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PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: CONCEPTS AND
              PRACTICE


VII. DEVELOPMENT
     AND ADMINISTRATION (III)




        Gr...
CONTENTS


8
8.    DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
9.    BUDGET AND BUDGETING
10.   PROJECT PLANNING




                 www.ginandj...
DEVELOPMENT PLANNING



PLANNING IS AN ORGANIZED, CONSCIOUS AND
CONTINUAL ATTEMPT TO SELECT THE BEST
AVAILABLE ALTERNATIVE...
PLANNING IS THE APPLICATION OF
SCIENTIFIC METHODS TO POLICY MAKING
                                 (FALUDI, 1983)



PLAN...
ARGUMENTS AGAINST PLANNING

DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AND PUBLIC
REGULATION, NO MORE APPROPRIATE, BECAUSE
IT HINDERS CREATIVITY...
WHY PLANNING?

 REDUCING UNCERTAINTY
 INTEGRATING SOME RATIONAL METHODS AND
 TECHNOLOGIES INTO PROBLEM SOLVING
 PROCESS AN...
WHY PLANNING ?



PROVIDING THE CHANCE AND BLUE PRINT TO
CONTROL AND MONITOR THE PUBLIC EFFORTS
FROM TIME TO TIME.
INCREAS...
OTHER REASONS

 MARKET FAILURE
 RESOURCE MOBILIZATION AND ALLOCATION
 ATTITUDINAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT
 FOREIGN AID ?

...
THE ROLE OF PLANNERS
   WHAT IS OR SHOULD BE THE TOPIC OR FOCUS OF
   PLANNING?
   WHO DOES THE PLANNER WORK FOR?
   WHAT ...
SOME PLANNING APPROACHES:

   1)   POLITICAL
   2)   TECHNOCRATIC
   3)   PARTICIPATIVE
   4)   TOP DOWN
        TOP-DOWN
...
ELEMENTS OF PLANNING:
  1.   GOALS
  2.   PRIORITY AND TARGETS
  3.   TIME FRAME
  4.   CONSTRAINTS
  5.   CAPITAL AND RES...
PLANNING CRITERIA

 1.   COMPREHENSIVE AND INDICATIVE
 2.   CONTROL AND DIRECTING GOVERNMENT SPENDING
      IN ORDER TO ST...
TYPES OF PLANNING

1.   RATIONAL PLANNING
         SYNOPTIC PLANNING, COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING
                           ,
...
RATIONAL PLANNING:
THE PROCESS:

1.   IDENTIFY A PROBLEM
2.   IDENTIFY A GOAL
3.   COLLECT BACKGROUND DATA
4.
4    IDENTIF...
6.    ASSESS ALTERNATIVE PLAN SCENARIOS
7.    SELECT THE PREFERRED ALTERNATIVE
8.    IMPLEMENT THE PLAN
9
9.    MONITOR EV...
WEAKNESS IN ASSUMPTIONS
1.   ASSUMES THAT PEOPLE BEHAVE RATIONALLY
     - THAT RATIONALITY IS A PART OF EVERYDAY LIFE
    ...
3.   ASSUMES THAT ONLY FACTS EXIST
     −   NO VALUES (SUBJECTIVE BELIEF SYSTEMS)
     −   ALL VARIABLES EXIST WITHIN AN I...
ALTHOUGH RATIONAL PLANNING IS OFTEN
CRITICIZED BUT IT STILL REMAINS THE MOST
COMMON APPROACH TO PLANNING

BECAUSE IT IS:
R...
INCREMENTAL PLANNING
      AN ALTERNATIVE THEORY THAT ACCEPTS
      MOST OBVIOUS SHORTCOMINGS OF
      RATIONAL PLANNING

...
4.
4    LIMITED TIME AND MONEY FOR DATA
     COLLECTION
5.   SOCIETAL VALUES ARE AS IMPORTANT AS
     FACTS
6.   OPEN, RAP...
ADVOCACY PLANNING

CAME OUT OF 1960S, CONSIDER AS AN
ADVERSARIAL APPROACH IN THE LEGAL PROFESSION
  1.   DEFENDING THE WEA...
3.
3      JO   OO        O      O
     MAJOR TOOL: DEVELOPMENT OF ‘PLURAL PLANS’
                                   U     ...
TRANSACTIVE PLANNING

ALSO CALLED ‘POST RATIONAL PLANNING’

A RESPONSE TO THE FAILURES OF ADVOCACY
PLANNING

  BASED ON:
 ...
KNOWLEDGE SHARED

PROCESS & PERSONAL KNOWLEDGE BECOME FUSED
THRU:
   U
  1. PERSONAL AND VERBAL INTERACTION
      (DIALOGU...
MUTUAL LEARNING PROCESS

PLANNER CONTRIBUTES quot;PROCESSquot; KNOWLEDGE
  1. THEORY AND SCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGY
  2.
  2 L...
PLANNERS JOB:
  1.
  1 FACILITATE SHARED UNDERSTANDING
     AMONG PEOPLE
  2.
  2 ENGAGE IN MUTUAL LEARNING WITH
     CLIE...
COMPARISON OF APPROACHES

Rational Planning                            Advocacy Planning Transactive Planning

Audience
de...
COMPARISON OF APPROACHES



View of change process
controlled / stability
                     y            controlled / s...
MODELS FOR PLANNING

1.   AGGREGATE GROWTH MODELS:
     INVOLVING MACROECONOMIC ESTIMATES OF PLANNED OR
     REQUIRED CHAN...
SCOPE OF PLANNING

  AGGREGATE/NATIONAL
  REGIONAL
  SECTORAL
  PROJECT




             www.ginandjar.com   30
ANNUAL PLANNING AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT CYCLE
                                                       (1)
                 ...
GOOD PLAN
*   ECONOMICALLY EFFICIENT
*   POLITICALLY ACCEPTED
*   ADMINISTRATIVELY WORKABLE
*   IN ACCORDANCE WITH SOCIO-C...
BUDGET AND BUDGETING

  BUDGET IS AN ESTIMATION OF THE REVENUES AND
  EXPENSES OVER A SPECIFIED FUTURE PERIOD OF
  TIME

 ...
BUDGET’S ROLE

BUDGETS DIRECT EVERYTHING A GOVERNMENT
DOES. THEIR PROCESSES ARBITRATE OVER THE
ALLOCATION OF SCARCE RESOUR...
BUDGET IS A PLAN THAT SETS OUT
                           OUT:
   1.   THE OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES OF THE
        GOVERN...
4.   THE RESOURCES ALLOCATED ACROSS THESE
     PROGRAMMES AND ACTIVITIES,
5.   THE REVENUES PROJECTED TO BE COLLECTED TO
 ...
BUDGETING PRINCIPLES
   TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY
   COMPREHENSIVENESS OF BUDGET
   PREDICTABILITY OF RESOURCES & PO...
BUDGETING THEORIES

