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2010 national after school alliance  lessons from the field
 

2010 national after school alliance lessons from the field

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  • Welcome. We’re excited to be here today. Before we get started, we’re going to learn a little about each other – Girls in the Game style (that means we’re going to get moving)! Introduce self and the others (quickly).
  • Monique leads game. Decide how group will introduce self (i.e. Whip Around, butcher paper, etc.)
  • Monique review objectives
  • Monique reviews objectives
  • Monique explains the parking lot. Questions that are not directly related to the topic being discussed are IMPORTANT but we have limited time – so they will be placed in the parking lot to be addressed at a later time. Amy Introduce Dr. Amy Bohnert – In order to provide a framework for the importance and timely focus of childhood health, I’d like to introduce Dr. Bohnert from Loyola University Chicago
  • Most of you are aware that childhood obesity is a major problem– but just how bad is it?
  • Here you can see that obesity which is based on being in the 95 th percentile for height/weight has increased for every age group over time…based on this nationally representative sample, you can see that approximately 17%of youth ages 6-19 (represented by the magenta and cream colored lines) are obese.. Many, many more are overweight
  • Again– here is data from another large population based study. The lines with circles indicate youth who are overweight which is 30% or 1/3 of youth ages 6-19 years of age. The lines with the triangles represent the children who are obese at 95 th percentile or higher. Here you can see that over a period of 8 years, rates of obesity and overweight increased steadily among our children and adolescents
  • Although rates of obesity are high, data from the NHANES study suggests that the prevalence rate of obesity among boys, aged 12-19 years, was highest among Mexican-American boys (22.1%) and than among non-Hispanic white boys (17.3%) and black boys (18.5%).
  • Again– you can see that racial and ethnic disparities in obesity are even more pronounced among girls -Non-Hispanic black girls had the highest prevalence of obesity (27.7%) compared to that of non-Hispanic white (14.5%) and Mexican American 19.9%) girls. These findings suggest that girls, particularly ethnic minority girls are at greatest risk for obesity.
  • As you can see.. News about obesity is everywhere
  • These problems were once only found among obese adults. The worse part is that these problems only persistent and worsen during adulthood. Estimated there is a 89% increase in spending between 1998-2006 on treatment for obesity-related diseases. Clearly.. There is a lot at stake!
  • After-school programs really offer children a buffer from engaging in unhealthy behaviors… Aside from just giving children the benefit of exercising more, one study found they are also eating and snacking less while they’re playing and learning at their after-school programs. This was true even when these youth were not directly engaged in the program activities.16 When kids aren’t involved in something after-school, not only are they eating more, but they are engaging in more sedentary behaviors like watching tv or going on the computer… And longitudinally, we are seeing that over time kids who take part in after-school programs are less likely to be obese down the road… Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health suggest that no or minimal involvement in after-school activities had significant effects on the probability of being overweight or obese among children ages 10-17 even after adjusting for several key socioeconomic factors.
  • Obesity is a complex, multi-faceted phenomenon. After-school time may be the most problematic in terms of obesity, but also provides the most potential to have the greatest positive impact on obesity among our children and adolescents After-school activities give kids the chance to exercise more without cutting into class time, which has been a major concern with providing madatory PE. Given the magnitude and complex nature of the obesity crisis, there is need for empirically supported high quality after-school programming that can address the physical, social and emotional needs of children and girls in particular– especially those from low-income, under-resourced urban communities.. Here to tell you about an exemplary program that is meeting this need is Amy Skeen, Executive director of Girls in the Game..
  • There are so many amazing programs here – and what makes these groups so amazing are the dedicated adults who are leading them. Who knows the #1 reason why kids join sports programs? (FUN). This is true and one of the most critical factors that determines whether they’ll keep coming. As adults – we know sports programs, especially those that use youth development, are so much more than fun and games. Today, we want to tell you a little about our program, why it works, how it works and hope some of our suggestions may work for you. Girls in the Game does not solely teach girls how to play sports, we use sports to teach girls. We focus on 4 pillars: Sports. Health. Leadership. Life
  • We know girls are strong and smart and when given the chance they can develop their full potential and make the world a better place. Kids learn by doing (so do we) – so in our programs we have an opportunity to NOT JUST TELL, BUT SHOW THEM and let them experience what it feels like to feel capable, confident and healthy. If we are standing on the sidelines with our whistles or talking to other adults, we will miss those teachable moments found through play. We have the best jobs – we have the opportunity to make a difference everyday and help the kids we work with do the same. These are the year round programs we lead for over 3,000 girls in Chicago every year.
  • We often get asked why girls. It’s a good question and I have a good answer. One size does not fit all – although there are so many co-ed programs I know who are doing outstanding work – and lead numerous successful mixed gender programs (art, music, tutoring, etc.) the reality is that addressing the needs of the whole girl or boy (sports, health, nutrition, body image, self -esteem and leadership) is very different -- and I mean more than recess, free play or even a league – what I am talking about is using our programs to impact youth development. Differences PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: exposure, comfort, physical abilities, process vs. outcome HEALTH: hygiene, body-image, etc. LEADERSHIP: speaking up, using your voice, dealing with aggression, feelings, etc.
  • The three components are always integrated – Can’t play, but eat poorly Can’t eat well, but not move Underlying issues of self-esteem, worth and belonging have got to be addresses Ongoing and long-term Pay it forward Families Evaluation
  • Today we are going to focus on one of our core programs and the research that shows it works: Girls in the Game Elementary – our after school program for girls in grades 3-5 30 weeks, 90 minutes – about half the time is dedicated to the sport and the remaining half to health/nutrition and leadership skills (all include a total of at least 60 minutes of physical activity) Minimize waiting in lines Small groups Directions and Overviews are given while stretching Interactive lessons How many have the opportunity to evaluate your programs? Girls in the Game is very fortunate – and has had a strong relationship with Dr Bohnert and the research team from Loyola University for many years. Amanda Ward, one of the leaders of the research team is going to provide a brief overview of the most recent findings of their independent evaluation of our program.
