Viral vs. Traditional The goal of viral marketing is to use consumer-to-consumer as opposed tocompany-to-consumer communications - to disseminate information about a product.
The Consumer-oriented Marketing ApproachFounded in 2004 in order to advance consumer-oriented marketing techniques and to makeconsumer-driven campaigns an integral part of every brand’s advertising budget mix.
Viral vs. TraditionalAdvertising :– DefinedViral Advertising – Defined:Unpaid, peer-to-peer (personal) communication of provocative contentoriginating from an identified sponsor using the Internet to persuade orinfluence the audience to pass along the content to others.
Viral Marketing vs. WOM The rumor effect From – "word-of-mouth” To – "word-of-mouse” WOM eWOMThe most ancient form of advertising
Advertising And Convergence InternetAudio/Visual/Interactive TV Audio/Visual Radio Audio Print Visual
Word-of-Mouth (WOM) Trust and Acceptance of Different Types of Media Advertising 80% 70% trust and acceptance combined value of 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Word-of-mouth Print Ads TV Ads Radio Outdoor Ads Direct Mail Paid Search Engine Media Banners Junk Mail (Spam) Pop-up ads Type Source: PlanetFeedback, April 2003 Word-of-mouth is the most reliable form of advertising.
Viral Marketing vs. WOM The difference between viral marketing and WOM is one of cause and effect. Viral marketing – which might take the form of influencer marketing programs, community- building portals, viral videos and street-level guerilla campaigns – builds awareness and buzz; it’s the cause. Positive WOM - which theoretically leads to trial and acquisition - is the effect.
Intentional Viral MarketingUnintentional dissemination does not involveconsumer willingness or awareness to promote thebrand.Ex. Hotmail (“Get Your Private, Free E-mail at http://www.hotmail.com”).Hence, users sending e-mails from a Hotmail account automaticallypromote the service to every person they send a message to. Launchedin July 1996, 12 million users signed-up for Hotmail within 2 years. Themarketing budget over the same period of time was only $500,000.
Intentional Viral MarketingIntentional viral marketing occurs whenconsumers willingly become promoters of a product.They are driven to do so either through an explicitincentive (financial or other) or simply out of adesire to share the product benefits (e.g., fun,valuable …)As examples, PayPal, by providing financial incentive to havemembers recommend members, acquired more than three millionusers in its first nine months of operation, while ICQ, a free instant-messaging service, offered an option to invite ones friendsautomatically. 12 million from 1996 to 1997
Why Viral AdvertisingViral Ads add the “WOW” factor toany common product that is not inherently viral.
Viral AdvertisingPull vs. PushTraditional advertising is push-based • We are exposed to over 3,000 marketing messages each day. • Ads are pushed in our faces everywhere we go (billboards, print, radio, TV…).Viral advertising is pull-based • Creativity of the ad propels exposure. • Focus is on creating an environment in which consumers voluntarily market to one another, thus becoming “sales agents” of the brand. • No media buy.
What are your objectives? BrandingTargeted Buzz Traffic Viral Campaign Video Search Call-for- Optimization action
Video Search Optimization YouTube is the #2 • search engine, second .to Google Optimize videos so • they receive top .ranking Results: Targeted traffic to your site for months and years to .come
Push vs. PullConventional vs. Viral Advertising Interruptive Advertising Viral AdvertisingIntrusively “pushing” marketing Creating an environment where consumers messages at consumers. voluntarily market to one another. Don’t Be Conventional. Give Consumers What They Want…
Marketer’s HeavenThe Advantages of Viral Advertising • Media-free • Measurable impact NEW MEDIA (Individual appeal, • 100% voluntary Active viewing) • Peer-to-peer endorsement • No geographical boundaries • Immediate “call-for-action” OLD MEDIA • Unregulated/uncensored (Social appeal, Passive viewing) • Individual appeal • Self-targeted • Lives forever
THE BUILDING BLOCK Meme The “catchy” idea in the concept of every viral campaign that makes it self-propagate among surfers. The meme is the creative engine that drives ad. Examples: Jokes that spread like wildfire, smart pithy sayings, works of art, catchy lyrics, rumors, concept of God… Other names: Thought contagion, ideavirus, catchy. Science: Memetics * “The Selfish Gene”, Richard Dawkins, 1976.
Catchy Creative :Key Viral Elements Humor/Funny Sexy Artistic The catchy creative concept must Original contain one or more of these Emotional essential viral elements. Provocative Thought-provoking Punchy with a twist Short and to the point
Viral MarketingHow it all started? - How the term “viral marketing” was coined? - Is it a misnomer or just good copywriting?
Seeding & Tracking Peer-to-peer email forwarding Profile of the “Seeders” (”Sneezers”)• The first of the video distribution chain.• Opinion leaders and web trend setters.• Not motivated by money.• Distribute “quality” which helps them build their “cool” image.• Need to have “good stuff” others haven’t seen yet – thus will lose interest if they think others have seen it before – they have to be first in distribution cycle.• Their accreditation derives from the quality of data they distribute. Source: “Unleashing the Ideavirus” / Seth Godin
Consumer-driven AdvertisingSelf-Targeting MechanismFirst and foremost, the creative concept ensures that ads propagate toits designated audience.Further targeting can be achieved by choosing the right seedingplatforms.