  PPBS

  PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, AND
  BUDGETING SYSTEMS
         DEVELOPED IN 1960s BY US DEPT OF
   ...
MBO
MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE

   DETERMINING OBJECTIVES BASED ON
   OVERALL GOALS
   CLOSE COOPERATION BETWEEN A MANAGER
  ...
BUDGETING THEORIES


ZBB
ZERO BASED BUDGETING

      LARGER BUDGET BROKEN INTO SMALLER
      “DECISION PACKAGES”
      MAN...
BUDGETING FOR PERFORMANCE


LINKING:
    INPUTS,
    OUTPUTS, AND
    OUTCOMES



                   www.ginandjar.com   41
INPUT
 CASH/ACCRUAL

OUTPUT
 PERFORMANCE DATA/INDICATORS/STANDARDS
 AUTHORITY
 ACCOUNTABILITY

OUTCOME
 CLEAR OBJECTIVES
 ...
CLASSIFICATION
 FUNCTIONAL
 PROGRAM
 ORGANIZATIONAL

MULTI-YEAR



              www.ginandjar.com   43
MTEF
MEDIUM TERM EXPENDITURE FRAMEWORK

  FISCAL TARGETS (WHAT IS AFFORDABLE)
  FORWARD ESTIMATES OF EXISTING POLICY
  INS...
BUDGET CYCLE

 THE BUDGET CYCLE IS MADE UP OF THE MAJOR
 EVENTS OR STAGES IN MAKING DECISIONS
 ABOUT THE BUDGET, AND IMPLE...
STAGE 1

BUDGET FORMULATION
THE BUDGET PLAN IS PUT TOGETHER BY
THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH OF GOVERNMENT

STAGE 2

BUDGET ENACTME...
STAGE 3

BUDGET EXECUTION
THE POLICIES OF THE BUDGET ARE
CARRIED OUT BY THE GOVERNMENT

STAGE 4

BUDGET AUDITING AND ASSES...
FISCAL FUNCTIONS

 1.   ALLOCATION
 2.   DISTRIBUTION
 3.
 3    STABILIZATION




                www.ginandjar.com   48
ALLOCATION FUNCTION
 THE PROVISION FOR SOCIAL GOODS, OR THE PROCESS BY
 WHICH TOTAL RESOURCE USE IS DIVIDED BETWEEN PRIVAT...
DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION
 ADJUSTMENT OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME AND
 WEALTH TO ENSURE CONFORMANCE WITH WHAT SOCIETY
 CONSI...
STABILIZATION FUNCTION

 THE USE O BUDGET POLICY AS A MEANS OF MAINTAINING
      S OF      G    O C S          SO         ...
INSTRUMENTS OF STABILIZATION FUNCTION

    1.   MONETARY INSTRUMENTS
           CONTROL OVER MONEY
           INTEREST RAT...
FISCAL-MONETARY MIX POLICY

TO INFLUENCE MACROECONOMIC ACTIVITY
1.  TIGHT-MONETARY AND LOOSE-FISCAL POLICY
    WILL TEND T...
OBSTACLE TO BUDGET DECISION MAKING

  1.   LACK OF GOAL CLARITY
  2.   CONFUSION OF THE PUBLIC INTEREST WITH
       THAT O...
4.   THE TENDENCY TO OVERSIMPLIFY REALITY
5.   “OVERQUANTIFICATION” AND TENDENCY TO
     DEEMPHASIZE OR IGNORE QUALITATIVE...
INDONESIA NATIONAL BUDGET
SCHEME (SINCE 2005)

 20 YEARLY   5 YEARLY             YEARLY
             PRESIDENT S
         ...
PROJECT PLANNING

 'DURING THE 1960s AND 1970s PROJECTS BECAME THE
 PRIMARY MEANS THROUGH WHICH GOVERNMENTS OF
 DEVELOPING...
AT THE HEART OF SUCH METHODOLOGIES IS THE
PROJECT CYCLE. THIS CONCEPTUALIZES PROJECTS
AS LOGICAL SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES IN...
THE CONVENTIONAL PROJECT CYCLE

                                      IDENTIFICATION
                            A develop...
UNFORTUNATELY, THE RIGOUR THAT SUCH
TECHNIQUES BRING TO PROJECT ANALYSIS HAS
NOT ALWAYS REVEALED ITSELF IN TERMS OF
PROJEC...
THE PROBLEMS

 JOHNSTON AND CLARK (1982) MAKE A POWERFUL
 CASE THAT THE CHALLENGES OF DEVELOPMENT,
 PARTICULARLY IN RURAL ...
Poor Data
 PROJECT PLANNING METHODOLOGIES DEMAND LARGE
 AMOUNTS OF RELIABLE DATA. IN MOST DEVELOPING
                     ...
Uncertainty

 A CENTRAL FEATURE OF PROJECT ENVIRONMENTS IN
 DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IS UNCERTAINTY AND INSTABILITY
          ...
Separation of planning from
management
    PROJECT PLANNING METHODOLOGIES HAVE
    DISTINGUISHED THE PLANNERS OF PROJECTS ...
Lack of beneficiary participation
     THE FAILURE OF CONVENTIONAL PROJECT PLANNING
     APPROACHES TO INVOLVE BENEFICIARI...
Projects and politics

 CONVENTIONAL PROJECT PLANNING METHODOLOGIES ARE
 BASED ON NORMATIVE ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORKS THAT
 IG...
ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO PROJECT
PLANNING

   THE SEARCH IS ON FOR APPROACHES THAT MAKE
   PROJECTS MORE EFFECTIVE, AND T...
THE SECOND RESPONSE HAS BEEN MORE RADICAL AND
PROPOSES THE REPLACEMENT OF THE CONVENTIONAL
APPROACH TO PROJECT PLANNING.
T...
ADAPTIVE ADMINISTRATION
 RONDINELLI (1993) HAS MADE AN IMPASSIONED PLEA FOR
 DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS TO BE CONCEPTUALIZED AS ...
SUCCESSFUL PILOT PROJECTS CAN FORM THE BASIS FOR
'DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS. . . TO SHOW THAT NEW
TECHNOLOGIES, METHODS, OR P...
EMPOWERMENT