  • So I am going to first tell you about the components of this evaluation, what makes it state of the art, and talk about our findings. And then, you’ll get to enjoy a “sample”.
  • So with all the focus on After School environments lately, a number of recommendations are being made to improve the quality of the program evaluations being done…and our evaluation has addressed many of these recs. Multiple reporters--  parent and child report Comprehensive objective measurement of PA---  accelerometer data for weekday and weekend activity Staff perceptions of programming and ongoing assessment--  implementations checks for every module filled out by coaches Assess exposure to the program--  used implementations and assessed attendance rates Report on the nature of programming and variety of activities-  record of the extensive GIG curriculum for each module
  • So with all the focus on After school environments lately, a number of recommendations are being made to improve the quality of the program evaluations being done…and our evaluation has addressed many of these recs. Multiple reporters--  parent and child report Comprehensive objective measurement of PA---  accelerometer data for weekday and weekend activity Staff perceptions of programming and ongoing assessment--  implementations checks for every module filled out by coaches Assess exposure to the program--  used implementations and assessed attendance rates Report on the nature of programming and variety of activities-  record of the extensive GIG curriculum for each module
  • Program and non-program girls were recruited from 3 rd through 5 th grade in the fall of 2008 and randomly assigned to participate in Girls in the Game programming or a control group. - Time 2 (T2) Survey: 53 Program girls -The numbers for parent report were a little lower because those were more difficult to get
  • Briefly looking at some demographic info of the girls: -Ethnicity -Program attendance was pretty good throughout the year with most girls coming over half the time, and quite a few coming over 80% of the time.---Findings not moderated by attendance. -Then from the parent report you can see that over 40% of parents said their girls had not at all safe, or only slightly safe access to AS programming. So not only is GIG serving mostly minority girls, but its also meeting the need for girls who don’t have a lot of access to other safe after-school opportunities.
  • As I indicated, we had girls fill out a (validated tool) survey at two time points. I want to highlight the major dimensions we assessed with this survey. *** PA- mention accels
  • Program girls answer more questions correctly about nutrition at T2 than at T1, and non program girl answer fewer correctly like “which of the food groups should you eat the most of each day” and “if you want to ear more fruit which would be the best choice”
  • So these questions asked to both parents and girls asked how many servings of these different junk foods the girls ate…. And higher scores = more serving of the foods. CHILD: What you see here are significant findings suggesting that program girls actually report eating less foods like fries and chips at T2 than at T1 and non program girls report eating more. So in the beginning of the year the control girls are eating less junk food than the program girls, but by the end they eat more. PARENTS: with the parents we see that parents of program girls report them eating less throughout the course of the year while non-program girls parents report them eating more foods like cookies and candy. Again, they start out eating less than the program girls but end up eating more at T2
  • -examining the exercise composite, we find that program girls report exercising significantly more at T2 than at T1. Non-program girls decrease over the course of the year NOTE: discrepancy between parent and child report. “ During the past week, how many times did you participate in sports or exercise for at least 20 minutes that made you sweat and breathe hard?” and “During the past week, how many times did you do exercise to strengthen your muscles?” Parents are also reporting that program girls are staying about the same exercising their muscles non program girls are engaging in this behavior significantly fewer times per week at T2 than T1.
  • The looking at PA as measured by the accelerometers you can see that on weekend days, program girls are burning significantly more kcals at T2 then they were at T1 as measured by accelerometers. - Just to remind you we only did accelerometry with the program girls at one school, and these findings are particularly interesting because of the barriers to activity in the spring due to weather.
  • Shown another way, you see the body silhouettes that girls filled out. They were asked to circle the picture of the girl who looks the most like they would like to look. What you see is that program girls endorse a less emaciated ideal body type at T2. Non Program girls choose a more emaciated body at T2 girls.
  • So the program girls are actually starting out with a larger discrepancy than the non program girls, but by the end their discrepancy gets smaller where as the non program girls gets larger. The difference between how non-program girls see themselves and how they want to look is getting bigger. - And again these are 3 rd to 5 th graders so around 9 years old and the program can have an effect this early for this very sensitive topic
  • Next, we consider girls’ behavior and social skills – a hot topic for many parents and teachers. So in terms of behavior, self-control is really important and you can see how GIG really addresses the “whole girl.” As you can see there is a trend here reported by parents, and program girls are exhibiting more self control over time, but non program girls’ self control is decreasing… This is particularly powerful again because of the small sample size of parents who reported on girls (Control =5, Program =22).
  • Now, we are going to switch gears a bit, and tell you about what we learned about the program as assesed from results obtained from outside observations of program quality using a state of the art youth program quality assessment tool- the PQA This is a validated instrument (Blue Ribbon) designed to evaluate the quality of youth programs. It measures the quality of youth experiences and promotes the creation of environments that tap into the youth’s motivation to attend and engage in the program. We also have a check of how well the program is being implemented as it was intended to be and that is filled out by coaches… which was a recommendation by the beets who did the review article on after-school programs as way to improve program evaluations These are two recommended strategies that are not utilized as much as they should be.
  • This slide depicts findings that were obtained from the observational report based on the PQA GIG scored very high on these domains, and because GIG is a very structured program, one of the domains on the Youth PQA does not quite fit- the engagement module. For example, one subsection of the engagement module focuses on youth’s opportunity to make choices based on their interests . Since the GIG program is so structured and a variety of different sports and daily living skill activities are pre-planned in order to ensure consistency across schools, there is less unstructured time that would lead the girls to choose one activity over another.
  • After every module, coaches completed implementation checks and rated the degree to which the module goals of GIG curriculum were met. Throughout the course of the year 10 implementation checks were completed by the coaches at these 5 sites. They rated the module implementation on 2 criteria: leader interaction which includes questions about how well the sports, life skills, and health topics were covered, as well as how well coaches answered the girls questions participant engagement/involvement which rates how much participants were engaged in the activities and discussions and how enthusiastic they seemed within that module ratings for the sessions could receive either a 0(not completed), 1 (partially completed), or 2 (completed)
  • So just to recap everything we covered…. Nutrition Bx: 1- gig girls eating less and control girls eating more 2- control girls eat more and program girls stay about the same based on parent report Nutrition Knowledge: 1. GIG girls answering more correctly at T2 and control girls answer fewer PA: 1) with the accelerometers we saw increase in the amount of kcals expended on weekends 2) Parents and the girls themselves are also saying GIG girls are doing more at T2 Body Image: Gig girls had less emaciated ideal bodies and smaller discrepancies at T2 and control girls had more emaciated ideal bodies and larger discrepancies.
