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Site B site analysis Site B site analysis Presentation Transcript

  • SITE ANALYSIS SITE B PENANG MALAYSIA - DESIGN STUDIO 2 - SITE ANALYSIS PANTAI KERACHUT
  • LOCATION PLAN Pantai Kerachut This is the location plan of Pantai Kerachut in Penang National Park, Malaysia. This area is found at the northwestern tip of Penang island. It is popular for its harmonious serenity of nature and man. A very special feature of this site is the ‘’Meromictic Lake’’ which is a seasonal lake. The lake is surrounded by a variety of rich vegetation. The lake’s mouth is connected to the Malacca Strait. BEACH FOREST MEROMICTIC LAKE MALACCA STRAIT LAND GUARD POST SITE PLAN BEACH
  • SITE PLAN This area denotes our intended site area of 100m x 200m, ensuring the bridge entrance is included as well as the mouth of the lake, where a special phenomenon takes place. That of allowing sea water into the lake but preventing it from backwashing into the sea, creating two layers of water ; fresh water and sea water in the lake, hence the name, Meromictic Lake. Our site also allows generous amount of flat gentle land. 100m BEACH FOREST BRIDGE MALACCA STRAIT MEROMICTIC LAKE LAND MEROMICTIC LAKE SITE PLAN 200m BEACH
  • CONTOURS The map here shows the contours of the area. The lowest contour height is -2m. And the highest is 34m. The 0m contour line represents the sea level. It is clear that this area is made of both steep terrain as well as some areas of gentle flat land. BRIDGE MALACCA STRAIT BEACH FOREST MEROMICTIC LAKE LAND SITE PLAN MEROMICTIC LAKE BEACH
  • SECTIONS Due to the complex terrain surrounding our site, we realised it would be ideal for us to have general sections of the area instead of simply limiting it to within our site, to indicate the gradient of the slopes as well as their heights above sea level. BEACH FOREST BRIDGE MALACCA STRAIT MEROMICTIC LAKE LAND SITE PLAN MEROMICTIC LAKE BEACH
  • SECTION A-1 The sections are to indicate the shape of the terrain. Each base line of the section represents its ‘’ground’’ where we walk on. The top line represents the back drop of the mountain in our area. BEACH FOREST BEACH FOREST MEROMICTIC LAKE Legend: Section A-1 MEROMICTIC LAKE BEACH MALACCA STRAIT MOUNTAIN TOP SEA LEVEL GROUND SURFACE SITE PLAN LAND BRIDGE
  • SECTION A-2 The sections are to indicate the shape of the terrain. Each base line of the section represents its ‘’ground’’ where we walk on. The top line represents the back drop of the mountain in our area. BEACH FOREST BEACH FOREST MEROMICTIC LAKE Legend: Section A-1 MEROMICTIC LAKE LAND BRIDGE BEACH MALACCA STRAIT MOUNTAIN TOP GROUND SURFACE SEA LEVEL SITE PLAN Section A-2
  • SECTION A-3 The sections are to indicate the shape of the terrain. Each base line of the section represents its ‘’ground’’ where we walk on. The top line represents the back drop of the mountain in our area. BEACH FOREST BEACH FOREST MEROMICTIC LAKE Legend: Section A-1 MEROMICTIC LAKE Section A-3 LAND BRIDGE BEACH MALACCA STRAIT MOUNTAIN TOP GROUND SURFACE SEA LEVEL SITE PLAN Section A-2
  • SECTION A-4 The sections are to indicate the shape of the terrain. Each base line of the section represents its ‘’ground’’ where we walk on. The top line represents the back drop of the mountain in our area. BEACH FOREST BEACH FOREST MEROMICTIC LAKE Legend: Section A-1 MEROMICTIC LAKE Section A-2 Section A-3 LAND BRIDGE BEACH MALACCA STRAIT MOUNTAIN TOP GROUND SURFACE SEA LEVEL SITE PLAN Section A-4
  • SECTION A-5 The sections are to indicate the shape of the terrain. Each base line of the section represents its ‘’ground’’ where we walk on. The top line represents the back drop of the mountain in our area. BEACH FOREST BEACH FOREST MEROMICTIC LAKE Legend: Section A-1 MEROMICTIC LAKE Section A-2 Section A-3 LAND BRIDGE Section A-4 BEACH MALACCA STRAIT MOUNTAIN TOP SEA LEVEL GROUND SURFACE SITE PLAN Section A-5
  • SECTION B-1 The longitudinal sections also indicates the shape of the terrain. Each base line of the section represents its ‘’ground’’ where we walk on. The top line represents the back drop of the mountain in our area. Legend: Section B-1 MALACCA STRAIT BRIDGE BEACH FOREST MEROMICTIC LAKE MEROMICTIC LAKE BEACH MOUNTAIN TOP GROUND SURFACE SEA LEVEL SITE PLAN LAND
