and depend on(including subject-specific multiple sources to do the text form and showterms and concepts) and this. some rhythm and flow ofvariations in sentence 4. Texts show a clear language.structure. awareness of the 9. Texts show fluency in students’ purpose for the sentences that areStudents use these writing and use language written; the sentenceevaluations to revise and structures and features length and structure areproofread their drafts in appropriate to that varied according to theterms of the use of purpose, the audience sentence ideas theyconventions. and the type of text. intend to convey.Students write texts that 5. Texts organise the overall 10. Texts identify and arehave the following focus or orientation of written for a specificcharacteristics in terms of the text with a clear audience, for example, athe ideas they communicate. introduction and student’s friends, their conclusion. teacher, themselves and1. Texts are written about 6. Texts are written in a they select the form, topics that are either self- logical sequence, for details, organisation, and selected or assigned and example, they: (1) vocabulary to suit the have relevant ideas and arrange the main ideas in readership. content. paragraphs in a logical 11. Texts are written in a order, such as sequence variety of forms and ideas in a relevant time genres including: essays, order, use pronouns and research reports, news links between sentences articles, pamphlets, (such as conjunctions)Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 14 of 31
  15. 15. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental Overview appropriately; and (2) graphs, and tables. specify a problem and then its solution, compare and contrast, analyse, interpret and conclude.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 15 of 31
  16. 16. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 4Progression Point 3.75 At 3.75, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 4 demonstrates, for example: • use of structures and features appropriate to purpose and audience of print and electronic texts • appropriate use of topic sentences and organisation of main and subordinate ideas • selection of vocabulary, text structures and visual features to effectively communicate ideas and information • maintenance of plot, characterisation and setting throughout extended narrative texts • use of knowledge about spelling patterns, including morphemic knowledge, visual and phonic patterns. Indicators of ProgressStudents continue to Texts include longer Texts vary the style ofimprove their ability to write imaginative and narrative sentence forms andin the styles or text types texts that: (1) maintain their organisation tospecified in earlier levels. plot and setting throughout; communicate theirThey write about less and (2) through their selective intended meaning clearlyfamiliar topics from use of language, elicit the and show evidence ofperspectives other than their intended mood and using the conventionsown. They continue to write characterisation. strategically andfor the range of purposes Texts include informative selectively. For example,mentioned in levels 3–3.75. writing that: (1) shows clear they use compoundAs well, they write on and appropriate prioritising of sentences, subordinate andprescribed topics, expanding main and subordinate ideas; embedded clauses, direct-or narrowing their topics as and (2) begins to use topic voice versus indirect-voiceappropriate. They evaluate sentences to summarise statements, questionstheir first drafts in terms of paragraphs. versus tag questions (thatthe extent of elaboration of is, the sentence is morethe topic and key ideas, their Texts have a style that has like a statement than aorganisation of the ideas, been selected to match their question. For example,their choice of vocabulary purpose, for example, a short “It’s beautiful weather,(including subject-specific article, a review, a isn’t it?”), exclamationsterms and concepts) and the questionnaire, a summary, a and commands.variation in sentence set of notes, an original story, a poem or a play. Texts use paragraphingstructure. Given this techniques to communicateevaluation, they revise Texts express and clarify the and sequence their mainaccordingly and proofread writer’s thoughts, feelings and ideas such as the topictheir drafts for errors in the values. sentence and indexing.use of conventions. Texts show multipleLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 16 of 31
  17. 17. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental OverviewIn addition to the interpretations of a topic, Texts relate ideas incharacteristics described in where appropriate. writing in the followinglevels 3–3.5, students write Texts begin to use imagery ways: they define, list,texts that have the following such as similes and metaphors describe, discuss, explain,characteristics in terms of to convey meaning. apply, analyse, distinguish,the ideas they communicate. compare, contrast, predict and select.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 17 of 31
