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POST SCRIPT: ROLE OF ISLAM & ROLE OF THE MILITARY
POST SCRIPT: ROLE OF ISLAM & ROLE OF THE MILITARY
POST SCRIPT: ROLE OF ISLAM & ROLE OF THE MILITARY
POST SCRIPT: ROLE OF ISLAM & ROLE OF THE MILITARY
POST SCRIPT: ROLE OF ISLAM & ROLE OF THE MILITARY
POST SCRIPT: ROLE OF ISLAM & ROLE OF THE MILITARY
POST SCRIPT: ROLE OF ISLAM & ROLE OF THE MILITARY
POST SCRIPT: ROLE OF ISLAM & ROLE OF THE MILITARY
POST SCRIPT: ROLE OF ISLAM & ROLE OF THE MILITARY
POST SCRIPT: ROLE OF ISLAM & ROLE OF THE MILITARY
POST SCRIPT: ROLE OF ISLAM & ROLE OF THE MILITARY
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POST SCRIPT: ROLE OF ISLAM & ROLE OF THE MILITARY

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  • 1. Lecturer : Prof. Dr. Ginandjar Kartasasmita jgkar@cbn.net.id, www.ginandjar.comAssistant Professor : Dr. Dadang Solihin, SE, MA dadangsol@yahoo.com
  • 2. GRIPS_2012 www.ginandjar.com 2
  • 3.  IT IS TRUE THAT FUNDAMENTALIST ISLAMIC GROUPS GROUPS, SOME OF THEM MILITANT, DO EXIST IN INDONESIA, BUT THEY ARE MARGINAL AND HAVE LITTLE POPULAR SUPPORT. DESPITE THE RECURRENCE OF INCIDENTS INVOLVING SOME ISLAMIC EXTREMISTS, FOR MANY YEARS, INDONESIA, THE COUNTRY WITH THE LARGEST MUSLIM POPULATION IN THE WORLD, HAS BEEN WELL KNOWN AS A PLURALISTIC SOCIETY CHARACTERIZED BY RELIGIOUS MODERATION AND TOLERANCE.GRIPS_2012 www.ginandjar.com 3
  • 4.  WITH THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS COMPLETED, THE DEBATE ON THE INCLUSION OF THE JAKARTA CHARTER INTO THE CONSTITUTION HAS BEEN MORE OR LESS BEEN CONCLUDED. THE VOTES AGAINST IT WERE OVERWHELMING, CUTTING ACROSS POLITICAL FAULT LINES. ALTHOUGH THE POSSIBILITY OF FUTURE ATTEMPTS TO REINTRODUCE THE JAKARTA CHARTER IS EVER PRESENT, THE POLITICAL SUPPORT FOR SUCH A MOVE WOULD BE CONFINED TO A SMALL MINORITY. NOT ONLY ARE THE SECULAR NATIONALIST PARTIES AGAINST IT, MANY PARTIES WITH ISLAMIC CREDENTIALS ARE ALSO NOT SUPPORTING IT. ITGRIPS_2012 www.ginandjar.com 4
  • 5.  EVEN IF THE JAKARTA CHARTER DOES NOT POSE AN IMMEDIATE THREAT TO THE UNITY OF THE COUNTRY, ADJUSTING TO AND COPING WITH A DEEPENING RELIGIOUS AWARENESS AND RELIGIOUS PIETY WITHIN THE MUSLIM POPULATION IS STILL A CHALLENGE FOR INDONESIA. ALTHOUGH INDONESIA IS A PREDOMINANTLY MUSLIM COUNTRY, ISLAMIC POLITICAL PARTIES IN INDONESIA HAS NEVER BEEN ABLE TO ATTAIN MORE THAN 40% OF THE VOTES, SINCE THE ELECTION OF 1955 UP TO THE LAST ELECTION IN 2004. THEREFORE, MOST INDONESIAN MUSLIM VOTED FOR PARTIES NOT BASED IN RELIGION. THE DIFFERENT FROM ONE ELECTION TO ANOTHER IS THE COMPOSITION OF THE VOTES GARNERED BY THE ISLAMIC PARTIES, WHICH CONSTANTLY CHANGES REFLECTING THE POLITICAL MOOD AND ENVIRONMENT OF THE TIME.GRIPS_2012 www.ginandjar.com 5