  • So you might be wondering how these results compare to the previous evaluations: Some similarities include: Positive outcomes for body image with both evaluations finding that GIG improves standards about ideal body image Both evaluations found PA was increasing for GIG girls over the course of the year and GIG girls became more knowledgeable about nutrition through the program Differences: While this study found GIG girls ate less unhealthy food at T2, the previous study found they were eating more healthy foods at T2 as compared to less unhealthy And with the behavioral outcomes research there was not a lot of change for GIG girls or control girls over the course of the year with this study, but last time we found that GIG girls stayed the same but control girls actually got worse. So it might be that we aren’t starting to see the declines yet for control girls in the younger sample, but overall both groups are basically the same from T1 to T2 Why? -This sample was younger so its possible that the differences could be attributed to how the program works with girls of different ages So these findings along with what we found last time are suggesting that this program is effective in impacting youth in several areas of healthy development.
  • Research + Budget Cuts+ Health of Kids = High Demand We know we couldn’t get to every girl – and we also knew there were countless programs already working with girls and wanting to help make an impact. Why re-invent the wheel? So, we created Spring Training – a cost effective and user-friendly way to increase reach and work with other groups across the country. Three main parts to Spring Training: 1) The Best Practice Manual offers youth service providers a comprehensive guide to develop and implement a quality and successful youth development program. We have taken what we know works and created a comprehensive guide to help others build and/or improve programming 2) Curriculum 3) Follow Up Support
  • Each of the seven chapters take a detailed approach to successful Program Design (regardless of the curriculum you are using). These areas must be strong and stable in order for the curriculum to be effective. The Manual includes easy assessment tools, explanation on each area and best practices for each topic. There are also numerous sample policies & procedures and forms to help groups develop what is right for them. Each Chapter takes anywhere from 1-3 hours to cover – and can be instructed as individual workshops or as a whole Manual. For today we are going to do a quick look at two chapters – RECRUIT the participants and LEAD the program
  • RECRUIT participants 5 subsections – list them Who do you want to reach/serve - sounds simple , but is everyone on the same page who’s recruiting and how are doing it? Recruit 2 weeks before program starts. Recruit as often as needed determine the best way to collect packets, where do you submit completed forms and to whom I want to address WELCOME the participants – this looks at what needs to happen before the first day.
  • We encourage you to look at each of these items and evaluate your program based on each item, but we would like you to assess yourself on the last item in the list. 3- have this in place and is effective 2 we have started but needs work 1- we do not have this in place Gather into groups and rate yourselves on #5.
  • According to how you assessed yourself on the assessment look at each question on the chart and answer them for your group. Come up with the Best Practice or best way to address the issue and record it on the poster. SHARE ANSWERS, THEN OUR BP:
  • We encourage you to look at each of these items and evaluate your program based on each item, but we would like you to assess yourself on the last item in the list. 3- have this in place and is effective 2 we have started but needs work 1- we do not have this in place Gather into groups and rate yourselves on #5.
  • These steps are important because it improves retention, builds a positive relationship with parents, ensures parents that their child is safe at programming, communicate expectations of participant/parent/coaches, and sends a message that we are committed to making this a quality and positive experience for everyone involved. How many of you do some or all of these things? Parent name on letter Know target audience Call to establish positive relationship, call again! CONSISTENCY!!! Not just you doing it…
  • To make sure that our messages are being communicated in a consistent way we created scripts for staff to use when calling parents or guardians. This helps staff feel more comfortable when calling and eliminates miscommunication between program staff and families. Here is a sample script. We have scripts for parent calls, kid calls and even voice mail!!!
  • Listed here are the different sub sections of the Lead the Program Chapter. The first section helps programs develop a welcoming environment. Thumbs up if our programs coaches all welcome participants as they enter the program? Are all of our coaches prepared with materials and equipment? We have all been there when we are stressed but we still owe it to our participants to be energized and excited to be there and to have programming. Personal story… Next is developing a set routine. Not just you, but are all of your coaches doing the program the same way. Can your participants anticipate what is next. For example, before we do any sports game we ALWAYS learn the skill first. Since we do it this way our participants know that they will be able to learn the skill before they have to perform it. Then on the first day have we established group norms and expectations? Are all of the participants involved in the process? Does everyone in the program do the same? We have a do not have rules, but we all agree to a contract that we all commit to. This is reinforced and revisited in positive ways throughout the program. Are there policies and strategies in place to guide and manage challenging behavior? Do these strategies work to avoid using time outs or other disciplinary actions? Do they reinforce positive behavior rather than point out negative behavior? Are they standardized so each coach understand how and when to use them? Engage resistance youth, are we giving them opportunities to be successful and to be engaged in the process? Are we using all the participants to share ideas and demonstrate skills? Are we making every participant feel like they are an important part of the group? Conclude each session. Do your coaches have a standard wrap up that takes an opportunity to praise positive behavior, review the key messages, and set expectations for the next session? Finally, Do our programs have policies and procedures set to keep attendance records high? Are taking steps to make sure that participants know that it is important for them to be at each session? Some of these topics we will cover in more depth but now we would like to take an opportunity to learn from you and from each other about what we think best practices are for leading the program.
  • Before we begin I would like you to get into new groups so we can share our great ideas with new people. Please find the people with the same number on your sticker in 5, 4…. With your group assess assess your program for #7.. READ # 7 Also assess yourself for #13 READ # 13 Give your program a 1-3…. 3- have this in place and is effective 2 we have started but needs work 1- we do not have this in place
  • According to how you assessed yourself on the assessment look at each question on the chart and answer them for your group. Come up with the Best Practice or best way to address the issue and record it on the poster. (Share ideas from participants)
  • Here we have highlighted the itmes to assess. Understand that you may have these things in place, but we are assessing ourselves on the effectiveness on them. Is what we have in place working?