  18. 18. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental OverviewStandard 4.0At Level 4, students produce, in print and electronic forms, a variety of texts for differentpurposes using structures and features of language appropriate to the purpose, audienceand context of the writing. They begin to use simple figurative language and visualimages. They use a range of vocabulary, a variety of sentence structures, and usepunctuation accurately, including apostrophes. They identify and use different parts ofspeech, including nouns, pronouns, adverbs, comparative adverbs and adjectives, and useappropriate prepositions and conjunctions. They use a range of approaches to spelling,applying morphemic knowledge and an understanding of visual and phonic patterns. Theyemploy a variety of strategies for writing, including note-making, using models, planning,editing and proofreading. Indicators of ProgressIn addition to the types of The texts address a range of The texts use a variety ofideas described in levels 3–4, purposes across topic areas, forms and types such asstudents write texts that: (1) for example, to explain, pamphlets, poems,explain a selected inform or to question using memos, graphs, orphenomenon, occurrence or an expository text type, to demographic tables.process; or (2) convey an recount, apply or create The texts use figurativeopinion clearly and logically. knowledge/ideas/information language and soundThe texts have the following using narrative and to debate patterns in an expandedcharacteristics in terms of the or argue using a persuasive way.ideas they communicate. text type. Their written explanationsThe texts have a clear and The texts discriminate frequently show the use ofconsistent focus on the main between essential, supporting relevant and technicalideas and develop a logical and irrelevant information. vocabulary, provideposition or argument. The The texts develop and use relevant information andwriting indicates the use of language relevant to the topic are objective and focusedanalysis, with the ideas to convey the intended on the topic. They linkorganised in a logical way. meaning in an appropriate ideas, data and reasonsThe texts provide subordinate way for the audience. clearly and logically,ideas that elaborate to enhance The texts show an awareness using connectives such asor support the main ideas, of the audience through the first, then, or next forusing, for example, factual strategic selection of content, time-sequenced ideas, andinformation or examples. structure and language because, if, or you get...The texts synthesise ideas choices. for cause and effect.effectively both across The texts may use analogy, Students’ persuasive textssentences in a paragraph and simile, or metaphors to support their position orbetween paragraphs, and cite express the ideas more easily. the argument with someinformation where necessary. objective opinions andLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 18 of 31
  19. 19. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental OverviewThey organise the ideas into logical detail. Theirparagraphs and usually make opinions are organised in alogical links within and logical way. They usebetween paragraphs to achieve terms such as however ora level of coherence. on the other hand to compare and contrast ideas.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 19 of 31
  20. 20. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 5Progression Point 4.25 At 4.25, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 5 demonstrates, for example: • composition of print and electronic texts for a range of purposes, including speculative, imaginative, explanatory and persuasive • development of topics in coherent ways according to the purpose, and the needs and experience of the intended audience • use of a variety of sentence structures, including combinations of simple and compound sentences for particular effects • awareness of grammatical conventions; for example, tense and subject–verb agreement, appropriate punctuation • use of a range of planning strategies. Indicators of ProgressIn addition to the types of Text types include (3) Texts synthesise ideasideas described in level 4, evaluative and critical texts within a paragraph andstudents write a range of text in which they review novels between paragraphs usingtypes in both print and and visual presentations logical links.electronic form, as follows: such as films (4) Texts relate ideas inText types include extended Text types may be writing in the followingnarratives, imaginative interpretive essays in which ways in various contentscripts and narrative scripts students present their literary areas, for example, they canthat have more than two analyses and reviews in a order, define, recognise,sub-plots. range of topic areas. label, recall, list, state, describe, recognise, discuss,Text types include Text types include letter report, explain, restate,speculative texts in which writing texts in which review, identify, select,they offer possibilities and students communicate in a indicate, translate, apply,options based both on their range of ‘letter-type’ choose, schedule, illustrate,opinions and on objective contexts, for example, letters interpret, analyse, compare,data (for example, How expressing a point of view to contrast, question, criticise,teenagers could benefit from friends and to officials, or organise, create, propose,more pocket money). business letters requesting judge, argue, and predict. information.Text types include (5) Texts synthesise a rangeexpository, informative and The texts at this phase show of styles, text types and sub-factual texts that are more of the characteristics plots in the one text, forintended to explain and to noted in level 4 than those at example, a particular textdescribe phenomena in the earlier phases. As well, the may include bothLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 20 of 31