 FOR THE OTHER RADICAL CRITICS OF CONVENTIONAL
 APPROACHES TO PROJECT PLANNING, THE KEY THEMES OF
 ADAPTIVE A...
THIS ENSURES THAT LOCAL KNOWLEDGE IS UTILIZED,
ACTIVITIES ARE CONSISTENT WITH LOCAL RESOURCE
ENDOWMENTS (HUMAN, ORGANIZATI...
CONCLUSION
 THE GREAT FAITH THAT WAS PLACED IN NATIONAL AND PROJECT
 PLANNING IN EARLIER TIMES HAS COLLAPSED BUT THIS DOES...
INSTEAD, THE FOCUS SHOULD BE ON MANAGING A LIMITED LUMBER OF
        ,
MACROECONOMIC POLICIES EFFECTIVELY; PROGRAMMING PUB...
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Graduate School of Asia and Pacific Studies University of Waseda, Tokyo-JAPAN 2008

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Transcript of "DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION (III)"

  1. 1. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: CONCEPTS AND PRACTICE VII. DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION (III) Graduate School of Asia and Pacific Studies University of Waseda, Tokyo-JAPAN 2008
  2. 2. CONTENTS 8 8. DEVELOPMENT PLANNING 9. BUDGET AND BUDGETING 10. PROJECT PLANNING www.ginandjar.com 2
  3. 3. DEVELOPMENT PLANNING PLANNING IS AN ORGANIZED, CONSCIOUS AND CONTINUAL ATTEMPT TO SELECT THE BEST AVAILABLE ALTERNATIVES TO ACHIEVE SPECIFIC GOALS. (ALBERT WATERSTON, 1965) www.ginandjar.com 3
  4. 4. PLANNING IS THE APPLICATION OF SCIENTIFIC METHODS TO POLICY MAKING (FALUDI, 1983) PLANNING IS A PROCESS FOR DETERMINING APPROPRIATE FUTURE ACTION THROUGH A SEQUENCE OF CHOICES (DAVIDOFF AND REINER, 1983) www.ginandjar.com 4
  5. 5. ARGUMENTS AGAINST PLANNING DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AND PUBLIC REGULATION, NO MORE APPROPRIATE, BECAUSE IT HINDERS CREATIVITY, PRIVATE INITIATIVE, BURDEN TO INOVATION, AND CREATE A HIGH , COST ECONOMY CLASSICAL LIBERAL www.ginandjar.com 5
  6. 6. WHY PLANNING? REDUCING UNCERTAINTY INTEGRATING SOME RATIONAL METHODS AND TECHNOLOGIES INTO PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS AND DECISION MAKING PROCESS www.ginandjar.com 6
  7. 7. WHY PLANNING ? PROVIDING THE CHANCE AND BLUE PRINT TO CONTROL AND MONITOR THE PUBLIC EFFORTS FROM TIME TO TIME. INCREASING PARTICIPATION FROM THE PEOPLE ON DECISION MAKING, AT LEAST WIDENING THE HORIZON OF THE PUBLIC EXPONENTS EXPONENTS. www.ginandjar.com 7
  8. 8. OTHER REASONS MARKET FAILURE RESOURCE MOBILIZATION AND ALLOCATION ATTITUDINAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT FOREIGN AID ? (TODARO, 2000) www.ginandjar.com 8
  9. 9. THE ROLE OF PLANNERS WHAT IS OR SHOULD BE THE TOPIC OR FOCUS OF PLANNING? WHO DOES THE PLANNER WORK FOR? WHAT IS THE GOAL OF PLANNING? (IS EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES POSSIBLE?)) HOW DO WE ACHIEVE OUR GOALS? (IS RATIONAL DECISION MAKING POSSIBLE?) WHAT IS PRACTICAL EXPECTATIONS? (LEW, 1996) www.ginandjar.com 9
  10. 10. SOME PLANNING APPROACHES: 1) POLITICAL 2) TECHNOCRATIC 3) PARTICIPATIVE 4) TOP DOWN TOP-DOWN 5) BOTTOM-UP www.ginandjar.com 10
  11. 11. ELEMENTS OF PLANNING: 1. GOALS 2. PRIORITY AND TARGETS 3. TIME FRAME 4. CONSTRAINTS 5. CAPITAL AND RESOURCES, AND ITS ALLOCATIONS 6. IMPLEMENTATION POLICIES AND STRATEGIES 7. IMPLEMENTING AGENCIES AND HUMAN RESOURCES 8. MONITORING, EVALUATION AND CONTROL MECHANISM www.ginandjar.com 11
  12. 12. PLANNING CRITERIA 1. COMPREHENSIVE AND INDICATIVE 2. CONTROL AND DIRECTING GOVERNMENT SPENDING IN ORDER TO STIMULATE THE PRIVATE INVESTMENT 3. STIMULATE MARKET MECHANISM 4. PEOPLE PARTICIPATION PROCESS 5. AFFIRMATIVE ACTION www.ginandjar.com 12
  13. 13. TYPES OF PLANNING 1. RATIONAL PLANNING SYNOPTIC PLANNING, COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING , BASIS FOR MOST PUBLIC PLANNING 2. INCREMENTAL PLANNING 3. ADVOCACY PLANNING 4. TRANSACTIVE PLANNING www.ginandjar.com 13
  14. 14. RATIONAL PLANNING: THE PROCESS: 1. IDENTIFY A PROBLEM 2. IDENTIFY A GOAL 3. COLLECT BACKGROUND DATA 4. 4 IDENTIFY A MEANS OF ASSESSING ALTERNATIVE PLAN SCENARIOS 5. IDENTIFY ALTERNATIVE PLAN SCENARIOS CONSISTING OF POLICIES AND GUIDELINES TO ACHIEVE THE GOAL www.ginandjar.com 14
  15. 15. 6. ASSESS ALTERNATIVE PLAN SCENARIOS 7. SELECT THE PREFERRED ALTERNATIVE 8. IMPLEMENT THE PLAN 9 9. MONITOR EVALUATE AND REVISE THE MONITOR, IMPLEMENTATION 10. 10 IDENTIFY NEW PROBLEMS AND BEGIN THE PROCESS AGAIN www.ginandjar.com 15
  16. 16. WEAKNESS IN ASSUMPTIONS 1. ASSUMES THAT PEOPLE BEHAVE RATIONALLY - THAT RATIONALITY IS A PART OF EVERYDAY LIFE - THAT PEOPLE AND EVENTS ARE PREDICTABILITY 2 2. ASSUMES UNLIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING CAPABILITIES AND PERFECT INFORMATION - COST OF INFORMATION COLLECTION IS AFFORDABLE - ABILITY TO IDENTIFY ALL ALTERNATIVES (‘SYNOPTIC’) www.ginandjar.com 16