  • Consistent coaching To guide and manage challenging behavior its very important that both coaches are both practicing the same teaching strategies and have the same expectations for the students. Do your coaches go through the same training on how to facilitate programming? Is there a written description of how each coach should lead programming? Do coaches have a chance to touch base before each session to collaborate and plan each coaches responsibilities? To avoid good cop bad cop and to devote more time to the participants it is important that all these things are in place. Provide specific praise- Think of each participant in your program and can you come up with one thing for each participant that you could give praise. Have you done that? Seeing negative behavior and pointing out a positive behavior. (Use example) Encourage participants to support each other How many of us deal with tattling and trying to smooth over participants issues with each other. How many hear, So and so did this to me…? Who feels overwhelmed sometimes with tattling and behavior issues? We can eliminate this by facilitating conflict management so students can work together to solve problems. By encouraging peer conflict management we can empower participants to solve their own problems and make a negative into a positive. You can give bonus points for cheering on your teammates! Using strategies to reinforce positive behavior makes the learning environment feel safe and welcoming. Do your coaches have a bag of tricks to reinforce positive behavior? There are so many opportunities throughout the session when we can reinforce positive behavior. For example: Strategy: Proximity When to use : When a participant has trouble waiting for her turn or when two participants talk or disrupt activity. Description: The Coach sits or moves close to a participant who has difficulty focusing or two participants who are being disruptive. Coaches should be spread out throughout the room. Example: “I need a place in the circle, and I would like to sit by both of you.” Or a cue to the other Coach could be “I am going to work with this half of the group and Coach (name) will work with the other group.” More examples, give your partner a high five for doing a great job today!
  • Many youth can be intimidated by learning and trying new skills which can lead to them withdrawing from the activities. To avoid this we make sure to recognize each participant for a specific skill. Even if it is something minor, to them they hear that they are doing something right. Think of kids you work with and for each one can you come up with one thing you can give praise for? Have you done it? Being negative, ignoring youth, or only giving praise to a few kids can cause students to become hostile or anxious and withdraw from the activity. Ways to avoid this: Coaches can partner with participants Pair strong leaders with resistant participants Ensure each participant understand the directions of the activity DEMONSTRATE Have participants be coaches helpers Recognize those who demonstrate positive participation To promote teambuilding and minimize exclusion it is important for the facilitators to choose groups and partners. Its also important to do this using various methods. TO illustrate this we have provided a couple examples. Use a variety of methods, point out when students are working well together. Help groups work together.
  • We believe it is important that girls make a commitment to attend all days of programming. Moreover attendace rates are important for funding, and evaluation results. The more students come to programming the more they will benefit which shows in the evaluation results. To ensure this we have a detailed plan for retention. Setting a goal before programming begins allows you to assess the attendance rates throughout programming. We have set a goal of 80% for each of our sites. Keeping attendance records on a data base is very helpful to save year after year. Set a plan for retention. We have put our plan up on the slide to illustrate this. Do you have a retention plan that everyone uses? If a participant chooses not to come after many attempts to get them back into programming a formal notice will be sent to the home so that parents understand that they are no longer in our program and we cannot be liable for them if they decide to return at the end of the year.
  • Earlier we talked about our program what is evidence based, 30 weeks of weekly 90 minute sessions which includes 60 minutes of physical activity, and is aligned to state standards. Consistency-is key from format to language, and routine. We always start with leadership, then go to sport and end with health. Content which we will go over in more depth includes Multi sport- all girls can succeed at something, all girls can learn from each other. Example, older girls were good at shooting baskets, when we did golf last week my youngest girl was the best at golf! Leadership instills self confidence and competency in life skills to meet the needs of the whole girl Health- focus on nutrition An of course very important is the skill building-many opportunities to practice skills as each topic is covered over three sessions.
  • Here we have the overview of our entire curriculum. Under sport, health and leadership there are a wide variety of topics. For each module topics were chosen that best fit together. For example, healthy relationships and Friends and classmates have cross over concepts. We start with Rhythm and Dance to get participants into fitness with an activity that most girls have done before if not all of them. We also begin with commitment so the participants can understand the importance of committing to our program, the team and themselves. We end with a review.
  • The first topic typically discussed in the Lessons is on leadership. Some topics might include: We end with a review to show participants all the things they have learned and they get a chance to plan how they are going to teach others about what they have learned. What are they going to do with all these life skills?
  • Here is a sample activity we would do for leadership in the sportswomanship lesson. Now we are going to take you though an activity in our leadership component. This is just a snap shot of what we do, but you can see that we provide all the necessary information so anyone could pick it up. Facilitate with volunteers.
  • The curriculum includes a variety of sports and fitness concepts to increase students skills and confidence in sports. Some of the sports included are Transition: Skill development and practice is an important piece to the lesson. We make sure to Demonstrate each skill before participants have to apply it to a game.
  • For this activity I will again need a few volunteers. This shows that as we learn it is ok to make mistakes especially when we are learning something new.
  • For this section the girls learn a variety of important health concepts. Learning and practicing these concepts will help establish healthy behaviors for life. Smart eating is covered multiple times to instill healthy eating and stress the importance of balancing healthy eating and exercise.
  • For our last activity I again will need a couple volunteers. Facilitate with Volunteers
  • To wrap this workshop up we wanted to talk just a little about our Spring Training program. It is our train the trainer program. Youth Service providers that are interested in adopting Girls in the Game can go through a comprehensive 3 day certification training which includes training on the best practice manual and the curriculum. We also offer one day professional development trainings on specific topics in the Best Practice Manual. We will provide follow up support for those who are implementing our program. Lastly, we will have web based access to those who have completed our training which will offer tools and resources to help them along the way. For more info…. See us or go to website. On behalf of Loyola and Girls in the Game we thank you for participating in our workshop!