  • SECTION B-2 The longitudinal sections also indicate the shape of the terrain. Each base line of the section represents its ‘’ground’’ where we walk on. The top line represents the back drop of the mountain in our area. Legend: Section B-1 MALACCA STRAIT BRIDGE Section B-2 BEACH FOREST MEROMICTIC LAKE MEROMICTIC LAKE BEACH MOUNTAIN TOP GROUND SURFACE SEA LEVEL SITE PLAN LAND
  • SECTION B-3 The longitudinal sections are to indicate the shape of the terrain. Each base line of the section represents its ‘’ground’’ where we walk on. The top line represents the back drop of the mountain in our area. Legend: Section B-1 MALACCA STRAIT BRIDGE Section B-2 BEACH FOREST MEROMICTIC LAKE Section B-3 MEROMICTIC LAKE BEACH MOUNTAIN TOP GROUND SURFACE SEA LEVEL SITE PLAN LAND
  • MACRO Batu Feringgi Teluk Bahang Perlis Kedah Botanical Garden Penang Georgetown Perak Kelantan Terengganu Pahang Selangor Negeri Sembilan Malacca Bayan Lepas Johor Penang Island Legend : Peninsular Malaysia A i r p l a n e R o u t e Car and Bus Route T r a i n R o u t e CIRCULATION Pulau Jerejak
  • MICRO Hiking and Boat-Riding Path (Site: Teluk Bahang--Pedestrian Path (Site: Lake) - Pantai Kerachut ) Meromictic Lake Beach Forest Beach Forest Pavilion Beach Forest Entrance Beach Our Site Camping Site Sea Hall Legend: Legend: P e d e s t r i a n V e h i c l e P a t h P a t h Jetty M a j o r P e d e s t r i a n P a t h M i n o r P e d e s t r i a n P a t h CIRCULATION River Bridge
  • Frequency Time Average Frequency Activity Bridge Sight Seeing Beach Forest Meromictic Lake Evening Morning Sun Bathing Afternoon High High High High High High Low Medium Low - - Low Low Low High Low Low High Medium High Low Low Low Medium Turtle Crossing Lakeside Beach Forest Bridge Barbeque Site Camping Site Beach Camping Site Toilet Turtle Crossing Sea Toilet Legend: High Frequency Medium Frequency Low Frequency Jetty CIRCULATION Hill
  • CLIMATE SUN
  • Land Breeze and Sea Breeze When the wind pressure flows through the enclosed area of the trees and vegetations, being smaller in diameter, the restriction causes a higher pressure at the narrow end. This difference in pressure causes the wind flow to accelerate towards the low pressure narrow section, creating a higher constant speed. CLIMATE WIND
  • Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Max. Temperature (Celcius) 31.7 32.3 32.1 32 32.1 31.8 31.8 31.3 31.1 30.8 31 31 Min. Temperature (Celcius) 24.6 24.8 24.9 25.2 25.1 25.2 25.2 24.8 24.4 24.5 24.4 24.5 CLIMATE TEMPERATURE & HUMIDITY
  • LAKE CYCLE 25 21 20 19 15 17 16 15 14 14 12 11 10 8 15 8 5 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Yearly precipitation (days) Intermonsoon season • The lake has low water levels during the dry season which is filled mostly with fresh water from the streams and the water levels follows the sea tide levels throughout the day. Low tide (0 ~10cm) Northeast monsoon (May – Sept) Intermonsoon season • Formation of lake occur during intermonsoon seasons, which Sumatra winds bring in strong waves and heavy rainfalls. • Throughout April-May and Oct-Nov, the lake will form and dry up in 1 hour 15mins for several times. Natural dam formed CLIMATE Southwest monsoon (Nov – March)
  • LAKE CYCLE Maximum water level (~170cm excluding mud level) Lake with maximum water level CLIMATE High tide (20~50cm)
  • Location of Vegetation in Virginia Forest Meromictic Lake The Meromictic Lake in Penang National Park is a lake that can adapt to two types of water: where it mainly receive water from five different streams and the sea. Bridge Pavilion River Camping site Hall LEGEND: location spot route to Virginia Forest Entrance to Virginia Forest Besides, the lake also consist of two different temperature.The stream water on the lower part has a higher temperature if compared to the sea water which is cooler. LANDSCAPE Due to the presence of different densities in these two water, the lake is seperated into two layers, where the sea water exist in the lower layer while other stream water lays in the upper layer.
