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Development and Administration (II)

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Graduate School of Asia and Pacific Studies …

Graduate School of Asia and Pacific Studies
University of Waseda, Tokyo-JAPAN 2010

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  • 1. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: CONCEPTS AND PRACTICE V. DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION (II) Graduate School of Asia and Pacific Studies University of Waseda, Tokyo-JAPAN 2010
  • 2. CONTENTS
    • ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM
    • NEW PARADIGMS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
      • NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
      • REINVENTING (ENTREPRENEURIAL) GOVERNMENT
      • THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT
      • NEW PUBLIC SERVICE
      • GOVERNANCE
      • POST MODERN ADMINISTRATION
      • E-GOVERNANCE
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 3. ADMINISTRATION OF DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC POLITICAL SOCIAL ADMINISTRATIVE DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION APPROACH MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION/ INSTITUTION Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 4. Graduate School of Asia and Pacific Studies University of Waseda, Tokyo-JAPAN 2010
  • 5.
    • THE DECADES SINCE THE END OF WORLD WAR TWO HAVE WITNESSED AN UNRIVALLED DRIVE FOR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT BY THE MAJORITY OF THE WORLD'S NATIONS.
    • HOWEVER, THE ACHIEVEMENT OF DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN A SHORT TIME HAS PROVED ELUSIVE FOR ALL EXCEPT A SMALL NUMBER OF 'TIGERS' IN EAST ASIA. MANY PROCESSES AND FACTORS HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED AS CONTRIBUTING TO THE DIFFERING LEVELS OF ACHIEVEMENT, AND PROMINENT AMONGST THESE HAS BEEN THE ARGUMENT THAT PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATIONS HAVE OFTEN PERFORMED POORLY.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 6.
    • THERE IS AMPLE EVIDENCE OF DYSFUNCTIONAL BUREAUCRACIES AVIDLY DEVOURING SCARCE RESOURCES BUT FAILING TO PRODUCE ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES.
    • IT IS NOT DIFFICULT TO FIND POLICIES THAT SERVE TO KEEP ILLEGITIMATE GOVERNMENTS IN OFFICE RATHER THAN ATTENDING TO THE BUSINESS OF STRENGTHENING THE ECONOMY AND IMPROVING WELFARE FOR THE POOR.
    • THERE HAS BEEN CONSIDERABLE CRITICISM OF OFFICIAL AID AGENCIES THAT GIVE OR LEND MONEY FOR PROJECTS THAT BRING LIMITED GAINS TO TARGET POPULATIONS.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 7.
    • THERE ARE INSTANCES WHERE IMPROVEMENTS HAVE PROVED UNSUSTAINABLE DUE TO LACK OF BUDGETARY FORESIGHT, EXCESSIVE RELIANCE ON THE SO-CALLED EXPERTS AND PREOCCUPATION WITH PRESTIGE RATHER THAN WITH SOLID BUT UNSPECTACULAR GAINS.
    • MANY INITIATIVES HAVE FOUNDERED ON POOR MANAGEMENT, INAPPROPRIATE PLAN­NING AND AN UNWILLINGNESS TO INVOLVE THE BENEFICIARIES IN THE ORGANIZATION OF CHANGES THAT WILL AFFECT THEIR LIVES.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 8.
    • THE MAIN THEMES OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEVELOPMENT
      • FIRST , THE ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT CANNOT BE REDUCED TO A TECHNICAL FIX.
      • THUS, ADMINISTRATIVE DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION ARE NOT SIMPLY A MATTER OF INSTALLING SOME PIECE OF MANAGERIAL TECHNOLOGY WHICH HAS PROVED EFFECTIVE ELSEWHERE.
      • MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, ADMINISTRATIVE TECHNIQUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGNS ARE NOT NEUTRAL VALUE-FREE PHENOMENA.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 9.
      • THE SECOND THEME CONCERNS THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS, THAT ENVELOPE OF FACTORS AND FORCES IN WHICH ORGANIZATIONS OPERATE.
      • ORGANIZATIONS ARE NOT CLOSED TECHNICAL SYSTEMS. THEY ARE NECESSARILY INVOLVED IN MULTIPLE RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS. COMPLEX WEBS OF RELATIONSHIPS ARE THUS WOVEN AND HAVE PROFOUND EFFECTS ON THE OPERATION OF ORGANIZATIONS.
      • NATIONAL CULTURE MAY BE A KEY DETERMINANT OF THE WAY IN WHICH ACTIVITIES ARE CONDUCTED AND MAY INFLUENCE OPERATIONAL NORMS AND PRACTICES AS MUCH AS THE PUBLIC SERVICE MANUAL OF PROCEDURES.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 10.
      • THE THIRD THEME EMPHASIZES ONE ASPECT OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE ENVIRONMENT, THAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN ADMINISTRATIVE ANALYSIS AND PRACTICE.
      • ORGANIZATIONAL ACTION TAKES PLACE IN POLITICAL CONTEXTS. POWER AND AUTHORITY PERMEATE RELATION­SHIPS BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL MEMBERS AND BETWEEN THESE PERSONS AND THOSE IN THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 11.
      • THE FOURTH THEME FLOWS FROM THE ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES. IT IS THAT ORGANIZATIONAL IMPROVEMENT IS NOT A PANACEA FOR DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT IS MULTI-FACETED AND SUCCESS OR FAILURE ARE BASED ON MORE THAN ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN, ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM OR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT.
      • SUCH ITEMS HAVE A STRONG BEARING ON WHETHER DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRESS WILL OCCUR BUT THEY ARE NEVER THE SOLE DETERMINANTS, ADMINISTRATION WORKS ONLY IN CONJUNCTION WITH OTHER FACTORS OF CHANGE.