  17. 17. 3. ASSUMES THAT ONLY FACTS EXIST − NO VALUES (SUBJECTIVE BELIEF SYSTEMS) − ALL VARIABLES EXIST WITHIN AN INTERCONNECTED AND CLOSED SYSTEM (NO UNFORESEEABLE ( VARIABLES) 4. ASSUMES A RATIONAL-DEDUCTIVE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS − IF ‘A’ HAPPENS, THE ‘B’ WILL FOLLOW − NO NEED FOR POLITICAL STRATEGIES − NOT SUITED FOR CRISIS OR UNFORESEEN EVENTS www.ginandjar.com 17
  18. 18. ALTHOUGH RATIONAL PLANNING IS OFTEN CRITICIZED BUT IT STILL REMAINS THE MOST COMMON APPROACH TO PLANNING BECAUSE IT IS: RATIONAL AND THEREFORE EASIER TO JUSTIFY ( (LEW, 1996) , ) www.ginandjar.com 18
  19. 19. INCREMENTAL PLANNING AN ALTERNATIVE THEORY THAT ACCEPTS MOST OBVIOUS SHORTCOMINGS OF RATIONAL PLANNING DEVELOPED FROM THE PEACE CORPS IN THE 1960S 1. 1 LIMITED TIME PERIODS/HORIZONS 2. POLITICAL DECISION MAKING 3. LIMITED AND IMPERFECT INFORMATION www.ginandjar.com 19
  20. 20. 4. 4 LIMITED TIME AND MONEY FOR DATA COLLECTION 5. SOCIETAL VALUES ARE AS IMPORTANT AS FACTS 6. OPEN, RAPIDLY CHANGING SYSTEM; UNFORESEEABLE EVENTS 7. PLANNING IS DISJOINTED, INCREMENTAL AND SERIAL (SERIAL = ONE EVENT AFTER ANOTHER WITH NO GIANT STEPS) www.ginandjar.com 20
  21. 21. ADVOCACY PLANNING CAME OUT OF 1960S, CONSIDER AS AN ADVERSARIAL APPROACH IN THE LEGAL PROFESSION 1. DEFENDING THE WEAK AGAINST THE STRONG WEAK MEANS: THE POOR DISENFRANCHISED; MEANS POOR; DISENFRANCHISED ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSES 2. 2 BLOCKING INSENSITIVE PLANNING SUCH AS ‘URBAN RENEWAL’ www.ginandjar.com 21
  22. 22. 3. 3 JO OO O O MAJOR TOOL: DEVELOPMENT OF ‘PLURAL PLANS’ U S DIFFERENT PLANS FOR DIFFERENT SECTORS OF THE COMMUNITY 4. CRITICIZED FOR BLOCKING EFFICIENT PLANNING 5. SOCIAL POLICY & ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE BECAME IMPORTANT PLANNING ISSUES 6. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IS THE ‘MAINSTREAMING’ OF ADVOCACY ISSUES www.ginandjar.com 22
  23. 23. TRANSACTIVE PLANNING ALSO CALLED ‘POST RATIONAL PLANNING’ A RESPONSE TO THE FAILURES OF ADVOCACY PLANNING BASED ON: 1. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY HOW DO SOCIETIES LEARN (AND CHANGE) 2. INTERPERSONAL INTERACTION DIALOGUE AND MUTUAL LEARNING www.ginandjar.com 23
  24. 24. KNOWLEDGE SHARED PROCESS & PERSONAL KNOWLEDGE BECOME FUSED THRU: U 1. PERSONAL AND VERBAL INTERACTION (DIALOGUE) PUBLIC GOOD IS ACHIEVED 2. EFFORTS TO CREATE INTELLIGENT INSTITUTIONS INSTITUTIONS WHICH ARE SELF-LEARNING/ EDUCATING/ADAPTING www.ginandjar.com 24
  25. 25. MUTUAL LEARNING PROCESS PLANNER CONTRIBUTES quot;PROCESSquot; KNOWLEDGE 1. THEORY AND SCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGY 2. 2 LARGER SOCIETAL PERSPECTIVE & CONCERNS CLIENT CONTRIBUTES quot;PERSONALquot; KNOWLEDGE 1. DIRECT PERSONAL EXPERIENCE 2. KNOWLEDGE OF LOCAL CONDITIONS AND NEEDS BOTH ARE OF EQUAL VALUE AND IMPORTANCE www.ginandjar.com 25
  26. 26. PLANNERS JOB: 1. 1 FACILITATE SHARED UNDERSTANDING AMONG PEOPLE 2. 2 ENGAGE IN MUTUAL LEARNING WITH CLIENTS/PEOPLE BOTH REQUIRE ‘DIALOGUE’ Q MAJOR CRITICISMS: VERY TIME CONSUMING AND DIFFICULT VERY PERSONAL & SUBJECTIVE www.ginandjar.com 26
  27. 27. COMPARISON OF APPROACHES Rational Planning Advocacy Planning Transactive Planning Audience decision maker / power holder a community group society / quot;the people” the people View held by client goal oriented / rational goal oriented / rational experiential View of self (planner) rational analyst & technician rational analyst catalyst / inventor & change agent Methodology science science & politics dialogue & politics Techniques analytical analytical process / synthesis Data objective & processed objective & processed objective / processed & subjective/personal Goal one best solution solution perceived best a working solution & by client continuing process www.ginandjar.com 27
  28. 28. COMPARISON OF APPROACHES View of change process controlled / stability y controlled / stability y g guided / responsive to change p g View of future comprehensive / time-driven partial / short term evolutionary / long-term Worldview W ld i elitist / structural efficiency benevolent / functional participatory / structural & efficiency functional efficiency Problem environment isolated (closed system) isolated (closed system) open system Implementation not planner's problem not planner's problem part of solution process Focus the problem the problem & potential actors the problem & potential actors (LEW, 1996) www.ginandjar.com 28