  21. 21. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental Overviewrange of content areas. specific types of texts explanatory and persuasive introduced in this phase genres, use both first andText types may be reports show the following third person voice and boththat describe reviews, short characteristics in terms of literal and imagery-research papers, the ideas they communicate. metaphoric reference.investigations and projects,for example, a report (1) Texts identify the main (6) Texts discriminateentitled, ‘The future of the ideas and develop a logical between relevant andhardwood timber industry in position or argument. irrelevant information.Australia’. (2)Texts provide details that (7) Texts develop and useText types can be elaborate to enhance or language relevant to theoperational texts that support the main ideas. topic to convey the intendeddescribe procedures. meaning in an appropriate way for the audience.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 21 of 31
  22. 22. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 5Progression Point 4.5 At 4.5, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 5 demonstrates, for example: • composition of print and electronic texts in a wide range of forms, including narratives, reports, explanations, procedures and points of view • composition of persuasive texts about contemporary issues, including justification of personal points of view with supporting arguments • experimentation with different techniques to influence audiences and achieve the intended purpose of their writing • correct spelling, except of unfamiliar words with unusual spelling patterns • use of headings and subheadings in the organisation of information in texts • use of editing and proofreading skills for clarity and cohesion of ideas. Indicators of ProgressStudents write for a range of The texts at this phase Texts organise the textpurposes (narrative, expository show more of the ideas in a logicaland persuasive) across content characteristics noted in sequence with anareas and in a variety of forms levels 4–4.25 than those at introduction, a body and aand genres (for example, earlier phases. As well, the conclusion.descriptions, reports, procedures, specific types of texts Texts develop theirletters, and reflective and introduced in this phase themes in coherent waysevaluative articles). In addition to show the following around their intendedthe types of ideas described in characteristics in terms of purpose and have anlevels 4–4.25, students write the ideas they explicit, clearly statedusing a range of text types in communicate. viewpoint.both print and electronic form, as Texts are written for afollows: Texts take account of range of purposes reader knowledge and(1) Students write persuasive including speculating, background, identify andtexts about contemporary issues explaining, persuading and are written for specificthat state and justify a personal reflecting. audiences and can presentviewpoint about topics that are Texts display a particular the same information invery familiar to teenagers and focus for a specific different forms dependingprovide one or more arguments. audience and a purpose for on the purpose and(2) Students write explanations a specified topic, and have audience.or reports that target themes and topic-relevant information Texts use language that isissues that are less familiar to the selected and collated from relevant to the topic,writers. a range of sources. audience, and purpose,(3) Students write hypothetical Texts elaborate or support including specialisedpieces, for example, whether main ideas with a range of vocabulary relevant to theLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 22 of 31
  23. 23. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental Overviewhaving teenagers needing to get subordinate ideas and topic and possiblebicycle licences would reduce details such as facts, figurative language andaccidents. dialogue, logical argument sound patterns. and quotations and these are embedded in the text.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 23 of 31
