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Startup Finance An Entrepreneur’s Manual
About Index Ventures <ul><li>Over €1.5bn under management </li></ul><ul><li>Active investor in web / internet </li></ul><u...
Agenda What are the financing options? How to attract and engage investors? Deal structure and what to expect during the i...
A big undertaking <ul><li>Starting a business is a big commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy & Passion </li></ul></ul><u...
Key questions about you <ul><li>Why am doing this </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifestyle </...
Key questions about the business <ul><li>Be honest with yourself about the risks / unknowns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do  cust...
Agenda What are the financing options? How to attract and engage investors? Deal structure and what to expect during the i...
Overview of financing options Angel Financing Venture Capital Private Equity Public Stock Markets Self Finance /  Bootstra...
Self financing / bootstrapping <ul><li>Financing growth from previous cashflow and personal funds </li></ul><ul><li>Obviou...
Debt / bank finance <ul><li>Relatively limited funds will be available ; likely to want security anyway </li></ul><ul><li>...
Good reasons to raise equity finance Large Potential Market Opportunity Unique Product  Or Concept Passionate Founding Tea...
When NOT to raise VC <ul><li>Risk is not that you waste time unsuccessfully trying to raise finance … </li></ul><ul><li>… ...
Equity Financing <ul><li>Investment Size  </li></ul>Seed Early Stage Series A, (B) Later Stage (B),C,D… Pre-IPO /  Buy-out...
Agenda What are the financing options? How to attract and engage investors? Deal structure and what to expect during the i...
Venture Capital – How the VC makes money <ul><li>Raise fund every 2-4 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pension funds, financial...
Angels – How the Angel investor makes money <ul><li>Unlike the VC the Angel invests their own money </li></ul><ul><li>Much...
<ul><li>Advice and Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Hiring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Country M...
What does an investor look for?  <ul><li>Can evaluate each as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Identifying relevant VC partners <ul><li>Do  create a shortlist </li></ul><ul><li>Rifle is a better weapon than a shotgun ...
Getting on radar screens <ul><li>Out of the blue email is a longshot </li></ul><ul><li>Try to build  context </li></ul><ul...
Agenda What are the financing options? How to attract and engage investors? Deal structure and what to expect during the i...
Sharing relevant information <ul><li>100 page business plan not required </li></ul><ul><li>20 page ppt which clearly answe...
Types of investment <ul><li>Ordinary Share investment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplest form, often used by angels </li></ul>...
Understanding a termsheet –  case study <ul><li>Anything between 2 and 15 pages (if points are spelt out in fuller legalis...
Case Study – Cap Table
<ul><li>Board Representation </li></ul><ul><li>Liquidation Preference </li></ul><ul><li>Participation rights </li></ul><ul...
Case Study - liquidation preference
Case Study - liquidation preference
Case Study - liquidation preference
Case Study - liquidation preference
Case Study - liquidation preference
Case Study - Antidilution <ul><li>If a subsequent investment round is done a price lower than the previous investment roun...
Case Study – Reverse Vesting <ul><li>The value of startup is typically in the promise of  future labour  from the founders...
Choosing the right VC - Valuation should not be the decisive factor Value at exit Probability of getting there % share of ...
Key things to consider when choosing an investor <ul><li>Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With key individual(s); and  <...