  29. 29. MODELS FOR PLANNING 1. AGGREGATE GROWTH MODELS: INVOLVING MACROECONOMIC ESTIMATES OF PLANNED OR REQUIRED CHANGES IN PRINCIPAL ECONOMIC VARIABLES Q 2. MULTISECTOR INPUT-OUTPUT MODELS: WHICH ASCERTAIN THE PRODUCTION, RESOURCES, EMPLOYMENT, AND FOREIGN-EXCHANGE IMPLICATIONS OF A , GIVEN SET OF FINAL DEMAND TARGETS WITHIN INTERINDUSTRY PRODUCT FLOWS 3. DETAILED SELECTION OF SPECIFIC INVESTMENT WITHIN SECTOR: THROUGH THE TECHNIQUE OF PROJECT APPRAISAL AND SOCIAL COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS (TODARO, (TODARO 2000) www.ginandjar.com 29
  30. 30. SCOPE OF PLANNING AGGREGATE/NATIONAL REGIONAL SECTORAL PROJECT www.ginandjar.com 30
  31. 31. ANNUAL PLANNING AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT CYCLE (1) REVIEW POLICY R i h i Review the previous planning and l i d implementation period (2) (6) SET POLICY AND UNDERTAKE EVALUATE AND AUDIT PLANNING ACTIVITY Policy activities, effectiveness and Establish resource frame work, set out feed the results into future plans objectives, policies, strategies and expenditure priorities (3) (5) MOBILIZE AND ALLOCATE MONITOR activities and RESOURCES ACCOUNT for expenditures Prepare Budget (4) IMPLEMENTATION PLANNED ACTIVITIES Collect revenues, release funds, deploy personnel, undertake personnel activities Source : World Bank, “Public Expenditure Management Handbook”, 1998
  32. 32. GOOD PLAN * ECONOMICALLY EFFICIENT * POLITICALLY ACCEPTED * ADMINISTRATIVELY WORKABLE * IN ACCORDANCE WITH SOCIO-CULTURAL AND ETHICS www.ginandjar.com 32
  33. 33. BUDGET AND BUDGETING BUDGET IS AN ESTIMATION OF THE REVENUES AND EXPENSES OVER A SPECIFIED FUTURE PERIOD OF TIME THE PURPOSE OF BUDGETING: CONTROL OVER PUBLIC MONEY AND ACCOUNTABILITY TO PUBLIC AUTHORITY www.ginandjar.com 33
  34. 34. BUDGET’S ROLE BUDGETS DIRECT EVERYTHING A GOVERNMENT DOES. THEIR PROCESSES ARBITRATE OVER THE ALLOCATION OF SCARCE RESOURCES AMONG THE COMPETING DEMANDS OF AGENCIES WHOSE CO G SO G C S OS BUSINESS IT IS TO SEE PUBLIC NEEDS FULFILLED (XAVIER, 2001) www.ginandjar.com 34
  35. 35. BUDGET IS A PLAN THAT SETS OUT OUT: 1. THE OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES OF THE GOVERNMENT IN A BUDGET YEAR YEAR, 2. THE PROGRAMMES AND ACTIVITIES THAT WOULD BE CARRIED OUT TO EXECUTE THE STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE THE OVERALL OBJECTIVES, , 3. THE RESPECTIVE OBJECTIVES OF THESE PROGRAMMES AND ACTIVITIES THAT REFLECT THE DISAGGREGATION OF THE OVERALL OBJECTIVES OF GOVERNMENT www.ginandjar.com 35
  36. 36. 4. THE RESOURCES ALLOCATED ACROSS THESE PROGRAMMES AND ACTIVITIES, 5. THE REVENUES PROJECTED TO BE COLLECTED TO FINANCE THE EXPENDITURE IN CARRYING OUT THE PROGRAMMES AND ACTIVITIES, ACTIVITIES 6. PERFORMANCE TARGETS – IN TERM OF THE DELIVERY OF SERVICES IN THE RIGHT QUANTITY, QUANTITY QUALITY AND IN A TIMELY AND COST-EFFECTIVE FASHION – THAT WOULD NEED TO BE ACHIEVED TO MEETING THE SUB-OBJECTIVES AND, THEREBY, THE OVERALL OBJECTIVES OF THE GOVERNMENT (XAVIER, 2001) www.ginandjar.com 36
  37. 37. BUDGETING PRINCIPLES TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY COMPREHENSIVENESS OF BUDGET PREDICTABILITY OF RESOURCES & POLICIES FLEXIBILITY CONTESTABILITY EXISTENCE AND SHARING OF INFORMATION www.ginandjar.com 37
  38. 38. BUDGETING THEORIES PPBS PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, AND BUDGETING SYSTEMS DEVELOPED IN 1960s BY US DEPT OF DEFENSE BUDGETING BASED ON LONG-TERM PLANNING NEEDS www.ginandjar.com 38
  39. 39. MBO MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE DETERMINING OBJECTIVES BASED ON OVERALL GOALS CLOSE COOPERATION BETWEEN A MANAGER AND HIS/HER SUBORDINATES www.ginandjar.com 39
  40. 40. BUDGETING THEORIES ZBB ZERO BASED BUDGETING LARGER BUDGET BROKEN INTO SMALLER “DECISION PACKAGES” MANAGERS OF EACH DECISION PACKAGE JUSTIFIES ENTIRE BUDGET FROM SCRATCH EACH YEAR (ZERO BASE) (ZERO-BASE) www.ginandjar.com 40
  41. 41. BUDGETING FOR PERFORMANCE LINKING: INPUTS, OUTPUTS, AND OUTCOMES www.ginandjar.com 41
  42. 42. INPUT CASH/ACCRUAL OUTPUT PERFORMANCE DATA/INDICATORS/STANDARDS AUTHORITY ACCOUNTABILITY OUTCOME CLEAR OBJECTIVES INDICATORS EVALUATION www.ginandjar.com 42
  43. 43. CLASSIFICATION FUNCTIONAL PROGRAM ORGANIZATIONAL MULTI-YEAR www.ginandjar.com 43
  44. 44. MTEF MEDIUM TERM EXPENDITURE FRAMEWORK FISCAL TARGETS (WHAT IS AFFORDABLE) FORWARD ESTIMATES OF EXISTING POLICY INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISMS FOR MAKING THE TRADE-OFFS A FOCUS ON PERFORMANCE ENHANCED PREDICTABILITY www.ginandjar.com 44