  24. 24. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 5Progression Point 4.75 At 4.75, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 5 demonstrates, for example: • control of writing texts in various forms, including narratives, reports, explanations, procedures and persuasive texts • composition of imaginative and informative texts presenting challenging ideas and issues • appropriate use of figurative language to achieve particular effects • strategic use of headings, subheadings, graphics, photographs and art work to support the meaning of the text • use of a variety of software packages to plan, organise, revise and present electronic texts. Indicators of ProgressDuring this phase, students Students develop their theme Students develop theirconsolidate and integrate the in coherent ways around their themes in coherent waysexpression of the types of intended purpose and have an around their intendedideas developed in levels 4– explicit, clearly stated purpose, have an4.5. The ideas that are viewpoint. The subordinate explicit, clearly stateddeveloped in students’ writing ideas and details such as facts, viewpoint and lead to aat this time are as follows. dialogue, logical argument clear resolution, asStudents describe their purpose and quotations are organised appropriate for formalfor writing, the questions they in a logical sequence around contexts.intend to answer in the writing, the main theme. For Students relate ideas inand link these purposes with appropriate types of text, the writing in the followingone or more types of texts, for theme or issue is introduced in ways in various contentexample, they link ideas, an introduction, differentiated areas, for example, theyexplaining with expository and elaborated through the can order, define,text, speculating and reflecting range of subordinate ideas in recognise, label, recall,with several possible text the body, and drawn together list, state, relate,types, such as descriptive text in a conclusion. The students describe, recognise,and figurative text, stating an describe how they organise discuss, report, explain,opinion with persuasive text. the ideas in each section. restate, express, review,Students address, for a Students use language that is identify, select, indicate,specified topic, particular relevant to the topic, audience, translate, apply, choose,audience or readership needs. and purpose, including schedule, illustrate,The students can describe the specialised vocabulary interpret, analyse,decisions they make to do this relevant to the topic and discriminate, distinguish,and how these decisions possible figurative language categorise, examine,influence their writing, for and words that imitate the compare, contrast,example, how they identify sounds they represent, for question, criticise,and take account of reader example, buzz is the sound an organise, construct,knowledge and background. insect makes when flying. create, propose, write,Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 24 of 31
  25. 25. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental Overview judge, argue, predict, assess, choose, select, support, and evaluate.Standard 5.0At Level 5, students produce, in print and electronic forms, texts for a variety of purposes,including speculating, hypothesising, persuading and reflecting. They write extendednarratives or scripts with attention to characterisation, consistency of viewpoint anddevelopment of a resolution. They write arguments that state and justify a personalviewpoint; reports incorporating challenging themes and issues; personal reflections on, orevaluations of, texts presenting challenging themes and issues. Students improve theaccuracy and readability of their writing, developing confidence in the identification anduse of grammatical conventions and features of language and in their use of figurativelanguage. They use a range of punctuation accurately to support meaning, including theuse of ellipses, dashes, colons and semi-colons. They control tenses, and subject-verb andnoun-pronoun agreement. They accurately identify and use different parts of speech. Theyedit their writing for clarity, coherence and consistency of style, and proofread and correctspelling, punctuation and grammatical errors. Indicators of ProgressStudents write extended Students take account of the Students present the writer’snarratives or scripts with needs of readers through the position or point of view onattention to characterisation, appropriate use of style and an issue clearly andconsistency of viewpoint language selections, consistently. The main ideasand development of a including analogy, similes or or contentions are clearlyresolution. metaphors. identified and are supported convincingly throughStudents write arguments Students select appropriate elaboration, evidence andthat state and justify a vocabulary with increasing links to other ideas.personal viewpoint or control.convey an opinion, clearly Students use languageand logically. Students explain by effectively and selectively, including relevant details showing control and intent,Students write reports such as data, through according to their purpose:incorporating challenging reasons linked in logical (1) explanations use a rangethemes and issues. ways and by expressing of explanatory language relationships precisely. An features, for example,Students write personal explanatory text may include consistent use of verbs toreflections on, or evaluations more than one explanation, denote specific actions,of, texts presenting with the main explanation comparisons and thechallenging themes and linked clearly with a grammatical forms such asissues. subordinate one. the passive voice; and (2) arguments use variousStudents write explanations persuasive language featuresLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 25 of 31