      • FURTHERMORE, PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATIONS CAN BE UTILIZED TO OPPRESS OR TO DEFEND THE PRIVILEGES OF CERTAIN CLASSES AND GROUPS IN SOCIETY. THEY ARE NOT INNATELY BENIGN BUT MUST BE DIRECTED TOWARDS THE ATTAINMENT OF DEVELOPMENTAL GOALS.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 12. DEVELOPMENT = REFORM ADMINISTRATIVE Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 13. DEVELOPMENT FAILURES INAPPROPRIATE POLICY CHOICES POOR STATE INSTITUTIONS Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 14. COMMON ATTRIBUTES OF ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEMS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com FRED RIGGS FERREL HEADY OTHERS OVERLAP IMMITATIONS RATHER THAN IDIGENOUS OVERSTAFFED PUBLIC ORGANIZATION HETEROGENITY DEFICIENCY OF SKILLS UNDERPAID PUBLIC EMPLOYESS FORMALISM NONPRODUCTION-ORIENTED BUREAUCRACIES LOW PRODUCTIVITY DIFFUSSION FORMALISM LACK OF INNOVATIVE AND SKILLED PUBLIC MANAGERS PARTICULARISM AUTONOMY EXCESSIVELY CENTRALIZED DECISION MAKING ASCRIPTION CORRUPTION THAT REGULARLY IMPEDES REFORM ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURES THAT MIRROR THE POLITICAL CONTEX
  • 15.
    • DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION LARGELY REMAINS BURDENED BY A COMBINATION OF INHERITED STRUCTURES AND BEHAVIORS AND DEEPLY INTERNALIZED LOCAL CULTURAL PATTERNS.
    • UNABLE TO ATTAIN A TIMELY CORRECTION OF ITS DEFICIENCIES OR TO LEARN FROM ITS FAILURES.
    • THIS COMBINATION OF LEGACIES HAS HAD THE EFFECT OF IMPEDING PERFORMANCE AND WASTING BADLY NEEDED INSTITUTIONAL ENERGIES ON OTHER THAN PRODUCTIVE ENDEAVORS TO ACCOMPLISH DEVELOPMENTAL MANDATES.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 16.
    • TENDENCY TO MAINTAIN AND ENLARGE POWER AND CONTROL
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 17.
    • INTENDED OR DESIGNED CHANGES INTO ESTABLISHED OR ROUTINE WAYS OF LIFE
    • (FARAZMAND, 2007)
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 18.
    • THE MEANING OF ‘REFORM’ IS QUITE DISTINCT FROM THE IDEA OF ‘REVOLUTION’, WHICH IMPLIES THE TOTAL OVERTHROW OF OLD STRUCTURES AND SYSTEM, AND THEIR REPLACEMENT BY NEW ONES.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 19.
    • ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM
    • INDUCED, PERMANENT IMPROVEMENT IN ADMINISTRATION
    • DELIBERATE PLANNED CHANGE TO PUBLIC BUREAUCRACY
    • (TURNER AND HULME, 1997)
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 20.
    • ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM
    • A USEFUL WORKING DEFINITION OF ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM IS THE INDUCED, PERMANENT IMPROVEMENT IN ADMINISTRATION.
    • (WALLIS, 1993)
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 21.
    • THE WORD ‘INDUCED’ INDICATES A FORM OF ADMINISTRATIVE CHANGE WHICH IS DELIBERATELY BROUGHT ABOUT, NOT ONE WHICH JUST HAPPENS BY ACCIDENT OR WITHOUT THE MAKING OF ANY CONSCIOUS EFFORT.
    • THE WORD ‘PERMANENT’ CARRIES THE CONNOTATION THAT THE CHANGES INTRODUCED WILL BE LONG-TERM, NOT JUST TEMPORARY.
    • SIMPLY PUT TO IMPROVE MEANS ‘TO MAKE BETTER’.
  • 22. FOCUS OF ANALYSIS Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com POLITICAL AUTHORITY SOCIETY BUREAUCRACY
  • 23.
    • THE DIFFICULTIES
    • LACK OF AWARENESS OF HOW BAD THE ADMINISTRATION’S PERFORMANCES IS, OR HOW IMPROVEMENTS MIGHT BE UNDERTAKEN.
    • THE CHANGE INVOLVED IN ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM MAY MEET CONSIDERABLE RESISTANCE. BUREAUCRACIES THEMSELVES TEND TO DISLIKE CHANGE, ESPECIALLY WHEN THEIR OWN INTEREST ARE AT STAKE.
    • PROPOSALS FOR CHANGE MAY BE TOO VAGUE OR CONFUSED TO BE EASILY PUT INTO PRACTISE.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 24.
    • THOSE WHO ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR IMPLEMENTATION MAY HAVE VERY LITTLE UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT IS SUPPOSED TO BE HAPPENING OR OF WHAT HAS BEEN PROPOSED
    • WHAT MAY WORK IN ONE SITUATION MAY BE QUITE UNWORKABLE IN ANOTHER.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 25.
    • COUNTRIES MAY FIND THAT THEY NEED MORE TECHNICIANS BUT DISCOVER THAT THE UNIVERSITIES CONTINUE TO PRODUCE MORE LAWYERS AND HUMANISTICALLY ORIENTED PERSONS WHO THEN TURN TO THE ONLY SORT OF EMPLOYMENT THEY KNOW ABOUT-GOVERNMENT JOBS IN THE TRADITIONAL MINISTRIES, CALLING CHIEFLY FOR CLERICAL SKILLS.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 26.
    • THESE MORE TRADITIONALLY ORIENTED GROUPS WANT TO HOLD ON TO THEIR EXISTING POSITIONS AND RESIST EFFORTS BY THE MODERNIZING ELITE TO TRANSFORM THEM. THEY MAY EVEN TURN INTO AN ANTIMODERN ELITE USING, HOWEVER, MODERN METHODS, TO PUSH NONMODERN DEMANDS.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 27.
    • REFORM AGENDAS:
    • INSTITUTIONAL BUILDING.
    • INSTITUTIONAL EMPOWERMENT.
    • SKILL AND PROFFESIONAL DEVELOPMENT --> CAPACITY BUILDING.
    • DECENTRALIZATION.
    • DEBUREAUCRATIZATION.
    • PRIVATIZATION.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 28.
    • APPROACHES TO ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM
    OUTCOMES PROCESS BOTH Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 29.
    • THE OUTCOMES : THE MEANS TO MAKE THE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM A MORE EFFECTIVE INSTRUMENT FOR SOCIAL CHANGE, A BETTER INSTRUMENT TO BRING ABOUT POLITICAL EQUALITY, SOCIAL JUSTICE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH (SAMONTE, 1970)
    • ON PROCESS : CHANGING ESTABLISHED BUREAUCRATIC PRACTISE, BEHAVIOURS AND STRUCTURES (KHAN, 1981)
    • INTERPORATE BOTH VIEWS BY LINKING THE PROCESSUAL CHANGED TO THE PRODUCTION OF A MORE EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT BUREAUCRACY (QUAH, 1976 AND JREISAT, 1988)
    ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 30.
