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Literate Environment Analysis Gillian Irving Walden University EDUC 6706R-3 The Beginning Reader PreK-3
Non-cognitive aspects of reading: reader motivation and engagement self-concept interests attitudesCognitive aspects are academic abilities of the reader, such as: reading level reading strategies comprehension fluency phonological/phonemic awareness sight word recognition“A reader’s motivation, self-concept, attitude, interests and attributions are enmeshed with their readingdevelopment. They encourage the student’s ongoing growth and development as a reader” (Afflerbach,2012 p. 175). Assessment provides teachers with pertinent information that guides and modifies theirinstruction in reading. What is important to remember is both the cognitive and non-cognitive aspects helpto shape a student’s literacy development, and these aspects must be strategically incorporated into ourplanning and instruction on a daily basis.Getting to Know Literacy Learners, P-3Research
Assessments of Non-Cognitive Aspects of Reading: Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (ERAS) Motivation to Read Profile (MRP) ConversationsAssessments of Cognitive Aspects of Reading: Reading Records Sight Word Assessments Conversations Observations―The Elementary Reading Attitude Survey provides a quick indication of student attitudes toward reading. Itconsists of 20 items and can be administered to an entire classroom in about 10 minutes. Each item presents abrief, simply worded statement about reading, followed by four pictures of Garfield. Each pose is designed to depict adifferent emotional state, ranging from very positive to very negative‖ (McKenna & Kear, 1990 p. 636)―The Motivation to Read consists of two basic instruments: the Reading Survey and the Conversational Interview.The survey assesses two specific dimensions of reading motivation, self-concept as a reader and value of reading; theinterview provides information about the individual nature of students’ reading motivation‖(Gambrell, Palmer, Codling & Mazzoni, 1996 p. 519)Getting to Know Literacy Learners, P-3Research continued…
I used the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (ERAS) to assess the affective aspects of my students’ reading attitudes. I gained insight of how they feel about reading for recreational and academic purposes, as well as how they feel about reading overall. To assess my students’ academic ability in reading, I administered reading records and sight word assessments from the Fountas & Pinnell Benchmark Assessment Kit 1. From these assessments, I learned the students’ current reading levels, comprehension level and sight word bank. From their reading records I also learned what miscue patterns were occurring throughout their reading, as well as what strategies they were currently using and what ones should be focused on next during instruction.The information I have gathered from administering assessments to three of my students proves tome that the importance lies not only in cognitive assessments of reading ability, but in the non-cognitive aspects as well. These work together to create the entire picture of a student’s performancein reading.Getting to Know Literacy Learners, P-3Analysis
Providing purposeful, effective instruction to help students build strategies and understand what theyare reading is only useful when a teacher provides a balanced selection of texts. Texts must alwaysbe engaging and of interest to the student, and balanced in the sense that the texts offer a range ofgenres such as narrative and informational, difficulty considerations such as the length, structure andconcept density, and linguistic and semiotic features (Laureate Education Inc., 2010a). Hard Linguistic Informational Narrative Semiotic EasyUsing a tool such as the literacy matrix suggested by Dr. Douglas Hartman helps teachers to see thedistribution of text types that are being used with students (Laureate Education Inc., 2010a).Knowing the kinds of texts we are choosing for our students not only allows for us to maintain abalance of what texts we engage our students in, but also helps us keep our literacy goals for themever present in our minds to make sure we are providing instruction that helps students achieve thosegoals and move forward (Laureate Education Inc., 2010a).Selecting Texts - Research
Based on the interests of my students and using Dr. Douglas Hartman’s Literacy Matrix, I chose threetexts to use for the purpose of guided instruction. The three texts I chose are: To the Rescue by Alicia Martell Tools Can Help Us See by Sarah Dawson And the Caboose Said by Simone CooperEach provide a range of difficulty level from easy to medium, and fall into the narrative/linguistic,narrative/semiotic and informational/semiotic quadrant of the literacy matrix, offering a range ofdistribution of the kinds of texts I used for instructional purposes with my studentsI am now much more aware of what texts I am selecting for my students as well as why I amselecting them. When choosing texts for my students I now take into consideration their interests,what instructional aspects the book offers in terms of the needs of the student, what backgroundknowledge a student brings to the text, as well as difficulty considerations.Selecting Texts - Analysis
The interactive perspective centers on teaching students to read and writein an accurate, fluent manner and with comprehension (Framework forLiteracy Instruction). Teachers must use a variety of assessment techniquesto determine the level of ability of their students in order to understand thedirection they must take to progress their students learning. Theassessment must apply to not only the cognitive ability of the students, butalso the affective needs of the students, such as their interests and attitudeabout reading.Through various instructional practices and methods, the interactiveperspective teaches students how to read using skills and strategies, andhow to become strategic and metacognitive in their use of these skills andstrategies (Laureate Education Inc., 2010d). The teacher must model andteach children to process text in a way that uses appropriate strategies atappropriate times, so students can begin to utilize the strategies they areacquiring independently, becoming aware of how they will proceed withparticular texts.Interactive Perspective - Research