  45. 45. BUDGET CYCLE THE BUDGET CYCLE IS MADE UP OF THE MAJOR EVENTS OR STAGES IN MAKING DECISIONS ABOUT THE BUDGET, AND IMPLEMENTING AND ASSESSING THOSE DECISIONS. THE SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BUDGET CYCLE DIFFER FROM COUNTRY TO COUNTRY. NONETHELESS, IN MOST COUNTRIES, THE BUDGET CYCLE IS LIKELY TO HAVE FOUR STAGES www.ginandjar.com 45
  46. 46. STAGE 1 BUDGET FORMULATION THE BUDGET PLAN IS PUT TOGETHER BY THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH OF GOVERNMENT STAGE 2 BUDGET ENACTMENT THE BUDGET PLAN MAY BE DEBATED DEBATED, ALTERED, AND APPROVED BY THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH OF GOVERNMENT www.ginandjar.com 46
  47. 47. STAGE 3 BUDGET EXECUTION THE POLICIES OF THE BUDGET ARE CARRIED OUT BY THE GOVERNMENT STAGE 4 BUDGET AUDITING AND ASSESSMENT THE ACTUAL EXPENDITURES OF THE BUDGET ARE ACCOUNTED FOR AND ASSESSED FOR EFFECTIVENESS www.ginandjar.com 47
  48. 48. FISCAL FUNCTIONS 1. ALLOCATION 2. DISTRIBUTION 3. 3 STABILIZATION www.ginandjar.com 48
  49. 49. ALLOCATION FUNCTION THE PROVISION FOR SOCIAL GOODS, OR THE PROCESS BY WHICH TOTAL RESOURCE USE IS DIVIDED BETWEEN PRIVATE AND SOCIAL GOODS AND BY WHICH THE MIX OF SOCIAL GOODS IS CHOSEN THIS PROVISION MAY BE TERMED THE ALLOCATION OF BUDGET POLICY (MUSGRAVE AND MUSGRAVE, 1989) www.ginandjar.com 49
  50. 50. DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION ADJUSTMENT OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME AND WEALTH TO ENSURE CONFORMANCE WITH WHAT SOCIETY CONSIDERS A “FAIR” OR “JUST” STATE OF DISTRIBUTION. (MUSGRAVE AND MUSGRAVE, 1989) www.ginandjar.com 50
  51. 51. STABILIZATION FUNCTION THE USE O BUDGET POLICY AS A MEANS OF MAINTAINING S OF G O C S SO G HIGH EMPLOYMENT, A REASONABLE DEGREE OF PRICE LEVEL STABILITY, AND AN APPROPRIATE RATE OF ECONOMIC GROWTH, WITH ALLOWANCES FOR EFFECTS ON TRADE AND ON THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS. (MUSGRAVE AND MUSGRAVE, 1989) www.ginandjar.com 51
  52. 52. INSTRUMENTS OF STABILIZATION FUNCTION 1. MONETARY INSTRUMENTS CONTROL OVER MONEY INTEREST RATE CREDIT CONDITIONS 2. FISCAL INSTRUMENTS GOVERNMENT SPENDING THE AMOUNT AND TYPE OF TAXES www.ginandjar.com 52
  53. 53. FISCAL-MONETARY MIX POLICY TO INFLUENCE MACROECONOMIC ACTIVITY 1. TIGHT-MONETARY AND LOOSE-FISCAL POLICY WILL TEND TO ENCOURAGE CONSUMPTION AND RETARD INVESTMENT 2. EASY-MONETARY AND TIGH-FISCAL POLICY WILL TEND TO DISCOURAGE CONSUMPTION AND ACCELERATE INVESTMENT www.ginandjar.com 53
  54. 54. OBSTACLE TO BUDGET DECISION MAKING 1. LACK OF GOAL CLARITY 2. CONFUSION OF THE PUBLIC INTEREST WITH THAT OF A CUSTOMER CLIENTELE GROUP, OR CUSTOMER, GROUP CONSTITUENCY 3 3. RIGID CONSERVATISM (IN THE SENSE OF STRICT ADHERENCE TO RULES, PROCEDURES, AND PAST PRACTICES) ) www.ginandjar.com 54
  55. 55. 4. THE TENDENCY TO OVERSIMPLIFY REALITY 5. “OVERQUANTIFICATION” AND TENDENCY TO DEEMPHASIZE OR IGNORE QUALITATIVE FACTORS 6. RELUCTANCE TO ENGAGE IN POLICY AND PROGRAM EVALUATION (ROSENBLOOM AND KRAVCHUCK, 2005) www.ginandjar.com 55
  56. 56. INDONESIA NATIONAL BUDGET SCHEME (SINCE 2005) 20 YEARLY 5 YEARLY YEARLY PRESIDENT S PRESIDENT’S VISION LTDP MTDP GWP STRA-PLAN OF DEPT DEPT AP DEPT ABP STATE BUDGET www.ginandjar.com 56
  57. 57. PROJECT PLANNING 'DURING THE 1960s AND 1970s PROJECTS BECAME THE PRIMARY MEANS THROUGH WHICH GOVERNMENTS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES TRANSLATED THEIR PLANS AND POLICIES INTO PROGRAMMES OF ACTION' (RONDINELLI, 1993) (RONDINELLI 1993). PROJECTS WERE SEEN AS THE 'CUTTING EDGE OF DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT' (GITTINGER, 1982), WHERE RESOURCES WERE CONVERTED INTO IMPROVED LIVELIHOODS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH. www.ginandjar.com 57
  58. 58. AT THE HEART OF SUCH METHODOLOGIES IS THE PROJECT CYCLE. THIS CONCEPTUALIZES PROJECTS AS LOGICAL SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES IN PURSUIT OF KNOWN OBJECTIVES. www.ginandjar.com 58
  59. 59. THE CONVENTIONAL PROJECT CYCLE IDENTIFICATION A developing problem or opportunity is identified through technical or political processes EVALUATION DATA COLLECTION At various times (usually mid-term Project planners collect all available and completion) specialist data (primary and secondary) on the evaluators measure the costs and problem/opportunity benefits of the project and p p j provide feedback IMPLEMENTATION DATA ANALYSIS AND PROJECT The plan and necessary resources PREPARATION are provided to the specialist The data is analyzed and a number managers so that the action of alternatives project to solve the specified in the plan are carried out problem or realized the opportunity are prepared PROJECT APPRAISAL AND SELECTION The alternative project plans are appraised in terms of likely costs, benefit and risks. The best project is selected and, if p j , approved, is implemented www.ginandjar.com 59