    • IN A CLIMATE OF SOCIAL VALUES THAT STRESS PARTICIPATION AND DEMOCRACY, BUREAUCRACIES WITH THEIR CENTRALIZED STRUCTURES OF AUTHORITY AND CONTROL ARE ANACHRONISTIC.
    • (PFEFFER AND SALANCIK, 1978)
    • POLITICAL DEMOCRACY, SOCIETAL TRANSFORMATIONS, AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS HAVE MODIFIED THE STRUCTURES AND VALUES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 31.
    • A COMPLEX PROCESS OF FUNCTIONAL AND SOCIAL DIFFERENTIATION HAS GRADUALLY ERODED THE RIGIDITIES OF HIERARCHICAL AUTHORITY STRUCTURES AND FURTHER MITIGATED THE OLD PERCEIVED ANTINOMY BETWEEN STRUCTURE AND CHANGE .
    • IN MANY WAYS, DEBUREAUCRATIZATION IS THE MANY­SIDED OUTCOME OF THIS CUMULATIVE PROCESS.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 32.
    • THE STRAINS ON MODERN GOVERNMENT CAUSED BY THE GROWING COMPLEXITY AND SCALE OF OPERATION HAVE BROUGHT INTO SHARP FOCUS THE PROBLEM OF CAPACITY: HOW MUCH, A HUMAN ORGANIZATION CAN COMPREHEND, ABSORB, PROCESS AND ACCOMPLISH EFFECTIVELY.
    • DEBUREAUCRATIZATION RESPONDS TO A GROWING SENSE THAT SEVERAL CORE VALUES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION NO LONGER CORESPOND, SUFFICIENTLY TO THE VALUES AND THE NEEDS OF SOCIETY AT LARGE.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 33.
    • THROUGHOUT THE WORLD TODAY, THERE IS A MOUNTING CHALLENGE TO CENTRALIZED, HIERARCHICAL, CONTROL-ORIENTED STRUCTURES.
    • DEBUREAUCRATIZATION CALLS FOR GREATER DEVOLUTION, DECENTRALIZATION, MORE FREEDOM FOR DIFFERENTIATION, AND EXPERIMENTATION, AND GREATER PARTICIPATION OF INTERESTED GROUPS IN PUBLIC POLICY MAKING.
    • DEBUREAUCRATIZATION DESCRIBE A COMPLEX TREND OF CHANGE, —DISAGGREGATION AND DIFFERENTIATION—IN THE PROCESS OF CONVERSION OF ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEMS FROM CLOSED TO OPEN SYSTEMS.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 34. Graduate School of Asia and Pacific Studies University of Waseda, Tokyo-JAPAN 2010
  • 35. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION CULTURE IS CHANGING LEGISLATORS TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS PUBLIC 1 PUBLIC 3 PUBLIC 2 PUBLIC 4 PUBLIC 5 SOURCE: JONATHAN F. ANDERSON IN FARAZMAND, PINKOWSKI, 2007 Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com PUBLIC MANAGER POLICY POLICY POLICY POLICY
  • 36. GLOBALIZED PUBLIC POLICY PROCESS Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com FOCUS ON INPUTS RATHER THAN RESULT REFORM DYNAMIC FLEXIBLE INNOVATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING RESULT ORIENTED ENTERPRENEURIAL ENTERPRISING
  • 37.
    • THE CURRENT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DEBATE PLACES A NEW EMPHASIS ON ’WHAT MATTERS IS NOT WHAT WE DO, BUT HOW PEOPLE FEEL ABOUT WHAT WE DO’ AND THAT ‘PROCESS MATTER’ OR PUT DIFFERENTLY, ‘THE ENDS DO NOT JUSTIFY THE MEANS.’
    • HERE ARE SOME OF THE NEW PARADIGMS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 38. Graduate School of Asia and Pacific Studies University of Waseda, Tokyo-JAPAN 2010
  • 39.
    • THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
    • REINVENTING (ENTREPRENEURIAL) GOVERNMENT
    • THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM)
    • NEW PUBLIC SERVICE
    • GOVERNANCE
    • POST MODERNISM
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 40.
    • IN 1968, DWIGHT WALDO, SPONSORED A CONFERENCE OF YOUNG PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONISTS ON THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.
    • THE PROCEEDINGS WERE PUBLISHED AS A BOOK IN 1971, TITLED TOWARD A NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: THE MINNOWBROOK PERSPECTIVE .
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 41.
    • THE FOCUS OF THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION WAS DISINCLINED TO EXAMINE SUCH TRADITIONAL PHENOMENA AS EFFICIENCY, EFFECTIVENESS, BUDGETING, AND ADMINISTRATIVE TECHNIQUES.
    • THE QUESTIONS IT RAISED DEALT WITH VALUES, ETHICS, THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDIVIDUAL MEMBER IN THE ORGANIZATION, THE RELATION OF THE CLIENT WITH THE BUREAUCRACY, AND THE BROAD PROBLEMS OF URBANISM, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIAL CONFLICTS.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 42.
    • FOR EXAMPLE, GEORGE FREDERICKSON (1980), IN HIS NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, ARGUED IN BEHALF OF SOCIAL EQUITY AS A GUIDING CONCEPT IN ADMINISTRATIVE AND POLITICAL DECISION MAKING. HE WROTE THAT "IT IS INCUMBENT ON THE PUBLIC SERVANT TO BE ABLE TO DEVELOP AND DEFEND CRITERIA AND MEASURES OF EQUITY AND TO UNDERSTAND THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC SERVICES ON THE DIGNITY AND WELL-BEING OF CITIZENS".
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 43.
    • SCHOLARS DURING THAT PERIOD EMPHASIZED THE NEED TO EXPLORE ALTERNATIVES TO THE TRADITIONAL TOP-DOWN HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF BUREAUCRATIC ORGANIZATION. INDICTING THE OLD MODEL FOR ITS OBJECTIFICATION AND DEPERSONALIZATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL MEMBERS AND CALLING FOR MODELS BUILT AROUND OPENNESS, TRUST, AND HONEST COMMUNICATIONS.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 44.
    • MAIN ARGUEMENTS OF THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:
      • PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS AND PUBLIC AGENCIES ARE NOT AND CANNOT BE EITHER NEUTRAL OR OBJECTIVE.