Thank you Ben Holmes Email : benh@indexventures.com Skype : ben_holmes
Artwork – (Transparent Layers)
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Start Up Finance

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Transcript of "Start Up Finance"

  1. 1. Startup Finance An Entrepreneur’s Manual
  2. 2. About Index Ventures <ul><li>Over €1.5bn under management </li></ul><ul><li>Active investor in web / internet </li></ul><ul><li>Pan European Venture Fund </li></ul><ul><li>Based London & Geneva </li></ul>Index Ventures Selected Investments
  3. 3. Agenda What are the financing options? How to attract and engage investors? Deal structure and what to expect during the investment process Important reflections before you start
  4. 4. A big undertaking <ul><li>Starting a business is a big commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy & Passion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial resources (yours and your investors) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Before thinking of financing, is worth taking a deep breath … </li></ul>
  5. 5. Key questions about you <ul><li>Why am doing this </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Change the world” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How long do you want to commit? </li></ul><ul><li>What level of financial risk are you prepared to take? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Key questions about the business <ul><li>Be honest with yourself about the risks / unknowns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do customers want the product / service? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have the competence to build the product and the team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you monetise the product / service? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How competitive is / will the space be? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How big can the overall market become? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Agenda What are the financing options? How to attract and engage investors? Deal structure and what to expect during the investment process Important reflections before you start
  8. 8. Overview of financing options Angel Financing Venture Capital Private Equity Public Stock Markets Self Finance / Bootstrapping Debt / Bank Finance Equity Financing Non-Equity Financing
  9. 9. Self financing / bootstrapping <ul><li>Financing growth from previous cashflow and personal funds </li></ul><ul><li>Obviously need to have cashflows… </li></ul><ul><li>Most good bootstrapped companies emerge from a service or consulting companies that are productising their offering </li></ul><ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bootstrapped companies almost always spend cash more effectively than equity financed companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Already being close to existing customers, give excellent ability to understand problems and define good solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources for product and market dev constrained by cashflows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May miss a big opportunity if other players raise finance and invest heavily </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Debt / bank finance <ul><li>Relatively limited funds will be available ; likely to want security anyway </li></ul><ul><li>Banks only lend to predictable businesses they can understand </li></ul><ul><li>If your capital requirements are limited and your business is following a well trodden path, can be a useful source of finance </li></ul><ul><li>Not particularly useful web or high growth tech industries </li></ul>
  11. 11. Good reasons to raise equity finance Large Potential Market Opportunity Unique Product Or Concept Passionate Founding Team Pre-requisites Intense competition likely Need to move rapidly Implications… Hiring Infrastructure VC funding supports Rapid Product Development Internationalisation Partnerships Commercialisation
  12. 12. When NOT to raise VC <ul><li>Risk is not that you waste time unsuccessfully trying to raise finance … </li></ul><ul><li>… real danger is that you do succeed in raising VC funds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lose opportunity for small exit which could be personally lucrative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lose opportunity to run lifestyle business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get bound in to 3+ yrs work you may not enjoy </li></ul></ul>Application is a feature not a product Market size is too small Motivation is not financial
  13. 13. Equity Financing <ul><li>Investment Size </li></ul>Seed Early Stage Series A, (B) Later Stage (B),C,D… Pre-IPO / Buy-out Private Equity Potential Sources of Funds 0 - €1m Grant-funding University seed funds Friends and family Angel Investors (Venture Capital) € 2m-€20m Venture Capital (Wealthy) Angel investors € 5m-€20m Venture Capital € 30m+ Specialist Late stage tech investment funds Hedge Funds Growth Fund
  14. 14. Agenda What are the financing options? How to attract and engage investors? Deal structure and what to expect during the investment process Important reflections before you start
  15. 15. Venture Capital – How the VC makes money <ul><li>Raise fund every 2-4 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pension funds, financial institutions and specialist “fund of fund” investors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Invest money over 3-5 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~ 1/2 of investments lose money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ 1/3 of investments break even </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ 1/6 of investments make (lots) of money </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very small management fee on funds managed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~ 1-2.5% pa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~ 20-25%x (Total Return – Total Amount Invested) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Angels – How the Angel investor makes money <ul><li>Unlike the VC the Angel invests their own money </li></ul><ul><li>Much smaller absolute returns can be very meaningful to an angel </li></ul><ul><li>The Angel approach is to invest small amounts at a very early stage / low valuation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>€ 50-€250k at valuations of €500k-€4m </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two “exits” for angel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm might be sold quickly for €5-10m or less where the Angel can make 2-5x money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm raises VC money, after which Angel typically becomes more passive but has built up exposure very cheaply to a venture backed enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The key thing when selecting an Angel therefore is whether they can help you raise VC finance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See which Angel investors have invested with which VCs </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Advice and Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Hiring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Country Managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CEO / CFO / COO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advisory Board </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Profile and PR </li></ul><ul><li>Further access to capital </li></ul>Venture Capital – What a good VC will add <ul><li>Internationalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Trusted service provider relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search / recruiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Branding / PR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finance, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exit optimisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge / contacts with relevant buyers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience with process </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. What does an investor look for? <ul><li>Can evaluate each as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good / credible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediocre / incomplete </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Misconception that being good / credible across the board is what VCs look for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can always add credible attributes to the mix later </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We focus on finding opportunities which rate as exceptional in one attribute </li></ul>Technology $$$ Traction Team