  26. 26. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental Overviewfor selected phenomena, such as emotive words,occurrences, or processes. rhetorical questions, imperatives, repetition, the passive voice, pronouns denoting inclusion, data and researched evidence.Progressing towards Level 6Progression Point 5.25 At 5.25, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 6 demonstrates, for example: • composition of sustained narratives with some control of main plot and sub-plots and consistent character development • use of writing to explore complex issues and points of view • use of a variety of language techniques to present an argument and influence audiences to share a point of view • effective use of vocabulary and sentence structures appropriate to the intended purpose of the text • effective use of strategies for redrafting, editing for audience appropriateness, prioritising and sequencing ideas. Indicators of ProgressStudents write sustained Students write texts that Students write texts thatnarratives that organise explore a complex current communicate their thoughts,ideas in terms of a main issue from different feelings and opinions. Inplot and sub-plots, that use perspectives or that develop a these texts, students displaylanguage (vocabulary, particular point of view. The the outcomes of thinkingsentence forms, cohesion), writing shows evidence of creatively and in terms ofcharacter development and planning to support a clear open-ended possibilities.a consistency of viewpoint, position and accounts for Their writing shows clearlyand that show development alternative opinions and how their creative thinkingof a resolution appropriate different perspectives. derives from an objective,to this text type. Students use language logical base. Examples of techniques to argue and this writing include poetry, persuade for a particular letters, imaginative text, and point of view. Their writing text that expresses emotions shows an objective and such as humour, anxiety, logical perspective. frustration, anger or desperation.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 26 of 31
  27. 27. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental OverviewProgression Point 5.5 At 5.5, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 6 demonstrates, for example: • expression of thoughts, feelings, opinions and ideas in print and electronic forms • use of writing to explore complex issues and to argue for a particular point of view • integration of complex ideas and multiple perspectives in writing • the written conventions, structures and features appropriate for a range of different text types • proofreading and redrafting for accuracy, clarity, coherence and consistency of style. Indicators of ProgressThe ideas students write at Texts explore a complex Texts communicate thethis phase build on those current issue from different writer’s creative speculation.displayed in levels 5–5.25. perspectives or argue for a These texts identifyTheir written texts at this particular point of view. possibilities and multiplephase show partial use of The writing shows some perspectives and evaluatesome of the features evidence of organising ideas them, for example, in poetry,described below. The types in a way that supports plays such as comedies orof texts they write and the clearly the position, dramas, figurative text,ideas in these texts include alternative opinions on the letters, imaginative text andthe following: issue, being aware of ways text that expresses emotions to correct the use of such as guilt or delight. TheTexts have sustained stereotypes in writing, using texts show some awareness ofnarratives that show a language effectively to lead the written conventions ofgreater awareness of this and to persuade (for each text type and the use oftext type, higher levels of example, they use emotive relevant linguistic techniques.characterisation, a words, rhetorical questions, Texts contain explanationsconsistent viewpoint, the repetition of key ideas, the that use precise and oftendevelopment of a passive voice, and pronouns technical vocabulary, areresolution, moderate that suggest inclusion), objective and focused on thecohesion by using linking ideas either in a time topic, use a range ofappropriate terms to link sequence using conjunctions explanatory languageideas and an awareness of such as first or second or by features, often effectively,the need for chronology. comparing and contrasting such as appropriate use of ideas using terms such as verbs, verb tense and sentence however or on the other forms such as the passive hand, supporting their voice, support the position with objective explanations with reasons and opinions, logical detail data that are mostly objective and/or comment and and use language connectives observations, and effectively to link ideas, forLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 27 of 31
  28. 28. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental Overview prioritising and organising example, since, because. their opinions, data and reasons in a logical way, for Students at this phase put into example, they state their effect some of the above position, provide evidence characteristics in the various and restate their position. types of texts. The use of the characteristics in some texts may be immature or inappropriate. They may also not be used in a coordinated way.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 28 of 31