      • TECHNOLOGY IS OFTEN DEHUMANIZING.
      • BUREAUCRATIC HIERARCHY IS OFTEN INEFFECTIVE AS AN ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY.
      • BUREAUCRACIES TEND TOWARD GOAL DISPLACEMENT AND SURVIVAL.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 45.
    • BUREAUCRATIC MODEL DEVELOPED IN CONDITIONS VERY DIFFERENT FROM THOSE EXISTING TODAY.
    • IT DEVELOPED IN A SLOWER-PACED SOCIETY, WHEN CHANGE PROCEEDED AT A LEISURELY GAIT.
    • IT DEVELOPED IN AN AGE OF HIERARCHY, WHEN ONLY THOSE AT THE TOP OF THE PYRAMID HAD ENOUGH INFORMATION TO MAKE INFORMED DECISIONS.
    • IT DEVELOPED IN A SOCIETY OF PEOPLE WHO WORKED WITH THEIR HANDS, NOT THEIR MINDS.
    • IT DEVELOPED IN A TIME OF MASS MARKETS, WHEN MOST PEOPLE HAD SIMILAR WANTS AND NEEDS.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 46.
    • AND IT DEVELOPED WITH STRONG GEOGRAPHIC COMMUNITIES –TIGHTLY KNIT NEIGHBORHOODS AND TOWNS.
    • TODAY’S ENVIRONMENT DEMANDS INSTITUTIONS THAT ARE EXTREMELY FLEXIBLE AND ADAPTABLE.
    • IT DEMANDS INSTITUTIONS THAT DELIVER HIGH QUALITY GOODS AND SERVICES,
    • IT DEMANDS INSTITUTIONS THAT ARE RESPONSIVE TO THEIR COSTUMERS, OFFERING CHOICES OF NONSTANDARDIZED SERVICES; THAT LEAD BY PERSUASION AND INCENTIVES RATHER THAN COMMANDS; THAT GIVE THEIR EMPLOYEES A SENSE OF MEANING AND CONTROL, EVEN OWNERSHIP.
    • IT DEMANDS INSTITUTIONS THAT EMPOWER CITIZENS RATHER THAN SIMPLY SERVING THEM.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 47.
    • MOST GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS PERFORM INCREASINGLY COMPLEX TASKS, IN COMPETITIVE, RAPIDLY CHANGING ENVIRONMENTS, WITH “CUSTOMERS” WHO WANT QUALITY AND CHOICE.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 48.
    • THESE KINDS OF SOCIAL TRENDS RESULTED IN AN EXPLOSION OF PUBLICATIONS IN THE EARLY 1990s THAT CALLED FOR A NEW KIND OF GOVERNMENT REFORM. THE MOST FAMOUS OF THESE CRITIQUES WAS THE NATIONAL BEST SELLER REINVENTING GOVERNMENT: HOW THE ENTREPRENEURIAL SPIRIT IS TRANSFORMING THE PUBLIC SECTOR (DAVID OSBORN AND TED GAEBLER, 1992).
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 49.
    • CATALYTIC GOVERNMENT:
      • STEERING RATHER THAN ROWING.
    • COMMUNITY OWNED GOVERNMENT :
      • EMPOWERING RATHER THAN SERVING.
    • COMPETITIVE GOVERNMENT :
      • INJECTING COMPETITION INTO SERVICE DELIVERY.
    • MISSION-DRIVEN GOVERNMENT :
      • TRANSFORMING RULE-DRIVEN ORGANIZATIONS
    • RESULTS-ORIENTED GOVERNMENT :
      • FUNDING OUTCOMES, NOT INPUTS.
      • (DAVID OSBORN AND TED GAEBLER, 1992)
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 50.
    • CUSTOMER-DRIVEN GOVERNMENT :
      • MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE CUSTOMER, NOT THE BUREAUCRACY.
    • ENTERPRISING GOVERNMENT :
      • ERANING RATHER THAN SPENDING.
    • ANTICIPATORY GOVERNMENT :
      • PREVENTION RATHER THAN CURE.
    • DECENTRELAIZED GOVERNMENT :
      • FROM HIERARCHY TO PARTICIPATION AND TEAMWORK.
    • MARKET-ORIENTED GOVERNMENT :
      • LEVERAGING CHANGE THROUGH THE MARKET.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 51.
    • IN THE EARLY 1990's, A NEW MANAGERIAL APPROACH TO PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION BEGAN TO TAKE HOLD. LIKE THE TRADITIONAL MANAGERIAL APPROACH AT ITS INCEPTION, THE NEW APPROACH IS REFORM-ORIENTED AND SEEKS TO IMPROVE PUBLIC SECTOR PERFORMANCE
    • IT STARTS FROM THE PREMISE THAT TRADITIONAL, BUREAUCRATICALLY ORGANIZED PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IS "BROKE" AND "BROKEN“, AND CONSEQUENTLY THE PUBLIC HAS LOST FAITH IN GOVERNMENT.
    • MANAGERIALISM REFERS TO AN ENTREPRENEURIAL APPROACH TO PUBLIC MANAGEMENT, ONE THAT EMPHASIZES THE RIGHTS OF MANAGERS TO RUN THE ORGANIZATION AND THE APPLICATION OF REINVIGORATED SCIENTIFIC­MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES.