Using what I learned about the interactive perspective, I designed a guided reading lessonfor three of my students who are in the beginning stages of reading development. Thelesson I designed was based on pre-assessments I administered prior to the lesson, inwhich I gathered information on the affective aspects of their reading, such as theirinterests related to topics they enjoy reading, and the cognitive aspects of their reading,such as their ability and strategies they were currently using or not using. Guided readingis an excellent setting in which to teach students specific strategies and skills, as teacherscan help students to orchestrate the reading process and all that goes along with it(Laureate Education Inc., 2010c), as well as monitor student progress, assisting andclarifying when needed. The point of the lesson was to teach the strategies and give thestudents support in their initial use of them so they can begin to use them independently.I will continue to teach word solving and comprehension strategies during shared readingexperiences with the entire class, as well as during small group instruction in order toreinforce the use of the strategies and model how good readers use them internally.―Comprehension strategies are thoughtful behaviors that students use to facilitate theirunderstanding as they read‖ (Tompkins, 2010 p. 260). These behaviors involve thinking,such as predicting, or reflecting on thinking, such as monitoring or wondering. Thesebehaviors do not happen automatically, rather they must be taught through the use ofcarefully designed lessons using selected texts so students can first learn the strategy, butalso to promote students’ independent and metacognitive use of the strategy (Frameworkfor Literacy Instruction).Interactive Perspective - Analysis
The critical perspective teaches students to examine and evaluate texts in acritical manner, viewing texts from multiple perspectives, judging thebelievability and thinking about ideas, issues and problems in our world(Laureate Education Inc., 2010b). Students must think deeply about whatthey read, and the critical perspective provides opportunities for students tothink analytically and in a deeper manner about text (Laureate EducationInc., 2010b).The response perspective teaches students to react and respond to texts in avariety of meaningful ways (Laureate Education Inc., 2010e). Responses toliterature can be formulated in ways such as discussion, drama, writing andart. The response perspective allows teachers to select texts that willconnect with their students on a variety of levels, evoking an emotionaland/or personal connection or response to the text (Framework for LiteracyInstruction).Critical and Response PerspectiveResearch
In continuing with the theme of trucks and machines I had chosen for my threestudents I have been working with, I chose a text that focused on the manyforms of transportation over time, titled Let’s Go! The Story of Getting FromHere to There. Through pre-assessment, I know that my students are engagedand enjoy texts that are about transportation, and I knew that this book wouldappeal to them.I chose to activate the critical perspective of the text through an interactive readaloud, allowing me to ―create a climate for thinking deeply,‖ engaging mystudents in ―purposeful questions, opportunities to think and share, prompts tovisualize or make connections, and thoughtful word choice to explicitlyfacilitate the students bringing their own meaning to the text‖ (Durand et al.,2008 p. 24). Through the use of the subtext strategy, I was able to teach theresponse perspective by providing my students with the opportunity for students―to walk around inside a story‖ (Clyde, 2003 p. 150), voicing what charactersare feeling, ―causing them to think deeply about characters’ emotions andmotives‖ (Clyde, 2003 p. 157).Critical and Response PerspectiveAnalysis
―Books can deceive, delude, and misrepresent, as readily as they can enlighten and expand ourknowledge‖ (Molden, 2007 p. 50). It is vital that students gain the ability to think criticallyabout what they read, and why they are reading it. In addition to the critical perspective oftexts, students must also be given the opportunity and time to respond to text, to transact withtext in a way that moves them (Laureate Education Inc., 2010e). Students need to discuss thesetransactions they have with texts with their peers, their teachers, and others, as well as respondin a variety of other forms such as writing, drama and art.The critical and response perspective come together with the interactive perspective to givestudents a whole experience with a text, moving them towards becoming a reader that can notonly read a text, but think deeply about what they read, helping them to be transformed bywhat they have read.I used what I have learned about various instructional practices and methods, aswell as the research in regards to the critical and response perspective to create alesson that teaches my students how to think about and respond to literature. I will continue to create a balance of all three perspectives during my literacy instruction:interactive, critical and response, teaching my students to become critical thinkers about thetexts they read, able to respond and connect to the topics presented.Critical and Response PerspectiveAnalysis Cont’d
ReferencesAfflerbach, P. (2012). Understanding and using reading assessment, K–12 (2nd ed). Newark, DE:International Reading Association.Clyde, J. A. (2003). Stepping inside the story world: The subtext strategy—a tool for connecting andcomprehending. The Reading Teacher, 57(2), 150–160.Durand, C., Howell, R., Schumacher, L. A., & Sutton, J. (2008). Using interactive read-alouds and readerresponse to shape students concept of care. Illinois Reading Council Journal, 36(1), 22–29.Framework for Literacy Instruction.Laureate Education Inc. (Producer). (2010a). Analyzing and Selecting Text [Video Webcast]. In TheBeginning Reader PreK-3.Laureate Education Inc. (Producer). (2010b). Critical Perspective [Video Webcast]. In The BeginningReader PreK-3.Laureate Education Inc. (Producer). (2010c). Interactive Perspective: Guided Reading [Video Webcast].In The Beginning Reader PreK-3Laureate Education Inc. (Producer). (2010d). Interactive Perspective: Strategic Processing [VideoWebcast]. In The Beginning Reader PreK-3.
ReferencesLaureate Education Inc. (Producer). (2010c). Interactive Perspective: Guided Reading[Video Webcast]. In The Beginning Reader PreK-3Laureate Education Inc. (Producer). (2010d). Interactive Perspective: Strategic Processing[Video Webcast]. In The Beginning Reader PreK-3.Laureate Education Inc. (Producer). (2010e). Response Perspective [Video Webcast]. InThe Beginning Reader PreK-3.McKenna, M. C., & Kear, D. J. (1990). Measuring attitude toward reading: A new tool forteachers. The Reading Teacher, 43(9), 626--639.Molden, K. (2007). Critical literacy, the right answer for the reading classroom: Strategiesto move beyond comprehension for reading improvement. Reading Improvement, 44(1),50–56.Tompkins, G. E. (2010). Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach (5th ed.).Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
What insights did you gain about literacy and literacy instruction from viewing this presentation? How might the information presented change your literacy practices and/or your literacy interactions with students? In what ways can I support you in the literacy development of your students or children? How might you support me in my work with students or your children? What questions do you have?Feedback from Colleagues and FamilyMembers of Students