  • Landscape, Elevation & Sections Vegetations & Aquatic Livings Weed Casuarina Tree East -South Elevation (Scale 1:350) A B Fiddler crabs Shed shells as they grow. Lost legs or claws during their present growth cycle, a new one will be present when they molt Smallest size about diameter of a 50 cent coin A Site Plan (N.T.S.) LANDSCAPE North-East Cross Section A-A (Scale 1:350) B
  • Landscape, Elevation & Sections Vegetations & Aquatic Livings Weed Casuarina Tree East -South Elevation (Scale 1:350) A B Faunus Ater Brackish water snail species with an operculum Aperture is ovate and white The shell has two deep sinuses: an anal sinus which is close to the suture and an anterior sinus more forward in the aperture Operculum is oval, corneous and dark brown A Site Plan (N.T.S.) LANDSCAPE North-East Cross Section A-A (Scale 1:350) B
  • Landscape, Elevation & Sections Water level of The Lake Sea water cannot enter the lake while high tide Water from the streams evaporates within 1.5 hrs South-West Monsoon season (April~October) Water level will reach maximum height (1.7m) when high tide East-South Longitudinal Section B-B (Scale 1:350) East-South Longitudinal Section B-B (Scale 1:350) LANDSCAPE Dry season (November~March)
  • Landscape, Elevation & Sections Location of Vegetation of The Lake East-South Longitudinal Section B-B (Scale 1:350) South-West Monsoon season (April~October) East-South Longitudinal Section B-B (Scale 1:350) Red Mangrove Prop roots ("breathing tubes") heights of up to 30 cm Prop themselves above the water level to absorb air through pores in their bark . Wind barrier LANDSCAPE Dry season (November~March)
  • Location of Vegetation in Virginia Forest Bridge Pavilion Height: (7-8) m Scientific name: Eurycomal Longifolia Another common name: Pasak bumi Family of Simaroubaceae Evergreen tree Function as herb: Pro-fertility and aphrodisiac River (m) Camping site Scale 1: 200 10 Hall LEGEND: Entrance to Virginia Forest 8 6 location spot 4 route to Virginia Forest 2 0 Tongkat Ali LANDSCAPE Tongkat Ali
  • Location of Vegetation in Virginia Forest Bridge Scientific name: Labisia Pumila Benth Common name: Selusuh Fatimah Leaf size: 0.2m Herbaceous shrub with creeping rhizomes Surrounding: High humidity and shady Function as herb: afterbirth care Pavilion River Camping site (cm) Scale 1: 20 80 Hall 60 LEGEND: location spot route to Virginia Forest Entrance to Virginia Forest 40 20 0 Kacip Fatimah LANDSCAPE Kacip Fatimah
  • Location of Vegetation in Virginia Forest Bridge Kelentit Kering Yellow-footed polypore Microporus Xanthopus species Polyporaceae family Diameter: 0.09m Grow on rotting wood River Camping site (cm) Scale 1: 20 80 Hall 60 LEGEND: location spot route to Virginia Forest Entrance to Virginia Forest 40 20 0 Kelentik Kering LANDSCAPE Pavilion
  • Location of Vegetation in Virginia Forest Bridge Nepenthes Ampullaria (Ground species Pitcher plant) Height: 0.1m Width: 0.07m Carnivorous plant, feed on insects Able to grow in poor soils Oten grow in damp, shady and humid area Separate to two types River Camping site (cm) Hall Scale 1: 20 80 60 LEGEND: Entrance to Virginia Forest location spot 40 route to Virginia Forest 20 0 Pitcher Plant LANDSCAPE Pavilion
  • Location of Vegetation in Virginia Forest Bintangor Height: 10m Diameter: 0.125m Long waxy leaves Soil condition: swampy area Poisonous latex: used for stunning fish Function as herb: Ease headache and rashes Pavilion River (m) Camping site Scale 1: 200 10 Hall LEGEND: Entrance to Virginia Forest 8 6 location spot 4 route to Virginia Forest 2 0 Bintangor LANDSCAPE Bridge
  • Location of Vegetation in Virginia Forest Bintangor Height: 10m Diameter: 0.125m Long waxy leaves Soil condition: swampy area Poisonous latex: used for stunning fish Function as herb: Ease headache and rashes Pavilion River (m) Camping site Scale 1: 200 10 Hall LEGEND: Entrance to Virginia Forest 8 6 location spot 4 route to Virginia Forest 2 0 Bintangor LANDSCAPE Bridge