    • (LEMAY, 2002)
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 52. A BRIEF CHRONOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com APPROACH DATE SELECTED FEATURES CLASSICAL 1900 ORGANIZATIONS PERCEIVED AS CLOSED SYSTEMS; STRESS ON EFFICIENCY, CONTROL AND THE BUREAUCRATIC FORM BEHAVIORAL/ HUMAN RELATIONS 1930 EMPHASIS ON PEOPLE RATHER THAN MACHINES; CLOSE ATTENTION TO FACTORS SUCH AS GROUP DYNAMICS, COMMUNICATION, MOTIVATION, LEADERSHIP AND PARTICIPATION QUANTITATIVE 1940 PROVISION OF QUANTITATIVE TOOLS TO SUPPORT MANAGERIAL DECISION-MAKING; FOUND IN MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT AND MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 53. (TURNER AND HULME, 1997) Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com APPROACH DATE SELECTED FEATURES OPEN SYSTEM/ CONTIGENCY 1965 ORGANIZATIONS SEEN AS SYSTEMS OF INTERRELATED PARTS WHICH RELATE TO THE ENVIRONMENT; EMPHASIS ON 'FITTING' ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE TO THE SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENT OF THE ORGANIZATION POWER/ POLITICS 1965 ORGANIZATIONAL DECISION-MAKING IS NOT GUIDED BY TECHNICAL RATIONALITY BUT IS DETERMINED BY POLITICAL PROCESSES; A DOMINANT COALITION WILL BE THE MAJOR LOCUS OF ORGANIZATIONAL POWER QUALITY MOVEMENTS 1955 STRONGLY PURSUED IN JAPANESE POSTWAR INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT AND MUCH LATER ADOPTED ELSEWHERE; CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT BY WORKING TOGETHER AND CLIENT FOCUS; TYPIFIED IN TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT, BENCHMARKING, QUALITY CIRCLES AND ISO 9000 MANAGERIALISM 1980 ADOPTION BY THE PUBLIC SECTOR OF PRIVATE SECTOR MANAGEMENT PRACTICES; APPLICATION OF PUBLIC CHOICE THEORY AND NEO-CLASSICAL ECONOMICS TO PUBLIC SECTOR MANAGEMENT
  • 54.
    • NPM IS CONSTRUCTED ON BUSINESS MANAGEMENT MODELS, WITH THE CONSERVATIVE NEOCLASSICAL ECONOMIC THEORY OF PUBLIC CHOICE OF THE 1960s (SEE BUCHANAN AND TULLOCK, 1962), UPDATED BY TRANSACTION-COST AND PRINCIPAL-AGENT THEORIES.
    • THESE THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS CONSIDER CITIZENS AS CONSUMERS, PUBLIC MANAGERS AS AGENTS SERVING CONSUMER PRINCIPALS, AND BUSINESS MODELS AS THE BEST AND ONLY BEST MODELS OF MANAGING ANY ORGANIZATION ANYWHERE AROUND THE WORLD.
    • HENCE THE IDEOLOGICAL CONCEPTS OF MANAGERIALISM, SUBSIDIARITY, AGENCIFICATION, AND PRINCIPAL-AGENT RELATIONS (SEE HOOD, 1991; JENSEN, 1983; WILLIAMSON, 1985) OF MODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 55.
    • CHRISTOPHER HOOD (1991), CHARACTERIZE NPM‘s PRINCIPAL THEMES TO INCLUDE:
      • A SHIFT AWAY FROM AN EMPHASIS ON POLICY TOWARD AN EMPHASIS ON MEASURABLE PERFORMANCE;
      • A SHIFT AWAY FROM RELIANCE ON TRADITIONAL BUREAUCRACIES TOWARD LOOSELY COUPLED, QUASI-AUTONOMOUS UNITS AND COMPETITIVELY TENDERED SERVICES;
      • A SHIFT AWAY FROM AN EMPHASIS ON DEVELOPMENT AND INVESTMENT TOWARD COST-CUTTING;
      • ALLOWING PUBLIC MANAGERS GREATER "FREEDOM TO MANAGE" ACCORDING TO PRIVATE SECTOR CORPORATE PRACTICE; AND
      • A SHIFT AWAY FROM CLASSIC COMMAND-AND-CONTROL REGULATION TOWARD SELF-REGULATION.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 56.
    • ACCORDING TO NICHOLAS HENRY(1995), THE ROOT THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT IS COMPOSED OF THE FOLLOWING SIX IDEAS:
      • GOVERNMENT SHOULD BE ENTREPRENEURIAL AND IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF ITS SERVICE.
      • GOVERNMENT SHOULD COLLABORATE AND WORK WITH OTHER GOVERNMENT AND THE NONPROFIT AND PRIVATE SECTORS TO ACHIEVE SOCIAL GOALS.
      • GOVERNMENT SHOULD JUDGE ITS PERFORMANCE WITH MEASURABLE RESULT.
      • GOVERNMENT SHOULD IMPROVE ITS ACCOUNTABILITY TO THE PUBLIC INTEREST, WHICH SHOULD BE UNDERSTOOD IN TERMS OF LAW, COMMUNITY, AND SHARED VALUES.
      • GOVERNMENT SHOULD EMPOWER CITIZENS AND PUBLIC EMPLOYEES ALIKE.
      • GOVERNMENT SHOULD ANTICIPATE AND SOLVE PROBLEMS.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 57.
    • TOONEN (2001) DEVISED AN ANALYTICAL MODEL OF NPM, AS:
      • A BUSINESS-ORIENTED APPROACH TO GOVERNMENT;
      • A QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE ORIENTED APPROACH TO PUBLIC MANAGEMENT;
      • AN EMPHASIS ON IMPROVED PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY AND FUNCTIONAL RESPONSIVENESS;
      • AN INSTITUTIONAL SEPARATION OF PUBLIC DEMAND FUNCTIONS, PUBLIC PROVISION AND PUBLIC SERVICE PRODUCTION FUNCTIONS.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 58.
      • A LINKAGE OF PUBLIC DEMAND, PROVISION, AND SUPPLY UNITS BY TRANSACTIONAL DEVICES (PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT, INTERNAL CONTRACT MANAGEMENT, CORPORATIZATION, INTERGOVERNMENTAL COVENANTING AND CONTRACTING, CONTRACTING OUT) AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT;
      • WHEREVER POSSIBLE, THE RETREAT OF (BUREAUCRATIC) GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS IN FAVOR OF AN INTELLIGENT USE OF MARKETS AND COMMERCIAL MARKET ENTERPRISES (DEREGULATION, PRIVATIZATION, COMMERCIALIZATION, AND MARKETIZATION) OR VIRTUAL MARKETS (INTERNAL COMPETITION, BENCHMARKING, COMPETITIVE TENDERING).
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 59.
    • THIS NEW IDEOLOGICAL, MANAGERIALIST, AND ENTREPRENEURIAL MODEL OF ORGANIZATION IN PUBLIC MANAGEMENT HAS SINCE THE 1990s BEEN ON THE FOREFRONT OF GOVERNMENTAL REFORMS TO GOVERNMENTS AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS AND PROGRAMS LIKE PRIVATE ENTERPRISE, WITH MAXIMUM MANAGERIAL FLEXIBILITY.