  • 6.  IN THE SHORT RUN, HOWEVER, THE REVIVAL OF ISLAMIC VALUES IN THE MINDS AND LIVES OF THE POPULATION, MOST IMPORTANTLY AMONG THE INTELLIGENTSIA AND THE POLITICAL ELITE, AND THE YOUNG, MAY AFFECT ATTITUDES OR RESPONSES TO POLITICAL ISSUES THAT INVOLVE ISLAM SUCH AS INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM. THE SEPTEMBER 11 ACT OF TERRORISM AGAINST THE US WAS ALMOST UNANIMOUSLY CONDEMNED BY ORGANIZED MUSLIMS AND BY THE PUBLIC IN GENERAL. GENERAL EXCEPT FOR A FEW VERY VOCAL FANATICS, INDONESIA’S MUSLIMS WERE OUTRAGED BY WITH HAPPENED IN NEW YORK.GRIPS_2012 www.ginandjar.com 6
  • 7.  THE FEELING OF OUTRAGE AGAINST TERRORISM THAT HAD TAKEN THE LIVES OF INNOCENT PEOPLE WAS HEIGHTENED WHEN INDONESIA ALSO BECAME A VICTIM OF INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM WITH THE BOMBING IN BALI ON 12 OCTOBER 2002, THE MORE RECENT MARRIOT BOMBING IN JAKARTA ON 5 AUGUST 2002, AND THE SECOND BALI BOMBING IN 2005. FOR MANY INDONESIAN MUSLIMS, TERRORISM MUSLIMS HAD ONLY SUCCEEDED IN CREATING THE WRONG IMAGE OF ISLAM AND ISLAMIC VALUES VALUES.GRIPS_2012 www.ginandjar.com 7
  • 8. GRIPS_2012 www.ginandjar.com 8
  • 9.  OBSERVERS OF INDONESIA HAVE PAID MUCH ATTENTION TO THE ROLE OF THE MILITARY IN POST POST- NEW ORDER POLITICS AND HOW THE MILITARY PERCEIVE ITS ROLE IN DEMOCRACY DEMOCRACY. EVENTS SURROUNDING THE FALL OF SUHARTO SHOWED THAT THE MILITARY HAD BEEN SUPPORTIVE OF POLITICAL CHANGE. ITS ROLE WAS CRUCIAL IN THE PEACEFUL TRANSITION FROM AN AUTHORITARIAN REGIME TO REAL DEMOCRACY.GRIPS_2012 www.ginandjar.com 9
  • 10.  IN THE TRANSITION DURING THE HABIBIE PERIOD, THE MILITARY LENT ITS POLITICAL WEIGHT TO THE INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF DEMOCRACY BY SUPPORTING THE CREATION OF LAWS AND RULES THAT DISMANTLED THE OLD AUTHORITARIAN STRUCTURES AND REPLACED IT WITH A DEMOCRATIC SYSTEM. THE MILITARY HAS SHOWN ITS COMMITMENT TO DEMOCRACY WHEN IT ACCEPTED THE CONSENSUS OF THE POLITY THAT IT SHOULD NO LONGER TAKE AN ACTIVE ROLE IN POLITICS AND THEREFORE NO LONGER HOLD SEATS IN THE ELECTIVE POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS. UNDER WAHID, THE MILITARY HAD BEEN STEADFAST IN REFUSING TO BE USED AS AN INSTRUMENT TO SUBVERT THE CONSTITUTION AND RESISTED THE PRESSURE TO REVERSE TO AUTHORITARIANISM AUTHORITARIANISM.GRIPS_2012 www.ginandjar.com 10
  • 11.  ALTHOUGH MANY RETIRED SENIOR OFFICERS WERE AGAINST CHANGING THE CONSTITUTION, THE CONSTITUTION SERVING MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT FULLY SUPPORTED THE AMENDMENTS THAT HAVE BECOME THE FOUNDATION FOR A STRONGER AND MORE STABLE DEMOCRACY. THEREFORE IT IS SAFE TO SAY THAT THE MILITARY IS NOT A THREAT BUT AN ASSET TO INDONESIA’S DEMOCRACY. DEMOCRACYGRIPS_2012 www.ginandjar.com 11

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