  • Location of Vegetation in Virginia Forest Casuarina Junghuhniana Average height: 20m Average diameter: 40cm Deciduous tree Soil condition: slope, sandy soil Suitable species as windbreaker Improved soil fertility Pavilion River (m) Camping site Scale 1: 200 10 Hall LEGEND: Entrance to Virginia Forest 8 6 location spot 4 route to Virginia Forest 2 0 Casuarina tree LANDSCAPE Bridge
  • Location of Birds foraging in Virginia Forest (5.00 a.m. morning) Humming Bird Smallest of birds (7.5 – 13) cm Humming sound created by their beating wings. Pigeon 12 inches. Feed on seeds, fruits, and plants. 0.5 – 2 kg . Bridge Pavilion River Lifespan: 25 y 0.2 – 0.4 kg (Adult) Length: 37 – 43 cm (Adult), 44 – 46 cm (Adult) Camping site Hall LEGEND: location spot route to Virginia Forest Entrance to Virginia Forest Bulbul Short-necked Length from 13cm to 29cm . Highly vocal, with the calls of most species being described as nasal or gravelly. LANDSCAPE Magpie
  • - Barbecuing normally happens in the afternoon and evening. - Food is not provided by the park. - Besides barbecuing, camping is available with the limitation of 100 visitors at the campsite. No charges are applied for camping. - Cooking and camping facilities are not provided. - These activities are mostly preferred by locals, especially during public holidays and school holidays. BARBECUE & PICNIC AREA ACTIVITIES LEGAL ACTIVITES
  • LEGAL ACTIVITES SIGHT SEEING BY THE LAKE SIGHT SEEING IN THE BEACH FOREST - The best time for sightseeing at these sites is from morning to noon. - It is not advised to visit the lake and the beach during the night because of the high tide from the sea. - During November to March, the lake becomes dry and muddy due to the dry season so it is not ideal to visit during that time. ACTIVITIES SIGHT SEEING AT THE BEACH
  • LEGAL ACTIVITES Nesting - Green Turtles nesting: April to August - Olive Ridley Turtle nesting: September to February - Nesting occurs at night. - Viewing is allowed but with minimal light shining at the turtles as to not disrupt the process. Nesting Site Selection - Located under the vegetative cover of merambong trees - Open sands - Under bushes Based on the statistics of 2008 & 2009, 60% of Green Turtle nests were located under merambong trees, 24.8% were located under bushes and 14.9% in open sands. ACTIVITIES TURTLE NESTING
  • LEGAL ACTIVITES Turtle Hatchery & Sanctuary - The cage indicates that the eggs are being incubated until they are ready to be hatched. - Office hours: 7.30AM – 6PM - After the eggs are laid, they are reburied in the hatchery nests excavated to a depth of 60cm deep & 25cm wide. - After placing them in the nesting chamber, the nest is compacted with remaining sand and left for incubation. - They then label the clutches using bamboo sticks & cover the nest with a protective netting to avoid predation attempts. ACTIVITIES TURTLE CONSERVATION SANCTUARY
  • LEGAL ACTIVITES - There are 3 hiking trails in Penang National Park. - The best months to hike is throughout the year, excluding the months of March - April because they are the ludicrously hot months therefore it is not ideal to hike. - The distance from Teluk Bahang to Pantai Kerachut is 3km and the hike usually takes around 1.5 -2 hours, depending on individual speed. ACTIVITIES JUNGLE TREKKING / HIKING
  • LEGAL ACTIVITES JETTY / FISHING - Pre booking is required for 15-20 minutes boat ride from Pantai Kerachut back to Teluk Bahang abd vise versa. ACTIVITIES The lake is a dry mud bank during neap tides and dry season. October to April is not a good time to visit the lake.
  • LEGAL ACTIVITES SHELTER BIRD WATCHING Bird watching is available at 5am and in the evening. This activity happens often due to the migration of different species of birds. ACTIVITIES Shelter is provided for visitors to rest and bird watching. It’s a place for people to gather around.
  • ILLEGAL ACTIVITES SWIMMING Swimming is not allowed as a precaution for jellyfish stings. SMOKING Smoking is prohibited throughout the park to sustain the air quality and cleanliness. ACTIVITIES HERBS COLLECTING Herbs collecting is not allowed as a measure of preservation of nature.