    • THE TRADITIONAL MODELS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT HAVE BEEN REJECTED AS INEFFICIENT, INFLEXIBLE AND TOO REGULATORY AND PROCEDURE-ORIENTED. EFFICIENCY AND COST CUTTING IMPERATIVES HAVE REPLACED CONCERNS FOR EQUITY, EQUALITY, AND FAIRNESS. THE CONCEPT OF MANAGERIALSM, THEREFORE, IS CLAIMED TO HAVE THE CAPACITY OF AN IDEAL MODE FOR ALL ORGANIZATIONS.
    • (HOOD, 1991; BARZELAY, 2001)
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 60.
    • TODAY, THE NPM IS BECOMING THE DOMINANT MANAGERIAL APPROACH.
    • ITS KEY CONCEPTS-SOMEWHAT EVOLUTIONARY A DECADE AGO- ARE NOW THE STANDARD LANGUAGE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.
    • TERMS SUCH AS "RESULTS ORIENTED" , "CUSTOMERS FOCUSED" , "EMPLOYEE EMPOWERMENT" , "ENTREPRENEURSHIP" , AND "OUTSOURCING" , HAVE DOMINATED THE MAINSTREAM.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 61.
    • PROMISING TOO MUCH TO ITS IMPRACTICABILITY, ANTIDEMOCRATIC, AND INEQUALITY-DRIVEN PREMISES, AS WELL ETHICAL AND ACCOUNTABILITY PROBLEMS THAT IT CARRIES BOTH IN THEORY AND PRACTISE
    • MANY LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES HAVE EITHER ABANDONED NPM OR MODIFIED ITS APPLICATION TO THE POINT THAT IT HAS BECOME ALMOST IRRELEVANT TO PUBLIC MANAGEMENT. THE OVERRIDING CONCERN OF THESE COUNTRIES HAS BEEN THE ISSUES CONCERNING FAIRNESS, EQUITY, AND EQUALITY, AS WELL AS ACCOUNTABILITY THAT NPM CARES LESS ABOUT
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 62.
    • IN FACT, NPM’s OVERRIDING INTEREST IS MANAGERIAL FLEXIBILITY AND COST EFFICIENCY WITHOUT CONCERN FOR FAIRNESS, EQUITY, TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY
    • THE MOST RECENT REPORTS OF NPM’S FAILURES HAVE BEEN DOCUMENTED IN TWO EUROPIAN COUNTRIES OF SWITZERLAND AND NETHERLANDS. IN BOTH CASES, LOCAL LEGISLATORS (PARLIAMENTS) HAVE VOTED AGAINST NPM’s APPLICATION IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION, AND A KEY OVERRIDING CONCERN IN BOTH COUNTRIES HAS BEEN EXPRESSED REGARDING THE LOSS OF DEMORATIC CONTROL, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND FAIRNESS, AS WELL AS LACK OF PROMISED EFFICIENCY.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 63.
    • IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, HIERARCHICAL GOVERNMENT BUREAUCRACY WAS THE PREDOMINANT ORGANIZATIONAL MODEL USED TO DELIVER PUBLIC SERVICES AND FULFILL PUBLIC POLICY GOALS.
    • PUBLIC MANAGERS WON ACCLAIM BY ORDERING THOSE UNDER THEM TO ACCOMPLISH HIGHLY ROUTINE, ALBEIT PROFESSIONAL, TASKS WITH UNIFORMITY BUT WITHOUT DISCRETION.
    • TODAY, INCREASINGLY COMPLEX SOCIETIES FORCE PUBLIC OFFICIALS TO DEVELOP NEW MODELS OF GOVERNANCE.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 64.
    • GLOBAL
    • NATIONAL
    • LOCAL
    • POLITICAL
    • ECONOMIC
    • CULTURE/ VALUES)
    • PARADIGM SHIFT
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 65. Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com x GLOBALIZATION HOLLOWING OUT OF THE STATE OVERIDE THE ABILITY OF NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS TO SOLVE THEIR OWN PROBLEMS ACCOUNTABILITY TO THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET AND STANDARD TRADITIONAL LINES OF ACCOUNTABILITY UNDERMINE TRADITIONAL DOMESTIC POLITICAL AUTHORITY GLOBAL ECONOMY, MARKET, CAPITAL PRIVATIZATION
  • 66.
    • QUESTION: DO GOVERNMENTS KNOW WHAT THEY ARE DOING? WHY SHOULD WE TRUST THEM?
    • THE DEMAND FOR GOOD GOVERNMENT HAS A LONG HISTORY. BUT SELDOM HAVE THE FORMS OF GOVERNMENT BEEN UNDER GREATER CHALLENGE.
    • DISSATISFACTION AND DISILLUSIONMENT ABOUT POLITICAL SOLUTIONS ARE RIFE.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 67. Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com POLITICAL DEMOCRACY STRUCTURE AND VALUES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION SOCIETAL TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS
  • 68.
    • IN A CLIMATE OF SOCIAL VALUES THAT STRESS PARTICIPATION AND DEMOCRACY, BUREAUCRACIES WITH THEIR CENTRALIZED STRUCTURES OF AUTHORITY AND CONTROL ARE ANACHRONISTIC.
    • (PFEFFER AND SALANCIK, 1978)
    • POLITICAL DEMOCRACY, SOCIETAL TRANSFORMATIONS, AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS HAVE MODIFIED THE STRUCTURES AND VALUES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 69. Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com CORE VALUES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION VALUES & NEEDS OF SOCIETY AT LARGE ?
  • 70. Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com ? SCALE AND COMPLEXITY OF MODERN GOVERNMENT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION ABSORB PROCESS EFFECTIVELY ACCOMPLISH
  • 71. Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com SOCIAL VALUES CHALENGE THE STRUCTURES OF AUTHORITY AND CONTROL
    • PARTICIPATION
    • DEMOCRACY
    BASIC VALUES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
  • 72. Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com CENTRALIZED, CLOSED SYSTEM OPEN SYSTEM CORE VALUES SOCIAL VALUES >< ETHICS PARTICIPATION/DEMOCRACY TRANSPARANCY ACCOUNTABILITY
  • 73. Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
    • STRUCTURE
    • HIERARCHY
    • NETWORK
    • STAKEHOLDERS PARTICIPATION
  • 74.
