SUMMARY OF THE COURSE ON THE THEORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

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Linkage Master Programmes Double Degree FIA-UNIBRAW and Japanese Universities The University of Brawijaya 2008

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SUMMARY OF THE COURSE ON THE THEORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

  1. 1. SUMMARY OF THE COURSE ON THE THEORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Lecturer : Prof. Dr. Ir. Ginandjar Kartasasmita jgkar@cbn.net.id www.ginandjar.com Assistant Professor : Dr.Ir. Deddy S. Bratakusumah, BE, MURP, M.Sc. deddys@bappenas.go.id Linkage Master Programmes Double Degree FIA-UNIBRAW and Japanese Universities The University of B a ija a Uni e sit Brawijaya 1
  2. 2. DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS WHAT IS PUBLIC APPROACHES TO PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATION WHAT IS ADMINISTRATION PILLARS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION THE UNIVERSALITY OF INTERDICIPLINARY INTERFACE ADMINISTRATION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION CHARACTERISTICS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS ADMINISTRATION MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION PUBLIC INTEREST VS PRIVATE INTEREST MANAGEMENT PUBLIC GOODS WHAT IS PUBLIC? DISTINCTIONS OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADIMINSTRATION OTHER WAYS TO DEFINE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
  3. 3. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS A DEVELOPING DISCIPLINE PHASE I. THE ANALYTIC DISTINCTION OF POLITICS FROM ADMINISTRATION PHASE II. THE CONCRETE DISTINCTION OF POLITICS FROM ADMINISTRATION GOLEMBIEWSKI’S DEVELOPMENT PHASES PHASE III. A SCIENCE OF MANAGEMENT PHASE IV. THE PERVASIVE ORIENTATION TOWARD “PUBLIC POLICY”, PARADIGM 1: PERIOD OF ORTHODOXY POLITICS/ADMINISTRATION DICHOTOMY, 1900-1926 SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT BUREAUCRACY PARADIGM 2: THE PRINCIPLES OF POSDCORB ADMINISTRATION, 1926 – 1937 ADMINISTRATIVE RESPONSIBILITY THE CHALLENGE, 1938 - 1947 INFORMAL ORGANIZATION HENRY’S EVOLUTION OF REACTION TO THE CHALLENGE, 1947 - 1950 ADMINISTRATIVE BEHAVIOR PARADIGMS PARADIGM 3: PUBLIC COMPARATIVE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATION AS A POLITICAL SCIENCE, 1950-1970 DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION PARADIGM 4: PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS MANAGEMENT, 1956-1970 MANAGEMENT 1956 1970 NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REINVENTING GOVERNMENT PARADIGM 5: PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: 1970-? NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT NEW PUBLIC SERVICE
  4. 4. CURRENT ISSUES IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM CURRENT ISSUES IN PUBLIC DEBUREAUCRATIZATION ADMINISTRATION GOVERNANCE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN A DEMOCRACY THE FUTURE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
  5. 5. POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS IN INDONESIA PERIOD 1945 - 1950 PERIOD 1959- 1959-1966 PERIOD 1966- 1966-1999 POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS PERIOD IN INDONESIA 1999 - 2004 PERIOD 2004- 2004-NOW LOCAL GOVERNMENT POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS BEFORE 2004 LOCAL GOVERNMENT POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS AFTER 2004
  6. 6. ORGANIZATION AND MECHANISM ORGANIZATION GOVERNMENT INSTITUTION BUREAUCRACY INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS ORGANIZATION AND DECENTRALIZATION AND MECHANISM LOCAL AUTONOMY FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION LOCAL FINANCE IN INDONESIA
  7. 7. PLANNING, BUDGETING AND PUBLIC FINANCE DEVELOPMENT THEORY PLANNING THEORY BUDGETING PRINCIPLES PLANNING, BUDGETING BUDGET CYCLE AND AND FISCAL POLICY PUBLIC FINANCE BUDGET DECISION MAKING PUBLIC FINANCE LOCAL FINANCE IN INDONESIA