2010 national after school alliance  lessons from the field 2010 national after school alliance lessons from the field Presentation Transcript

  • Promotion of Health & Wellness in After-School: Lessons from the Field
    • Either/Or
    • Increase awareness about the epidemic of childhood obesity, the greatest public health crisis facing youth in history
    • II. Understand the relevance of after-school time in the prevention of overweight and obesity
    • Learn about Girls in the Game , a successful program model that uses an integrated curriculum of physical activity, nutrition education and leadership/self-esteem development
    • Experience a hands-on demonstration of Girls in the Game program activities & learn about Spring Training (the Girls in the Game Best Practices Manual and Curriculum)
    • Assess your program’s method for recruiting, instructing and retaining participants and learn Girls in the Game best practices
    • Learn how you can become a part of Spring Training
  • Parking Lot ?
  • Childhood Obesity Epidemic: How Bad Is It?
  • Trends in Obesity for US Children and Adolescents
  • Copyright restrictions may apply. Ogden, C. L. et al. JAMA 2010;303:242-249. Prevalence of High BMI for Age in Boys and Girls Aged 6 Through 19 Years, 1999-2008
  • Obesity Among Racial/Ethnic Groups among Boys
  • Obesity Among Racial/Ethnic Groups among Girls
  • Obesity Epidemic May Cut Life Spans of Young Adults Childhood Obesity May Predict Early Mortality Childhood obesity is a hefty problem Overweight Kids Often Become Obese, Unhealthy Adults Experts warn of surge in cardiovascular troubles by 2035 Child obesity expected to soar worldwide Nearly half of kids in North and South America could be overweight by 2010
  • What is at Stake?
    • Obese children and adolescents are at risk for health problems including high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    • Approximately 80% of obese adolescents become obese adults
    • Significant economic consequences and costs
      • 3.4 billion to annual health costs in Illinois alone!
  • After-School as a Protective Factor
    • Low-income, minority school-age children enrolled in after-school programs were significantly less likely to be obese three years later than those who were not involved (Mahoney et al., 2005).
    • Adolescents in after-school programs reported spending less time snacking as compared to adolescents who did not participate (Vandell et al., 2005).
    • Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health suggest that minimal involvement in after-school activities had significant effects on the probability of being overweight or obese among youth ages 10-17 ( Bethell et al., 2010).
  • The Importance of Providing High Quality After-School Programming
    • Enhancing adolescents’ involvement in structured after-school activities may have the potential to reduce childhood obesity
    • After-school programs offer an opportunity to increase physical activity without interrupting academics, and can provide up to 1/3 of a child’s daily recommended MVPA (Beets et al., 2009).
    • Healthy children learn better! Results of recent research show statistically significant relationships between physical activity and academic achievement (Chomitz et al., 2009; Eveland-Sayers et al., 2009; Trudeau & Shephard, 2008).
  • Sports. Health. Leadership. Life.
  • Mission Girls in the Game provides and promotes sports & fitness opportunities, nutrition & health education, and leadership development to enhance the overall health and well-being of all girls.                                                                                                                     Since 1995, has emerged as a leading girls' health and fitness organization in Chicago. Every year, Girls in the Game empowers more than 3,000 girls to make healthier choices and develop the confidence and leadership skills they need to succeed on and off the field. From yoga and lacrosse to soccer and dance, Girls in the Game, exposes girls to a wide and energizing mix of sports and fitness activities year round. Our Programs: Girls’ Advisory Board After School Summer Camp Varsity Squad Game Days Leadership Development Parent and Family Initiatives Spring Training Girls are encouraged to get in the game —any game—so they can learn teamwork and determination, and to make choices that lead to a happier, healthier life.
  • About the Girls Girls in the Game welcomes girls from diverse backgrounds and abilities, ages 6-18. Participants live in a cross-section of neighborhoods on the north, south, and west sides of Chicago, as well as in the suburbs.
    • About our Model
    • Girls in the Game is one of the only
    • organizations, in Chicago and the nation,
    • that addresses girls’ physical, mental, and
    • emotional health with a comprehensive
    • approach to their well-being. 
    • Unlike many traditional youth programs,
    • Girls in the Game:
    • addresses the needs of the whole girl
    • exposes girls to multiple sports and fitness activities always integrated with nutrition & health education and leadership development
    • engages girls and young women ages 6-18 year-round and for the long term
    • provides peer-to-peer education as well as parent and community involvement
    • uses a comprehensive program that’s proven to work
    • An innovative citywide collaborative with schools, parks, and community centers to provide after-school programming for girls in grades 3-5
        • Evidence based
        • Integrates physical activity, nutrition & health and leadership development
        • 30 weeks of programming, 90 minute sessions
        • Age appropriate, girl-specific
        • Aligned to standards
        • Offers healthy snack
        • Includes community service
        • Girls in the Game on the Go
        • (parent and family take-homes)
    Girls in the Game After School Elementary
  • 2008-2009 Girls in the Game Elementary After- School Program Evaluation
  • Recommendation: State of the Art Program Evaluation
    • (Beets et al., 2009)
    • Multiple reporters
    • Comprehensive objective measurement of PA away from the program
    • Implementation measurement
    • Assess exposure to the program
  • GIG Program Evaluation 2008-2009: Adheres to State of the Art Recommendations
    • Parent and Child Report, BMI, Accelerometers
        • Multiple reporters
    • Accelerometer data for weekday and weekend activity
        • Comprehensive objective measurement of PA away from the program
    • Implementations checks for every module filled out by coaches
        • Implementation measurement
    • Assessed implementation & attendance rates
        • Assess program exposure
  • Evaluation
    • Parents and youth filled out a survey in the fall of 08’ and spring of 09’
      • Time 1 (T1) Survey: 86 Program girls; 31 Control girls
      • Time 2 (T2) Survey: 62 Program girls; 30 Control girls
      • **Total N for girls with data @ T1 & T2 = 52 Program girls; 24 Control girls
      • Total N for parents with data @ T1 & T2 = 22 Program; 5 Control
    • Height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were measured at T1, and again at T2
    • At one school, girls (N=11) also wore an accelerometer for one week at T1 and at T2 to assess physical activity
    • An outside observer, certified in program assessment, conducted a program quality assessment (Youth PQA) at all five schools in the winter
  • Participant Information
    • Ethnicity:
    • Program Attendance:
        • 13.5% no/minimal involvement (0-50% attendance)
        • 42.3% moderate involvement (51-80% attendance)
        • 44.2% significant involvement (>80% attendance)
    • Safe Access to After-School Programming:
        • 41.3% of parents said their children had “not at all safe” or only “slightly safe” access to after-school programs
  • Measures
    • Nutrition Behavior
    • e.g., “ Yesterday did you eat fruit like bananas, apples, or oranges?”