  60. 60. UNFORTUNATELY, THE RIGOUR THAT SUCH TECHNIQUES BRING TO PROJECT ANALYSIS HAS NOT ALWAYS REVEALED ITSELF IN TERMS OF PROJECT RESULTS. THE WORLD BANK (1988) HAS FOUND THAT SOME 51 PER CENT OF ITS RURAL DEVELOPMENT AREA PROJECTS, OVER THE PERIOD 1965 TO 1985 FAILED TO ACHIEVE THE BANK S 1985, BANK'S MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE RATE OF RETURN OF 10 PER CENT. www.ginandjar.com 60
  61. 61. THE PROBLEMS JOHNSTON AND CLARK (1982) MAKE A POWERFUL CASE THAT THE CHALLENGES OF DEVELOPMENT, PARTICULARLY IN RURAL AREAS, ARE NOT 'WELL AREAS WELL STRUCTURED' PROBLEMS, AS PROJECT PLANNING METHODOLOGIES ASSUME, BUT ARE ILL STRUCTURED' OR SIMPLY 'A MESS'. MESS' www.ginandjar.com 61
  62. 62. Poor Data PROJECT PLANNING METHODOLOGIES DEMAND LARGE AMOUNTS OF RELIABLE DATA. IN MOST DEVELOPING DATA COUNTRIES SUCH DATA IS NOT AVAILABLE AND SO PLANNERS HAVE TO MAKE ASSUMPTIONS. THERE IS A WIDESPREAD TENDENCY FOR SUCH ASSUMPTIONS, ABOUT YIELDS, COSTS, THE RATES AT WHICH PEOPLE WILL CHANGE THEIR BEHAVIOUR, TO BE , OVER-OPTIMISTIC (PORTER ET AL., 1991). COMMONLY PROJECT PLANNERS HAVE COMPOUNDED THE PROBLEMS OF DATA NON AVAILABILITY BY IGNORING NON-AVAILABILITY THE INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE OF INTENDED BENEFICIARIES (CHAMBERS, 1983). www.ginandjar.com 62
  63. 63. Uncertainty A CENTRAL FEATURE OF PROJECT ENVIRONMENTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IS UNCERTAINTY AND INSTABILITY INSTABILITY. HOWEVER, CONVENTIONAL METHODOLOGIES MAKE LITTLE ALLOWANCE FOR THE IMPACT THAT A SUDDEN CHANGE IN PHYSICAL FACTORS (FOR EXAMPLE RAINFALL), ECONOMIC RAINFALL) FACTORS (FOR EXAMPLE PRICES) OR SOCIAL FACTORS (FOR EXAMPLE THE LEVEL OF LAWLESSNESS) WILL HAVE ON A PROJECT'S EFFECTIVENESS. EFFECTIVENESS www.ginandjar.com 63
  64. 64. Separation of planning from management PROJECT PLANNING METHODOLOGIES HAVE DISTINGUISHED THE PLANNERS OF PROJECTS FROM THE MANAGERS. THE FORMER HAVE BEEN SEEN AS HIGH-POWERED ANALYSTS, HIGH POWERED ANALYSTS TECHNOCRATS WHOSE 'TOOLS BECAME THEIR POWER' (RONDINELLI, 1993). THE LATTER HAVE BEEN CLASSIFIED AS MERE IMPLEMENTORS WHO ONLY NEED TO FOLLOW THE PLAN. MORE IMPORTANTLY IT HAS LED TO AN UNDERESTIMATION OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF GOOD MANAGEMENT TO PROJECT PERFORMANCE AND OF THE COMPLEXITY OF CREATING MANAGEMENT CAPACITY. www.ginandjar.com 64
  65. 65. Lack of beneficiary participation THE FAILURE OF CONVENTIONAL PROJECT PLANNING APPROACHES TO INVOLVE BENEFICIARIES IN PROJECT IDENTIFICATION, DATA GATHERING, DESIGN AND SELECTION HAS FOSTERED BENEFICIARY DEPENDENCY, DISCOURAGED FEELINGS OF LOCAL OWNERSHIP OF PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND SOMETIMES ALIENATED THE INTENDED BENEFICIARIES OF PROJECTS. www.ginandjar.com 65
  66. 66. Projects and politics CONVENTIONAL PROJECT PLANNING METHODOLOGIES ARE BASED ON NORMATIVE ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORKS THAT IGNORE POLITICAL FACTORS (HULME, 1994A). THIS IS A CONSIDERABLE WEAKNESS GIVEN THE LARGE BODY OF EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE WHICH INDICATES THAT PROJECT IDENTIFICATION, PLANNING, SELECTION AND IMPLEMENTATION ARE HIGHLY POLITICAL PROCESSES IN WHICH AID AGENCIES, POLITICAL PARTIES, LOCAL ELITES, AGENCIES PARTIES ELITES POLITICIANS, BUREAUCRATS AND OTHERS SEEK TO ACHIEVE OUTCOMES THAT MEET THEIR INDIVIDUAL, GROUP, ORGANIZATIONAL OR CLASS INTERESTS (IBID). www.ginandjar.com 66
  67. 67. ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO PROJECT PLANNING THE SEARCH IS ON FOR APPROACHES THAT MAKE PROJECTS MORE EFFECTIVE, AND TWO FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT RESPONSES CAN BE DISTINGUISHED DISTINGUISHED. THE FIRST HAS BEEN TO REFINE EXISTING METHODOLOGIES SO THAT AS GAPS ARE REVEALED THEY ARE PLUGGED BY ADDITIONAL METHODS AND DISCIPLINES. THIS HAS BEEN THE APPROACH OF MOST INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL AGENCIES AND DONORS. www.ginandjar.com 67
  68. 68. THE SECOND RESPONSE HAS BEEN MORE RADICAL AND PROPOSES THE REPLACEMENT OF THE CONVENTIONAL APPROACH TO PROJECT PLANNING. TWO DIFFERENT CONCEPTUAL BASES UNDERLIE SUCH PROPOSALS. ONE (ADAPTIVE ADMINISTRATION) HIGHLIGHTS THE ROLE OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION VIS-A-VIS PROJECT PLANNING (RONDINELLI, 1993). THE OTHER IS AN EMPOWERMENT CONCEPT SUCH AS THE PARTICIPATORY RURAL APPRAISAL (PRA), WHICH EMPHASIZES THE ROLE OF COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AT ALL STAGES OF THE PROJECT CYCLE (CHAMBERS, 1993 AND 1994; MASCHARENHAS, 1991). ; , ) www.ginandjar.com 68