  8. 8. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION THEORY FINAL PAPER ASSIGNMENT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRAWIJAYA 2006 BUREAUCRACY: THE CASE OF INDONESIA A KEY CONCEPT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IS BUREAUCRACY. BUREAUCRACY IS DEFINED AS THE ADMINISTRATION OF LARGE-SCALE ORGANIZATION THROUGH DEPARTMENTS AND THEIR AGENCIES (IN GOVERNMENT SUCH SUBDIVISIONS ARE OFTEN CALLED BUREAU) THAT ARE MANAGED BY A SET OF APPOINTED OFFICIALS WHO FOLLOW ESTABLISHED ROUTINES OR STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES BUREAUCRACY THEREFORE IS A PHENOMENON IN BOTH PUBLIC AS WELL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION. THE FUNCTIONS OF BUREAUCRACY IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION ARE: (1) CARRYING OUT ADMINISTRATION, (2) OFFERING POLICY ADVICE, (3) ARTICULATING AND AGGREGATING INTEREST, AND (4) MAINTAINING POLITICAL STABILITY (HEYWOOD, 2002). 8
  9. 9. BUREAUCRACY CONCENTRATES GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY INTO A COMPLEX STRUCTURE OF ADMINISTRATIVE BUREAUS. AS WITH THE TERM ADMINISTRATION, BUREAUCRACY ALSO HAS SUCH NEGATIVE CONNOTATION AS INEFFICIENT ORGANIZATION, EXCESSIVE RED TAPE, AND STRUCTURAL ARRANGEMENTS THAT IMPEDE AS MUCH OR MORE THAN SERVE THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PUBLIC POLICY. THE TERM MAY EVEN DENOTE THE DEHUMANIZING EFFECTS OF FORMAL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES THAT WERE ORIGINALLY DESIGNED TO PROMOTE “NEUTRALITY”, BUT WHICH CAN DEVELOP INTO PATHOLOGICAL ELEMENTS ELEMENTS. EXCESSIVE BUREAUCRACY BECOMES DYSFUNCTIONAL AND INEFFICIENT. IT THEN SOCIALIZES AGENCY EMPLOYEES TO FOLLOW RULES AND REGULATIONS TO THE POINT THAT THEY BECOMES ENDS RATHER THAN MEANS TO A PUBLIC POLICY GOAL (SEE LEMAY, 2002). 9
  10. 10. TO MANY, THE TERM BUREAUCRACY SUGGESTS INEFFICIENCY AND POINTLESS AND TIME CONSUMING C C O SS CO SU G FORMALITIES. AS WALLIS (1989) STATED: “BUREAUCRACY IS A WORD WHICH IN ORDINARY USE CONJURES UP NEGATIVE IMAGES IN PEOPLE S MINDS ” IT SUGGESTS A PEOPLE’S MINDS. SLOW-MOVING ORGANIZATION, USUALLY ASSOCIATED WITH GOVERNMENT, WHICH SERVE THE PUBLIC WITH A MIXTURE OF ARROGANCE DELIBERATE OBSTRUCTION ARROGANCE, AND INCOMPETENCE. 10
  11. 11. IN INDONESIA BUREAUCRACY HAS BEEN DEVELOPING AND CHANGING FOLLOWING THE DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGES IN THE POLITICAL SYSTEM AND ENVIRONMENT. FOR INSTANCE IN THE EARLY STAGES UP UNTIL THE NEW ORDER GOVERNMENT, CIVIL SERVANTS WERE ALLOWED TO BECOME MEMBER OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND TO BE ACTIVE IN POLITICS. AFTER THE NEW ORDER CAME TO OFFICE THROUGH THE REFORM PERIODS UP UNTIL NOW THERE HAVE BEEN S C O SO O RESTRICTIONS ON THE POLITICAL ASSOCIATION AND C SSOC O ACTIVITIES OF CIVIL SERVANTS. 11
  12. 12. THE STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION HAS ALSO UNDERGONE CHANGES THROUGH THE DIFFERENT PERIODS OF INDONESIA’S POLITICAL HISTORY. THE ’ MOST RECENT IS THE INTRODUCTION OF A BILL (DRAFT OF LAW) INITIATED BY THE PARLIAMENT ON GOVERNMENT MINISTRIES FOR THE FIRST TIME IN MINISTRIES. HISTORY GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION WILL BE REGULATED BY LAW. UP TO THIS TIME GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS HAVE BEEN REGULATED ONLY BY PRESIDENTIAL DECREES. S C S 12
  13. 13. FOR THE FINAL PAPER OF THIS COURSE THE STUDENTS ARE TASKED TO WRITE THE PAPER ON THE NATURE OF BUREAUCRACY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF BUREAUCRACY IN CHANGING POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT. BASED ON THE RESEARCH AND ANALYTICAL WORK THE STUDENT WILL OFFER THEIR OPINION ON HOW TO IMPROVE BUREAUCRATIC PERFORMANCE IN A DEMOCRATIC SYSTEM, TAKING INDONESIA AS THE CASE CASE. 13
  14. 14. TO HELP THE STUDENT IN THE RESEARCH THE FOLLOWING MATERIALS WILL BE MADE AVAILABLE: DRAFT OF LAW ON GOVERNMENT MINISTRIES. COMPILATION OF LAWS AND REGULATIONS ON INDONESIA’S CIVIL SERVICE. CD ROM ON COMPILATION OF REGULATIONS ON THE STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS DEPARTMENTS. THE 1945 INDONESIAN CONSTITUTION (AMENDED). LAW NO 22/2003 ON THE STRUCTURES AND POSITIONS OF MPR, DPR, DPD, AND DPRD. 14
  15. 15. INFORMATION FOR THE FINAL PAPER ASSIGNMENT EACH STUDENT SHOULD SUBMIT INDIVIDUAL PAPER FOR THE FINAL EVALUATION EVALUATION. THE PAPER SHOULD CONSIST OF 21 PAGES INCLUDING FRONT COVER AND BIBLIOGRAPHY; FONT: BOOK ANTIQUA 12; PAPER A4; LINE SPACING 2. DUE DATE: DECEMBER 22, 2006 (HARD COPY), THE 22 COPY) HARD COPY SHOULD BE SUBMITTED TO THE PROGRAM SECRETARIAT AND SOFT COPY TO BE SENT TO deddy@bappenas.go.id. 15
  16. 16. THANK YOU, GOOD LUCK 16

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