  29. 29. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 6Progression Point 5.75 At 5.75, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 6 demonstrates, for example: • composition of expressive and sustained narratives with attention to chronology, coherence of viewpoint, consistency of plot and character development, and development of effective resolution • use of writing to explore, speculate and reflect on complex themes and issues • strong arguments for particular points of view, using effective language to persuade readers • evaluation of the extent to which they have been effective in meeting the demands of purpose, audience and context in their writing • use of a range of strategies for gathering information, planning, structuring, composing, proofreading, revising and editing. Indicators of ProgressTexts may be sustained Texts may explore a Texts may communicate thenarratives that include: (1) complex current issue from writer’s creative speculationtwo or more sub-plots that different perspectives or and show greater awarenessare synthesised within a argue for a particular point of the written conventions ofconsistent viewpoint; (2) of view. The writing shows each text type and of the usehigher levels of greater evidence of the of relevant linguisticcharacterisation that evolve features specified in level techniques other than thoseboth within each sub-plot 5.5: (1) organising ideas in a adopted in level 5.5.and across them; (3) way that supports thedevelopment of a position; (2) offering Texts may give explanationsresolution; (3) a higher alternative opinions on the that show a greater use oflevel of cohesion by using issue; (3) being aware of the features in level 5.5 thanappropriate terms to link ways to correct the use of is typical of texts at thatideas; and (5) an awareness stereotypes in writing; (4) phase.of the need for chronology using language effectivelyand for cultural reference. to lead and to persuade; (5) linking ideas either in a time sequence or by comparing and contrasting ideas; (6) supporting their position with usually objective opinions, logical detail and/or comment and observations; and (7) prioritising and organisingLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 29 of 31
  30. 30. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental Overview their opinions, data and reasons in a logical way. Standard 6.0 At Level 6, students write sustained and cohesive narratives that experiment with different techniques and show attention to chronology, characterisation, consistent point of view and development of a resolution. They write persuasive texts dealing with complex ideas and issues and control the linguistic structures and features that support the presentation of different perspectives on complex themes and issues. They select subject matter and begin to use a range of language techniques to try to position readers to accept particular views of people, characters, events, ideas and information. They compose a range of other texts, such as feature articles, webpages and workplace texts. They plan and deliver presentations, sequencing and organising complex ideas. They write accurately punctuated, grammatically sound and complex sentences with embedded clauses and phrases. They are able to maximise the effects of rhythm and tone, and write with developing fluency. They proofread and edit their own writing for accuracy, consistency and clarity. Indicators of Progress Each of these types of Texts use a range of Texts develop the topic or theme in a written texts shows the resources, when systematic way; they: (1) provide an following features in appropriate, to effective introduction that engages the their communication of support the audience in the topic and that ideas in writing. development of the indicates the direction or orientation topic. of the text; (2) provide a body thatTexts identify clearly develops the topic or plot in aboth: (1) the key question Texts develop for systematic way with the main ideasthey target and their factual and persuasive sequenced effectively and supportingintended purpose; and (2) texts a thorough, details or sub-plots clearly located;the main ideas they are balanced, in-depth and (3) provide a conclusion thatusing. explanation or reviews and draws together the topic exploration of the and reaches a resolution ifTexts use content such as topic and the focus appropriate.supporting details and question, analyse thisexamples that are and develop aspects Texts express ideas in sentences thatrelevant to the topic or of the explanation or enhance their clarity and meaning by:theme, the readership or arguments in an (1) using a range of structures; (2)audience and the objective and varying their beginnings (wordsintended purpose of the reasonable way. phrases or clauses, prepositions,text. adverbs, participles) and lengths. Ideas are linked within and across sentences by coordinating and subordinating conjunctions, repetition and key phrases.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 30 of 31
  31. 31. Writing – Ideas Communicated in Writing- Developmental OverviewLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 31 of 31