    • THE HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF GOVERNMENT PERSISTS, BUT ITS INFLUENCE IS STEADILY WANING, PUSHED BY GOVERNMENTS' NEEDS TO SOLVE EVER MORE COMPLICATED PROBLEMS AND PULLED BY NEW TOOLS THAT ALLOW INNOVATORS TO FASHION CREATIVE RESPONSES.
    • THIS PUSH AND PULL IS GRADUALLY PRODUCING A NEW MODEL OF GOVERNMENT IN WHICH EXECUTIVES' CORE RESPONSIBILITIES NO LONGER CENTER ON MANAGING PEOPLE AND PROGRAMS BUT ON ORGANIZING RESOURCES, OFTEN BELONGING TO OTHERS, TO PRODUCE PUBLIC VALUE.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 75.
    • GOVERNMENT AGENCIES, BUREAUS, DIVISIONS, AND OFFICES ARE BECOMING LESS IMPORTANT AS DIRECT SERVICE PROVIDERS, BUT MORE IMPORTANT AS GENERATORS OF PUBLIC VALUE WITHIN THE WEB OF MULTIORGANIZATIONAL, MULTIGOVERNMENTAL, AND MULTISECTORAL RELATIONSHIPS THAT INCREASINGLY CHARACTERIZE MODERN GOVERNMENT.
    • THUS GOVERNMENT BY NETWORK BEARS LESS RESEMBLANCE TO A TRADITIONAL ORGANIZATIONAL CHART THAN IT DOES TO A MORE DYNAMIC WEB OF COMPUTER NETWORKS THAT CAN ORGANIZE OR REORGANIZE, EXPAND OR CONTRACT, DEPENDING ON THE PROBLEM AT HAND.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 76.
    • NETWORKS CAN SERVE A RANGE OF IMPROMPTU PURPOSES, SUCH AS CREATING A MARKETPLACE OF NEW IDEAS INSIDE A BUREAUCRACY OR FOSTERING COOPERATION BETWEEN COLLEAGUES.
    • PUBLIC-PRIVATE NETWORKS COME IN MANY FORMS, FROM AD HOC NETWORKS THAT ARE ACTIVATED ONLY INTERMITTENTLY—OFTEN IN RESPONSE TO A DISASTER—TO CHANNEL PARTNERSHIPS IN WHICH GOVERNMENTS USE PRIVATE FIRMS AND NONPROFITS TO SERVE AS DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS FOR PUBLIC SERVICES AND TRANSACTIONS.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 77.
    • Systemic Governance :
    • Encompasses the Processes and Sructures of society that guide political and economic relationships for multiple purposes (UNDP,1997 )
  • 78.
    • UNDP : KEY COMPONENT OF GOVERNANCE
    • The state and its institutions
    • Civil society organizations
    • (that were traditionaly left out in the past governance system)
    • Private sector
    • (supposedly not involved in the governing process or dynamic.
  • 79.
    • THE DEFICIENCY OF THE CONCEPT :
    • Ignoring an important force affecting developing and less developed countries:
    • INTERNATIONAL/
    • GLOBAL POWER STUCTURE
    • (Farazmand,2004)
  • 80.
    • GOVERNANCE:
    • A participatory process of governing social, economic, and political affairs of a country, state or local community through structures and values that mirror the society
    • (Farazmand, id)
  • 81.
    • GOVERNANCE
    • is inclusive and promotes participation and interaction in/an incresingly complex, diverse, and dynamic national and international environment
    • (Farazmand, id)
  • 82. MODELS OF GOVERNMENTS (GOLDSMITH AND EGGERS, 2004) Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com High Low Outsourced government High Network management capabilities Public private collaboration Low Hierarchical government Joined-up government Networking government
  • 83. THE DIFFUSION OF GOVERNANCE IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY (KAMARACK AND NYE JR., 2002) Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com Twentieth-century model Transnational corporations Inter-governmental organization Nongovern-mental organization Local business State and local government Local Non-profit National corporations National nonprofits Private sector Public sector Third sector Supranational level National level Subnational level
  • 84. NPA NPM OPA GOVERNANCE WEBERIAN VALUES SOCIAL CONCERN BEST MANAGERIAL PRACTICE
    • DEMOCRACY
    • NETWORK
    • STAKEHOLDERS
    • COMPETENCE
    • ETHICS
    • ACCOUNTABILITY
    • CAREER ORIENTED
    • EQUITY
    • EQUALITY
    • JUSTICE
    • EFFICIENCY
    • CONSUMER’S SATISFACTION
    • COLLABORATIVE
    • PARTICIPATORY
    • INCLUSIVE
    • TRANSPARANT
    IMPARTIAL AFFIRMATIVE Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 85.
    • GOOD GOVERNANCE
    • IN MANY COUNTRIES GOOD GOVERNANCE IS VERY MUCH A CURRENT TOPIC, AS PART OF THE AGENDA OF THE REFORM MOVEMENT.
    • IT IS CONCERNED WITH SUCH ISSUES AS CORRUPTION, HUMAN RIGHTS, SOCIAL JUSTICE, EQUITY, RULE OF LAW .
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 86.
    • UNIVERSALLY RAISES SUCH ISSUES AS:
      • STAKEHOLDERS ENGAGEMENT;
      • TRANSPARENCY;
      • THE EQUALITIES AGENDA (GENDER, ETHNIC GROUP, AGE, RELIGION, ETC);
      • ETHICAL AND HONEST BEHAVIOR;
      • ACCOUNTABILITY;
      • SUSTAINABILITY.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 87.
    • THE CHARACTERISTICS OF 'GOOD GOVERNANCE‘:
      • AN EFFICIENT PUBLIC SERVICE;
      • AN INDEPENDENT JUDICIAL SYSTEM AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK TO ENFORCE CONTRACTS;
      • THE ACCOUNTABLE ADMINISTRATION OF PUBLIC FUNDS;
      • AN INDEPENDENT PUBLIC AUDITOR, RESPONSIBLE TO A REPRESENTATIVE LEGISLATURE;
      • RESPECT FOR LAW AND HUMAN RIGHTS AT ALL LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT;
      • A PLURALISTIC INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE;
      • A FREE PRESS;
      • (RHODES 1997)
      • AND A ROBUST AND DYNAMIC CIVIL SOCIETY
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 88.
    • CHONG AND CALDERON (2000) FIND SIGNIFICANT CAUSALITY FROM GOOD GOVERNANCE TO GROWTH, AND VICE VERSA. SIMILARLY, ALESINA, ET AL. (1996) FOUND THAT POLITICAL INSTABILITY AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE ARE JOINTLY DETERMINED
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 89.