    • Physical Activity**
    • e.g., “ During the past week, how many times did you do exercise to
    • strengthen your muscles?”
    • Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge
    • e.g., “Which of the food groups should you eat the most of each
    • day?”
    • Behavioral Outcomes (social skills & self-esteem)
        • e.g., “I say nice things to others when they have done something well.”
        • “ I feel like I am as important or special as other people.”
    • Body image (ideal and discrepancy)
        • e.g., “Which picture looks the most like you?”
    • Attitudes about why girls exercise and do sports
        • e.g., “ I exercise or do sports because I want to be fit and healthy” (agree/disagree)
  • Nutrition Knowledge Number answered correctly ** p < .01
    • Child Report
    • “ Yesterday, did you eat french fries, potato chips, or snack foods?”
    * p < .05 Parent Report “ Yesterday, did your CHILD eat cookies, doughnuts, pie, cake, sweets, or candy?” * p < .05 Nutrition Behavior # of Servings # of Servings
    • Child Report
    • “ During the past week, how many times did you participate in sports or exercise for at least 20 minutes …or strengthen your muscles?”
    • Parent Report
    • “ During the past week, how many times did your CHILD do exercises to strengthen their muscles?”
    *p < .05 p < .08, trend towards significance Physical Activity
  • Number of kcals expended * p < .05 Physical Activity
  • Ideal Body Image T1 (1.59) T2 (2.00) T2 (1.61) T1 (1.83) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 **p < .01 Program Non Program
  • Discrepancy Between Actual and Ideal Body Image ** p < .01 Program girls had a smaller discrepancy between ideal and current body image at T2 than T1
  • Social Skills: Self-control Parents report a trend that program girls’ self-control increases and non program girls’ self-control decreases from T1 to T2 (e.g. “Avoids situations that are likely to result in trouble.” p < .12, trend towards significance 0 = Never 1 = Sometimes 2 = Always
    • Program Quality : Youth PQA tool evaluates program quality and effectiveness across all five schools
    • Implementation checks : Coaches rate how well the program was implemented based on curriculum guidelines
    Evaluating Program Quality & Implementation
  • Outside Evaluation of Program Quality: Program Quality Assessment (PQA) Score Ratings: 1 , 3, 5
  • Program Implementation GIG Module Completion Status 0 = not completed, 1 = partially completed, 2 = completed
    • Nutrition Behavior
      • GIG participants and parents reported girls ate less unhealthy foods at T2 than T1
    • Nutrition Knowledge
      • GIG participants answered more nutrition knowledge questions correctly at T2 as compared to T1
    • Physical Activity
      • GIG participants’ exercise levels increased based on multiple reporters
    • Body Image
      • GIG participants chose less emaciated bodies at T2 as compared to T1, and had a smaller discrepancy between their actual and ideal body types
    • Social Skills
      • Parents report a trend that program girls’ self-control increases and non program girls’ self-control decreases from T1 to T2
    • Safe and Engaging
      • Program is safe and engaging
  • Conclusions
    • What can we conclude about Girls in the Game Elementary After-School program based on these findings?
      • High Quality Programming
      • Curriculum engages girls and teaches them how to make healthy choices through provision of a safe & supportive environment
      • Replicable Curriculum
      • User-friendly design enables successful implementation across diverse program sites
      • Successful Outcomes
      • State of the art program evaluation suggests that girls who participate in the program experience attitude, knowledge and behavior change related to physical activity, nutrition, body image and social control.
    • Girls in the Game is having a positive impact on youth.
  •  
    • Spring Training
    • Best Practice Manual Chapters
      • BUILD the team
      • ESTABLISH the program
      • RECRUIT participants
      • LEAD the program
      • INVOLVE parents and guardians
      • ENSURE safety and health
      • EVALUATE program effectiveness
  • Recruit Participants
    • SELECT the age group
    • ESTABLISH enrollment criteria
    • DEVELOP a recruitment process
    • COLLECT registration packets
    • WELCOME participants
  • RECRUIT PARTICIPANTS ASSESSMENT
    • (Rank yourself: 3=completed, 2=started, 1=not started)
    •  
    •  
    • 1. We have identified a target age group or population that is best
    • served by the program. 3 2 1
    • 2. We have enrollment criteria which determine who can participate
    • and who is placed on a waiting list. 3 2 1
    • 3. Coaches follow a standardized process for recruiting participants. 3 2 1
    • 4. We have a standardized and effective method for collecting completed
    • registrations. 3 2 1
    • 5. We have a standardized and effective process for welcoming
    • participants to the program. 3 2 1
  • RECRUIT PARTICIPANTS ACTION PLAN  Review the items in the Recruit Participants Assessment sheet. Record each item that received a rank of 1 or 2 in the Action Plan below. This tool can help provide a measurable plan to improve skill or operations, as needed. What needs improvement? What will be done? Who is responsible and what resources are needed? When will this be completed? 1. We have identified a target age group or population that is best served by the program. 2. We have enrollment criteria which determine who can participate and who is placed on a waiting list. 3. Coaches follow a standardized process for recruiting participants. 4. We have a standardized and effective method for collecting completed registrations. 5. We have a standardized and effective process for welcoming participants to the program.
  • RECRUIT PARTICIPANTS ASSESSMENT
    • (Rank yourself: 3=completed, 2=started, 1=not started)
    •  
    •   5. We have a standardized and effective process for welcoming participants to the program.