  69. 69. ADAPTIVE ADMINISTRATION RONDINELLI (1993) HAS MADE AN IMPASSIONED PLEA FOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS TO BE CONCEPTUALIZED AS 'POLICY EXPERIMENTS' REQUIRING 'ADAPTIVE ADMINISTRATION'. HE ARGUES THAT AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH WHICH PLACES ELEMENTS OF PLANNING, IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING IN THE HANDS OF PROJECT MANAGERS, IS ESSENTIAL. THIS IS BECAUSE OF THE ENVIRONMENTS IN WHICH DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS OPERATE (LIMITED INFORMATION, INFORMATION HIGH RISK, UNCERTAINTY AND POLITICAL MANIPULATION) AND THE CAPACITIES THAT ARE REQUIRED TO BECOME EFFECTIVE IN SUCH ENVIRONMENTS (LEARNING, EXPERIMENTATION (LEARNING EXPERIMENTATION, CREATIVITY, ORGANIZATIONAL FLEXIBILITY AND ACCESS TO LOCAL KNOWLEDGE). www.ginandjar.com 69
  70. 70. SUCCESSFUL PILOT PROJECTS CAN FORM THE BASIS FOR 'DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS. . . TO SHOW THAT NEW TECHNOLOGIES, METHODS, OR PROGRAMMES ARE BETTER THAN TRADITIONAL ONES BECAUSE THEY INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY, LOWER PRODUCTION COSTS, RAISE INCOME OR DELIVER SOCIAL SERVICES MORE EFFICIENTLY' (IBID., P. ( 139). SIMPLE BLUEPRINTS ARE INAPPROPRIATE AS THERE MUST BE CAREFUL CONSIDERATION OF HOW TO DEVELOP ADMINISTRATIVE CAPACITY FOR SERVICE DELIVERY, WHICH INSTITUTIONS SHOULD BE INVOLVED (BUREAUCRATIC OR PRIVATE SECTOR), AND HOW TO ENSURE FINANCIAL SECTOR) SUSTAINABILITY. www.ginandjar.com 70
  71. 71. EMPOWERMENT FOR THE OTHER RADICAL CRITICS OF CONVENTIONAL APPROACHES TO PROJECT PLANNING, THE KEY THEMES OF ADAPTIVE ADMINISTRATION –EXPERIMENTATION, , FLEXIBILITY, LEARNING AND CREATIVITY –ARE CRUCIAL, BUT THERE REMAINS TOO GREAT AN EMPHASIS ON THE ROLE OF EXTERNAL EXPERTS, BUREAUCRATS AND AID AGENCIES. INSTEAD, WHAT IS REQUIRED IS AN APPROACH THAT PERMITS MUCH GREATER BENEFICIARY INVOLVEMENT IN PROJECT IDENTIFICATION, SELECTION, DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION. www.ginandjar.com 71
  72. 72. THIS ENSURES THAT LOCAL KNOWLEDGE IS UTILIZED, ACTIVITIES ARE CONSISTENT WITH LOCAL RESOURCE ENDOWMENTS (HUMAN, ORGANIZATIONAL, MATERIAL O S( U ,O G O , AND FINANCIAL) AND THAT THE PROJECT PROCESS CONTRIBUTES TO THE 'EMPOWERMENT' OF DISADVANTAGED GROUPS. GROUPS SUCH APPROACHES HAVE BEEN SPEARHEADED BY THE WORK OF A LARGE NUMBER OF LOCAL, NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL NGO AS DESCRIBED BY ROBERT NGOs CHAMBERS (1993, P. 97, AND 1994). WIDELY KNOWN APPROACH, PARTICIPATORY RURAL , APPRAISAL (PRA) INVOLVING NGO SOCIAL WORKERS. www.ginandjar.com 72
  73. 73. CONCLUSION THE GREAT FAITH THAT WAS PLACED IN NATIONAL AND PROJECT PLANNING IN EARLIER TIMES HAS COLLAPSED BUT THIS DOES NOT COLLAPSED. MEAN THAT PLANNING NEEDS TO BE THROWN ON THE SCRAP-HEAP. RATHER IT CALLS FOR NEW AND MORE EFFECTIVE WAYS TO PLAN THAT FULLY RECOGNIZE THAT PLANNING IS A REAL WORLD, AND NOT REAL-WORLD, AN IDEAL-WORLD, PRACTICE. THE APPROACHES USED FOR PLANNING MUST RECOGNIZE THAT KNOWLEDGE IS OFTEN LIMITED, INFORMATION ONLY PARTIALLY LIMITED AVAILABLE, UNCERTAINTY AND RISK CONSIDERABLE, ANALYTICAL CAPACITY IS A SCARCE RESOURCE AND THAT PLANNING IS INHERENTLY A POLITICAL PROCESS. FOR NATIONAL PLANNING THIS MEANS THAT ATTEMPTS TO CONTROL THE NATIONAL ECONOMY, AS THOUGH IT WAS A WELL-UNDERSTOOD MACHINE, MACHINE MUST BE PUT ASIDE. ASIDE www.ginandjar.com 73
  74. 74. INSTEAD, THE FOCUS SHOULD BE ON MANAGING A LIMITED LUMBER OF , MACROECONOMIC POLICIES EFFECTIVELY; PROGRAMMING PUBLIC INVESTMENT ON A MEDIUM-TERM VIEW TO ENSURE THAT THE ESSENTIAL PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE (ON WHICH ( PRIVATE-SECTOR ACTIVITY IS DEPENDENT) IS DEVELOPED; AND, STRENGTHENING THE ANNUAL BUDGETARY PROCESS. A GREATER CONCERN WITH IMPLEMENTATION AND INTENDED BENEFICIARY PARTICIPATION IS LIKELY TO YIELD DIVIDENDS WELL BEYOND THOSE THAT WILL BE PRODUCED BY INCREASINGLY SOPHISTICATED BUT IRRELEVANT QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS. ANALYSIS IN AN UNCERTAIN AND RAPIDLY CHANGING WORLD 'ACTING OUT' APPROACHES TO SOCIETAL PROBLEM-SOLVING HAVE MUCH TO RECOMMEND THEM DESPITE THE INTELLECTUAL APPEAL OF PRETENDING THAT GROUPS OF TECHNICAL SPECIALISTS CAN 'THINK THROUGH' SUCH PROBLEMS. www.ginandjar.com 74
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