    • SOUND GOVERNANCE :
    • Anticipatory
    • Responsive
    • Accountable
    • Transparant
    • Self-Corrective
    • Strategic and longterm oriented as well as short-term operational
    • (Farazmand,2004)
  • 90. Source: Steve Knack, unpublished note 2005 (In Levy, 2007) Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com 0,06 0,04 0,02 0 -0,02 -0,04 -0,06 -0,08 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 Initial Governance, 1982 Per capita income growth, 1982-2002 (residual)
  • 91.
    • JANET V. DENHANDT AND ROBERT B. DENHANDT POSTULATE THAT WHILE THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT HAS BEEN TOUTED AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE OLD PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, IT ACTUALLY HAS MUCH IN COMMON WITH THE MAINSTREAM MODEL OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, SPECIFICALLY A DEPENDENCE ON AND COMMITMENT TO MODELS OF RATIONAL CHOICE.
    • SO WHILE THERE ARE CLEARLY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE OLD PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT, THE BASIC THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF THESE TWO &quot;MAINSTREAM&quot; VERSIONS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND PUBLIC POLICY ARE IN FACT VERY MUCH ALIKE.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 92.
    • IN CONTRAST TO THESE MAINSTREAM MODELS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OR PUBLIC MANAGEMENT THAT ARE ROOTED IN THE IDEA OF RATIONAL CHOICE, THEY SUGGEST AN ALTERNATIVE CALLED THE NEW PUBLIC SERVICE .
    • THEY BASE THEIR THEORY ON CONTEMPORARY PRECURSORS INCLUDING (1) THEORIES OF DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP . (2) MODELS OF COMMUNITY AND CIVIL SOCIETY , (3) ORGANIZATIONAL HUMANISM AND THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION , AND (4) POST MODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION .
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 93.
    • POSTMODERNISTS DESCRIBE MODERN LIFE AS HYPERREALITY, A BLURRING OF THE REAL AND THE UNREAL. POSTMODERNISTS CLAIM THAT A FUNDAMENTAL BREAK LITH THE MODERN' ERA HAS OCCURRED RECENTLY. MASS MEDIA, INFORMATION SYSTEMS, AND TECHNOLOGY ARE NEW FORMS OF CONTROL THAT CHANGE POLITICS AND LIFE. BOUNDARIES BETWEEN INFORMATION AND ENTERTAINMENT ARE IMPLODING, AS ARE BOUNDARIES BETWEEN IMAGES AND POLITICS. INDEED, SOCIETY ITSELF IS IMPLODING.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 94.
    • PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION THEORISTS EMPLOYING THE POSTMODERN PERSPECTIVE ARE PARTICULARLY CRITICAL OF THE FIELD'S APPARENT PREOCCUPATION WITH RATIONALISM (ESPECIALLY MARKET-BASED RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY) AND TECHNOCRATIC EXPERTISE.
    • IN CONTRAST, POSTMODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION THEORISTS HAVE A CENTRAL COMMITMENT TO THE IDEA OF “DISCOURSE”, THE NOTION THAT PUBLIC PROBLEMS ARE MORE LIKELY RESOLVED THROUGH DISCOURSE THAN THROUGH &quot;OBJECTIVE&quot; MEASUREMENTS OR RATIONAL ANALYSIS (McSwite, 1997).
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 95.
    • INFORMATION IS NO LONGER “WALLED IN”, NO LONGER CONSTRAINED BY TIME AND SPACE. INFORMATION IS WIDELY AVAILABLE TO PEOPLE REGARDLESS OF STATUS, POSITION, WEALTH, LOCATION, RACE, ETHNIC OR CULTURE.
    • INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY GIVES A NEW IMPETUS TO DEMOCRACY AS IT OPENS UP AND WIDENS THE WAY AND MEANS FOR POPULAR PARTICIPATION IN PUBLIC DECISSION MAKING PROCESSES.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 96.
    • THE E-GOVERNANCE PROMISES A NEW HORISON IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS IT WILL CUT COSTS AND IMPROVE EFFICIENCY; MEET CITIZEN EXPECTATIONS; IMPROVE CITIZEN RELATIONSHIP; ENHANCE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION IN ADMINISTRATIVE AND POLITICAL PROCESSES; INCREASE EFFECTIVENESS OF PUBLIC CONTROL; FACILITATE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 97.
      • THE START OF SOMETHING BIG?
      • OVER THE NEXT TEN TO FIFTEEN YEARS, THE EXPANSION OF NETWORK-BASED COMMUNICATIONS SHOULD EXERT A STRONG INFLUENCE ON HOW COMMUNITIES ARE FORMED AND GOVERNED, AND HOW DEMOCRACY PERFORMS AND FUNCTIONS.
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 98. DIGITAL DIVIDE Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com
  • 99. A”Constellation” of Checks and Balances Institutions Source: Levy, 2007 Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com Civil society/Media Judiciary Legislative Subnational governments and autonomous oversight agencies Executive
  • 100.
    • COUNTRIES WITH NO FIRMLY ESTABLISHED PRINCIPLES OF THE RULE OF LAW, “NEUTRAL” BUREAUCRACY AND POLITICAL ACCOUNTABILITY SHOULD THINK TWICE BEFORE ATTEMPTING IMPLEMENTATION OF “MODERN MANAGEMENT PRACTICES”
    • POORLY THOUGHT OUT, RASH, AND MECHANICAL APPLICATION OF APPROACH BORROWED FROM THE PRACTICES OF THE BUSINESS SECTOR MAY HAVE A COUNTER PRODUCTIVE EFFECT
    • A COUNTRY WITH HUGE PRESSING PROBLEMS OF CORRUPTION OR LACK OF WORK ETHIC AMONG PUBLIC EMPLOYEES IS PROBABLY NOT MATURED FOR MORE FRONTLINE EMPOWERMENT REFORMS, AND IT PROBABLY NEEDS TO GET ITS HOUSE IN ORDER BEFORE IT CAN START IN A SERIOUS WAY WORRYING ABOUT THE QUALITY OF PUBLIC SECTOR RESULTS
    • (KELMAN, 1990, QUOTED BY NAIM KAPUCU, ibid)
    Day 2_GSAPS 2010 www.ginandjar.com