    • 3 2 1
  • Recruit Participants
    • WELCOME Participants
    • Send welcome letter to all parents or guardians
    • Coordinator or Coach calls each parent or guardian
    • Coaches call parents to give positive feedback with in the first two weeks
    • Coaches track all calls in a call log
  • Sample Call Script
    • When speaking with a parent or guardian:
    • “ Hello, this is Coach __________ with Girls in the Game Elementary, and I am calling to welcome (participant name). Our program will take place on (day of the week) from (time) at (location). The goals of the program are for girls to learn how to be active, make healthy choices and feel good about themselves, all while having fun and meeting friends. We sent home information on the program which describes the sports and fitness, nutrition and health education and leadership development activities she will learn. Do you have any questions? Thank you for your time. May I speak with (participant) to welcome her personally?”
  • Lead the Program
    • CREATE a welcoming environment
    • DEVELOP a set routine
    • ESTABLISH group norms and expectations
    • GUIDE AND MANAGE challenging behavior
    • ENGAGE resistant or withdrawn girls
    • MINIMIZE exclusion or separation
    • CONCLUDE each session with a wrap up
    • UTILIZE retention strategies
  • LEAD THE PROGRAM ASSESSMENT  (Rank yourself: 3=completed, 2=started, 1=not started)
    • 1. Coaches are familiar with the activity space in advance of the first day of programming. 3 2 1
    • 2. Coaches model best practices for youth (i.e. no gum, pop, cell phones). 3 2 1
    • 3. Programming follows a regular schedule and routine. 3 2 1
    • 4. Participants understand and follow rules. 3 2 1
    • 5. We have a policy for managing challenging youth behavior. 3 2 1
    • 6. Our coaches are trained on and understand the reasons for youth misbehavior. 3 2 1
    • 7. Our coaches effectively use behavior management strategies before using time outs, breaks
    • or other discipline methods. 3 2 1
    • 8. Our coaches effectively encourage youth to support each other and attempt to successfully resolve
    • conflicts on their own before adult intervention. 3 2 1
    • 9. Our coaches help develop a positive learning environment by using positive reinforcement and
    • giving participants choices. 3 2 1
    • 10. Our coaches are trained to effectively engage resistant or withdrawn youth. 3 2 1
    • 11. Our coaches are trained to effectively minimize exclusion or separation. 3 2 1
    • 12. We have a standardized and effective process to wrap up each session. 3 2 1
    • 13. We implement effective retention strategies that result in high attendance. 3 2 1
  • LEAD THE PROGRAM ACTION PLAN   Review the items in the Lead the Program Assessment sheet. Record each item that received a rank of 1 or 2 in the Action Plan below. This tool can help provide a measurable plan to improve skill or operations, as needed. What needs improvement? What will be done? Who is responsible and what resources are needed? When will this be completed? 6. 7. Our coaches effectively use behavior management strategies before using time outs, breaks or other discipline methods. 8. 9. 13. We implement effective retention strategies that result in high attendance.
  • LEAD THE PROGRAM ASSESSMENT  (Rank yourself: 3=completed, 2=started, 1=not started)
    • 7. Our coaches effectively use behavior management strategies before using time outs, breaks or other discipline methods. 3 2 1
  • Lead the Program
    • GUIDE AND MANAGE challenging behavior
    • Consistent coaching among both coaches
    • Provide specific praise and encouragement
    • Encourage participants to support each other
    • Utilize multiple strategies to reinforce participants positive behavior
    • Strategy: Nonverbal Reinforcement
    • When to use: A participant displays positive behavior and the Coach cannot verbally acknowledge the action because she is far away or the activity is too loud.
    • Description: Warm smile, reassuring nod, high five or thumbs up.
    • Example: A participant retrieves a basketball ball and gives it to her teammate to take a turn and then looks toward the Coach who responds with a thumb-up.
  • Lead the Program
    • MINIMIZE exclusion or separation
    • Recognize participants for a variety of skills
    • Avoid tactics that may make participants hostile or anxious
    • Coaches select teams and partners using various methods
      • Assign each participant a different number and have each participant with an odd number pair up with a participant with an even number.
      • Group participants by favorite subjects, birthday months, how many siblings they have, etc.
  • Lead the Program
    • UTILIZE retention strategies
    • Set attendance expectation and goals
    • Take attendance and keep records on file
    • Implement retention strategies
      • 1 st absence- Send miss you cards
      • 2 nd absence- Call home and gets confirmation of rejoining
      • 3 rd final attempt to confirm participation and if needed send withdraw notice
    • Curriculum design
    • Components of an effective curriculum
      • Consistency
      • Content
        • Leadership
        • Sport
        • Health
      • Skill building
        • Opportunities to learn and practice skills
    Spring Training Playbook
  • Module Sport Health Leadership Life Lesson objectives Girls in the Game Take Home Module 1, Sessions 1-3 Rhythm and Movement Self Care and Injury Prevention Commitment to Self/ Commitment to Team Review and Agree to 5 Finger Contract and Athlete of the Day Letter of Introduction and On The Go Module 1 Module 2, Sessions 4-6 Soccer Body Basics and Hygiene Sports-woman-ship and Teambuilding Develop a Team Chant and Athlete of the Day On The Go Module 2 Module 3, Session 7-9 Flag Football Body Image and Smart Eating I Goal Setting/Problem Solving Practice Team Chant and Athlete of the Day On The Go Module 3 Module 4, Sessions 10-12 Volleyball Healthy Relationships Friends and Classmates Create a Positive Sign to Encourage Each Other and Athlete of the Day On The Go Module 4 Module 5, Sessions 13-15 Tennis Personal Safety Families and Guardians Acknowledge Others’ Contributions and Athlete of the Day On The Go Module 5 Module 6, Sessions 16-18 Basketball Body Image and Smart Eating Part II Peer Pressure in Your School and Neighborhood Listen to Your Inner Voice and Athlete of the Day On The Go Module 6 Module 7, Sessions 19-21 Lacrosse Emotional Health Diversity: Celebrating Similarities and Differences Be Your Own Role Model and Athlete of the Day On The Go Module 7 Module 8, Sessions 22-24 Softball Drug, Alcohol and Nicotine Awareness Media and Messages about Gender Girl Power and Athlete of the Day On The Go Module 8 Module 9, Session 25-27 Golf Body Image and Smart Eating Leadership and Peer Education Energy In/Energy Out and Athlete of the Day On The Go Module 9 Module 10, Sessions 28-30 Track and Field Review of All Review of All Keep it Going and Athlete of the Day for All On The Go Module 10
    • Commitment to Self and Team
    • Sports-woman-ship
    • Goal Setting and Problem Solving
    • Peer Pressure
    • Friends and Classmates
    • Families and Guardians
    • Diversity
    • Messages in the Media
    • Peer Education
    • Review
    Leadership
  • Leadership Sports-woman-ship
    • Whip Around (3 minutes)
    • Set Up
    • Participants stand in a circle. The coach has one small ball.