Seeding & TrackingWeb-exclusive video content sites
Koolanoo.comSupport Your People KOOLANOO Support Your People 1400000 1200000 1000000 Views 800000 600000 400000 200000 0 6 6 6 06 06 07 07 07 07 07 07 00 00 00 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 /2 /2 /2 1/ 1/ 1/ 1/ 1/ 1/ 1/ 1/ /1 /1 /1 5/ 8/ 9/ 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 6/ 10 11 12 Months .Six months after the Sept. 2006 launch, the viral got a second wind
ISRAEL MINISTRY OF TOURISMWorld Cup Ministry of Tourism World Cup 140000 120000 100000 Distribution was 80000 adversely affected bycount 60000 Cea 40000 s Fire e 2nd Lebanese War. 20000 0 03/07/06 10/07/06 17/07/06 24/07/06 31/07/06 07/08/06 14/08/06 date World Cup
JamesAllen.com James Allen launch www.JamesAllen.com .Alexa Ranking indicating launch of the campaign
Merck (Helphairloss.com) Views to Visits Correlation
Self-targeting mechanism 30% increase in visits to site 30% 54% increase in branded sections (where you need to agree to a disclaimer in order to get more details) 54% The self-targeting mechanism built into consumer-driven campaign worked.
Buzz Creation 1,600 1265 1,200 749 800 213 400 84 0 Google.com Google.co.il Feb March
Recommended Reading The Selfish Gene., Richards Dawkins, 1976 Grapevine: New Art of Word of Mouth Marketing, Dave Balter and .John Butman Thought Contagion, How Beliefs Spread Through Society, Aaron .Lynch, 1999 Unleashing the IdeaVirus., Seth Godin, 2001 The Tipping Point., Malcolm Gladwell, 2002
Academic Studies (3)Based on the seminal study on viral advertising by Porter and Golan (2005) and based on previous studies onTaylor‘s six segment message strategy wheel (1999), the current study will present the following research:questionsRQ#1: What advertising appeals were most frequently used in viral?advertisements?RQ#2: What were the advertising functions of the viral adsRQ#3: Do viral advertisements base their creative message strategies on the?ritual strategy more than they do on the transmission message strategyRQ#4: Which of six segments on Taylor’s wheel were most commonly used in?viral advertisementsRQ#5: Did different product categories use different messages strategies in?viral ads
Appeal in Viral Advertising (5)Table 1. Appeals used in viral advertisements (n=360)Advertising Appeal Frequency PercentageHumor 328 91%Sexuality 101 28.1%Violence 52 14.4%Children 46 12.8%Animals 64 17.8%
Function in Viral Advertising (6)Table 2. Advertising function in viral advertisementsAdvertising Function Current Study n=360 Porter & Golan (2005) n=266Branding 252 (70%) 224 (84%)Call for action 53 (14.8%) 10 (4%)Provide information 55 (15.3%) 32 (12%)
Ritual vs. Transmission View (7) Table 3. Ritual vs. Transmission views frequency percentage Transmission View 83 23% As outlined by Taylor’s model (1999), the creative strategy wheel is defined by the Ritual View 210 58.3% transmission and ritual views that are Combination 67 18.6% divided into six separate segments. Total 360 100%Table 4. Taylor’s six segment strategies in viral ads Transmission View: frequency percentage Creative message based Ration 88 24.4% on information. Acute need 59 16.4% Ritual View: Routine 5 1.4% Creative message based on ego & Ego 184 51% need to be part of group. * Social 58 16.1% Sensory 6 1.6% .Individual appeal of ads mentioned earlier *
Type of Advertising Technique:Viral vs. TV Ads (9)Appeal Mean Square F Sig.Sex 2.212 21.490 .000**Nudity .967 11.159 .001**Violence 1.495 8.965 .003*Humor .001 .013 .909Animals .433 3.375 .067Children .378 3.695 .055Animation 1.249 14.789 .000** Significant at the .05 level, **significant at the 0.001 level *
Appeal Across Industries (10)Appeal Likely to use Not likely to useSex Fashion (.62) Issue Advocacy (.04) Pharmaceutical (.39) Media & Entertainment (.07) Automotive (.12)Nudity Pharmaceutical (.36) Issue Advocacy (.0) Automotive (.06) Food & Beverage (.07)Violence Media & Entertainment (.62) Fashion (.08) Travel (.09) Pharmaceutical (.09) Automotive (.24)Humor Media & Entertainment (1.0) Issue Advocacy (.64) Travel (1.0) Automotive (.97) Food & Beverage (.95) Communication & Electronics (.94) Pharmaceutical (.91)Children Issue Advocacy (.29) Pharmaceutical (.03)
Academic Studies (11)SummaryThis strategy may be a function of the advertising format rather than thenature of the advertisers. Based on McLuhan‘s (1964) assertion that themedium is the message, it could be argued that the creative/messagestrategy of any viral ad will be largely determined by its memefactor.Since the success of any consumer-driven advertising campaign isbased on the willingness of users to forward messages (ads) to as manypeople as possible, advertisers must shy away from boring factbased strategies and towards more entertaining, exciting orinteresting attention grabbing strategies. The results of the current studyprovide empirical evidence to this approach as they clearly highlight thepredominance of the ritual view strategy over the transmission view.In layman terms, it could be argued that consumer-driven advertisingstrategies target users through the gut rather than the brain.
Academic Studies (12)SummaryWhen synthesized with the results of theadvertising appeal results, one could arguethat consumer-driven ads were oftenbased on an individual appeal (ego ratherthan social) that was based largely onhumor while attempting to provide someinformation to the user.
Academic Studies (13) Additional significant findingsFortune 500 companies created 62% of the television ads analyzed (146 ads).Non-Fortune 500 companies produced the majority of consumer-driven ads with 60% (160 ads).5.1% of television ads used sex appeals, 18.4% of consumer-driven ads used sex appeals.Television ads were more likely to use animation (14.9%) as compared to consumer-driven ads(4.9%)Consumer-driven ads (26.7%) were more likely to use a violence appeal (mostly from theEntertainment industry) than television ads (15.7%).