  19. 19. Identifying relevant VC partners <ul><li>Do create a shortlist </li></ul><ul><li>Rifle is a better weapon than a shotgun </li></ul><ul><li>Similar process for identifying angels, look at VC funding press releases to identify prior Angel investors </li></ul>Has funds to invest Match of Size/Stage/ Geography Relevant Portfolio No directly competitive investments Excellent track record Shortlist
  20. 20. Getting on radar screens <ul><li>Out of the blue email is a longshot </li></ul><ul><li>Try to build context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyse portfolio companies – are there any links there? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyse contact network and advisors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyse press coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participate in blog conversations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attend events and conferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant PR around product also helps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VCs spend their time looking for businesses with momentum </li></ul>
  21. 21. Agenda What are the financing options? How to attract and engage investors? Deal structure and what to expect during the investment process Important reflections before you start
  22. 22. Sharing relevant information <ul><li>100 page business plan not required </li></ul><ul><li>20 page ppt which clearly answers main questions is best bet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product Roadmap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial Status </li></ul></ul>Pre - first meeting Pre - termsheet Post - termsheet <ul><li>Dialogue rather than documentation – expect lots of meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Calls with current / prospective customers or partners </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting broader team </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming around strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying key hires post closing </li></ul><ul><li>Formal presentation to VC partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Some additional reference calls with partners / customers </li></ul><ul><li>Personal reference calls </li></ul><ul><li>Legal / accounting audit (if relevant) </li></ul><ul><li>Drafting legal documentation </li></ul>2-4 weeks 1-2 Months
  23. 23. Types of investment <ul><li>Ordinary Share investment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplest form, often used by angels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All shareholders have similar rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Company Board composed according to </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Convertible Loan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes used by both Angels and VCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically when another financing is anticipated soon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loan will convert (with a discount ~25%) into the next financing round </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preferred Share Investment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical Structure used by VCs and occasionally larger Angels investing as a group </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Understanding a termsheet – case study <ul><li>Anything between 2 and 15 pages (if points are spelt out in fuller legalise) </li></ul><ul><li>Sample phrasing is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ [XXX fund] proposes to lead a Series A preferred share financing of €5m at a €8m pre-money valuation . As part of the investment process an employee option pool of 15% on a post money basis will be put in place. Typical venture capital terms including participating liquidation preference, etc. etc …” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What does it all mean? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Case Study – Cap Table
  26. 26. <ul><li>Board Representation </li></ul><ul><li>Liquidation Preference </li></ul><ul><li>Participation rights </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-dilution rights </li></ul><ul><li>Element of reverse vesting </li></ul><ul><li>Certain control and veto rights </li></ul><ul><li>Period of exclusivity to close legals </li></ul>Venture Capital – “Typical Deal Terms” but that’s so unfair… Photo Source: Philip Greenspun, MIT
  27. 27. Case Study - liquidation preference
  28. 28. Case Study - liquidation preference
  29. 29. Case Study - liquidation preference
  30. 30. Case Study - liquidation preference
  31. 31. Case Study - liquidation preference
  32. 32. Case Study - Antidilution <ul><li>If a subsequent investment round is done a price lower than the previous investment round then the previous investment round is repriced (more stock issued to Series A) </li></ul><ul><li>Two flavours </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad-based – Series A price ratchets down based on size of Series B relative to Previous post-money valuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow-based – Series A price ratchets down based on size of Series B relative to Size of Series A </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Say €5m Series B done at €0.75 per share </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad-based – Series A reprices = €1.00–((5/(5+15.3)*€0.25) = €0.93 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow-based – Series A reprices €1.00–((5/(5+5)*€0.25) = €0.875 </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Case Study – Reverse Vesting <ul><li>The value of startup is typically in the promise of future labour from the founders </li></ul><ul><li>Investors seek to secure this by reverse vesting founder stock, typically over 3 or 4 years </li></ul><ul><li>For startups typically all founder stock is subject to reverse vesting. </li></ul><ul><li>For later stage companies perhaps half the stock might be subject to vesting </li></ul><ul><li>NB – this also protects founders from each other </li></ul>
  34. 34. Choosing the right VC - Valuation should not be the decisive factor Value at exit Probability of getting there % share of business at exit Entrepreneur’s Equation <ul><li>Revenues / Profitability </li></ul><ul><li>Growth rate </li></ul><ul><li>Team quality </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic fit with buyer community </li></ul><ul><li>Well managed exit process </li></ul><ul><li>Fewest strategic errors made </li></ul><ul><li>Hiring (quality & speed) </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Product development </li></ul><ul><li>Valuation at initial round </li></ul><ul><li>Valuation and dilution at subsequent rounds </li></ul><ul><li>Option grants </li></ul>
  35. 35. Key things to consider when choosing an investor <ul><li>Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With key individual(s); and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>broader team </li></ul></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speak to other founders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Portfolio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non competitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community you want to be part of </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Valuation and associated deal terms </li></ul>Right partner at a fair price vs. Any partner at best price
  36. 36. Thank you Ben Holmes Email : benh@indexventures.com Skype : ben_holmes
  37. 37. Artwork – (Transparent Layers)
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