    • Purpose
    • “ When we work together as a team we need to practice good sports-woman-ship, individually and as group.”
    • Instruction
    • 1. The coach begins with the ball and gives a quick one word response to the word sports-woman-ship.
    • 2. After saying the word the coach passes it to another participant in the circle and they give their one word response.
    • 3. Each participant will give a one word response and then pass the ball on.
    • 4. The group that gets the ball passed to each participant the quickest wins.
    • Key Message
    • “ Practicing good sports-woman-ship helps build a strong team.”
    • Rhythm and Dance
    • Soccer
    • Flag Football
    • Volleyball
    • Tennis
    • Basketball
    • Lacrosse
    • Softball
    • Golf
    • Track and Field (Review)
    Sport and Fitness
  • Sport Soccer
    • Head or Catch (5 minutes)
    • Set Up
    • Participants get into two circles, standing arms length apart. A Coach stands in the middle of each circle.
    •  
    • Purpose
    • “ Now we are going to practice one last way to move the ball in a soccer game - heading.”
    • Instruction
    • 1. To head the ball, start with your feet shoulder-width apart and your knees slightly bent. As the ball comes toward you, keep your eyes open and hit the ball with your forehead. Try not to hit the ball with the top of your head. I’m going to toss you the ball and say “head” or “catch.”
    • 2. Make eye contact with a participant, say either “head” or “catch” and softly toss the ball to her.
    • 3. If the Coach calls “catch” while the ball is in the air, the participant needs to catch the ball with two hands like a goalie. If the Coach calls “head” while the ball is in the air, the participant has to head the ball back to the coach.
    • 4. Have the participants do the opposite next. They will catch the ball when they hear “head” and head the ball when they hear “catch.”
    • 4. Continue around the circle several times so each participant has various chances to head and catch the ball.
    • 5. Use a softer ball such as a beach ball or gator ball depending on the participants age and ability.
    • Key Message
    • “ Heading is a great way to gain control of the ball. Keeping your eyes open helps you see the ball coming and helps you control where you make contact with and direct the ball.”
    • Self Care and Injury Prevention
    • Body Basics and Hygiene
    • Smart Eating and Body Image (Part I, II and III)
    • Healthy Relationships
    • Personal Safety
    • Emotional Health
    • Smoking and Alcohol Awareness
    • Review
    Health and Nutrition
  • Health Personal Hygiene
    • Germ Explosion (8 minutes)
    • Set Up
    • Participants sit in a circle close enough that they can touch their neighbor’s hand. Place a small amount of glitter into each participant’s hands. Participants rub their palms together to spread the glitter.
    •  
    • Purpose
    • “ Your hands may look clean, but they have germs on them that could make you or someone else sick. You can’t see germs spread, but this activity shows you how it happens.”
    • Instruction
    • 1. Participants place their right hand on top of their right-side neighbor’s left hand. Their left hand should go under their left-side neighbor’s right hand. Everyone’s palms should face the ceiling.
    • 2. Recite the team chant (or another agreed upon song).
    • 3. As the song begins, identify one participant to start the game by high-fiving her left-side neighbor’s right hand with her right hand.
    • 4. When she receives her neighbor’s hand, that participant moves her right hand and places it on her left-side neighbor’s right hand, and so on.
    • 5. The first participant then returns her hands to the palm up position.
    • 6. This pattern repeats around the circle as the song continues.
    • 7. Once the song finishes, whoever’s hand is tapped is out of the game. The remaining participants yell “reverse” and change directions.
    • 8. Continue until there are two participants remaining.
    • Key Message
    • “ Take a look at your hands and bodies and see how much glitter is on them from this game. Pretend that glitter is germs. Washing your hands and covering your mouth with your arm or sleeve when you sneeze or cough helps prevent the spread of germs.”
  • Spring Training
    • Professional Development
    • Certification Program
      • Best Practice Manual
      • Spring Training Curriculum
      • Follow up support
    • Conference Calls
    • Web Based access
      • Resources
      • Tools
      • For more information on Spring Training please go to our website
      • www.girlsinthegame.org
  • Amy Skeen, MSW, LCSW, Executive Director , holds her Master ユ s Degree in Social Work from the University of Illinois at Chicago. Amy has fifteen years of experience in nonprofit program operations and has received numerous awards for her leadership including One of Chicago’s Top Women Making a Difference for Girls, 2009. Kristi Skala, MS, Training and Evaluation Manager, holds her Masters in School and College Health Programs from Indiana University. Upon graduating from her Master ’ s program she became the Curriculum Developer for the Physical Education Walk Across Illinois School Fitness Program. M onique Turner, Programs Director , holds a Masters of Arts in Educational Leadership/School Leadership from Northeastern Illinois University. Prior to joining Girls in the Game, Monique led programs at the Chicago Park District and Chicago Public Schools. Amy Bohnert, Ph.D. is an Assistant Professor in Clinical and Developmental Psychology at Loyola University Chicago . She is a leading expert on how various contexts, especially organized extracurricular activities, might serve a protective role in youth development. Amanda Ward is a first year Clinical Psychology graduate student at Loyola University Chicago . She served as the project manager of the 2008-2009 Girls in the Game evaluation.