  • EXISTING STRUCTURE LOCATION OF EXISTING STRUCTURES (site plan)
  • EXISTING STRUCTURE LOCATION OF EXISTING STRUCTURES (site plan)
  • EXISTING STRUCTURE LOCATION OF EXISTING STRUCTURES (site plan)
  • EXISTING STRUCTURE LOCATION OF EXISTING STRUCTURES (location plan)
  • EXISTING STRUCTURE LOCATION OF EXISTING STRUCTURES (location plan)
  • EXISTING STRUCTURE LOCATION OF EXISTING STRUCTURES (location plan)
  • MEASUREMENTS PLAN SCALE 1:100 SIDE ELEVATION SCALE 1:100 FRONT ELEVATION SCALE 1:100 EXISTING STRUCTURE Suspension Bridge
  • MEASUREMENTS PLAN SCALE 1:20 SIDE ELEVATION SCALE 1:20 EXISTING STRUCTURE Shelter
  • PURPOSE OF EXISTENCE Suspension Bridge EXISTING STRUCTURE • To connect forest and Pantai Kerachut • To provide an extensive view of Tasik Meromiktik • To act as a clear border between the sea and the lake
  • REASON OF CHOICE • • Less hassle during construction. Difference in height between the two lands. EXISTING STRUCRURE Suspension Bridge
  • MATERIALS USED Platform Handle Base Fibre Cement Board Polyvinyl Chloride Concrete Columns Supporting Cables Supporting I – beams Concrete Steel Cable Galvanized Mild Steel EXISTING STRUCTURE Suspension Bridge
  • REASON OF CHOICE EXISTING STRUCTURE Suspension Bridge
  • PURPOSE OF EXISTENCE Shelter EXISTING STRUCTURE • Acts as a shelter during sunny or rainy days • To allow mountain hikers and beach lovers to have a nice place to rest • To bring the Malay traditional flavours to Pantai Kerachut
  • MATERIALS USED Kapur Wood – Shellac coated EXISTING STRUCTURE Shelter
  • PURPOSE OF EXISTENCE Guard Post EXISTING STRUCTURE • To provide security • To ensure cleanliness • To carry out registration
  • MATERIALS USED Kapur Wood – Shellac coated EXISTING STRUCTURE Guard Post
  • PURPOSE OF EXISTENCE EXISTING STRUCTURE Sign Boards
  • VIEWS AND SENSORY SITE ANALYSIS
  • VIEWS AND SENSORY WIND
  • NOISE Sound of the nature and insects from the forest Sound of sea breeze and sea waves Sound of the wind and sea breeze Sound of the insects and birds from the forest Sound of the insects and birds from the forest VIEWS AND SENSORY Sound of waves splashing onto the rocks
  • VIEWS AND SENSORY VIEWS FROM THE SITE
  • Point A Point B Point C VIEWS AND SENSORY VIEWS
  • VIEWS AND SENSORY VIEW QUALITIES FROM SITE
  • VIEWS AND SENSORY POINT A (VIEWS FROM BRIDGE)
  • VIEWS AND SENSORY POINT B (VIEWS FROM LAKESIDE)
  • VIEWS AND SENSORY POINT C
  • VIEWS AND SENSORY VIEWS THROUGH THE SITE
  • VIEWS AND SENSORY VIEWS TO THE SITE
  • VIEWS AND SENSORY VIEWS TO THE SITE
  • VIEWS AND SENSORY BEST VIEWS
  • One of the best nature view during 6.45am-7.25am, when the sun rises. VIEWS AND SENSORY BEST VIEWS (EAST)
  • One of the best nature view during 5.45pm-7.15pm, when the sun rises. VIEWS AND SENSORY BEST VIEWS (WEST)
  • Site Plan ( 1:1500 )
  • Forest Ranger A forest ranger is a person entrusted with protecting and preserving forests DUTY - To protect the park resources for future generations - To protect park visitors. SKILLS - Have strong communication and leadership skills - Physically fit - Have knowledge of basic first aid, surviving skills EQUIPMENTS - First Aid kit to rescue visitors if any emergency happened. - Fire-fighting tools to prevent forest fire if there is any. - Torch light, matches or lighters - Knife - Safety Boot - Water Bottle - Rope - Other appropriate gears
  • Standard Lookout/ Observation Towers 12 meters 16 meters 36 meters 35 meters Standard lookout towers with different heights and constructional structure ( bracings ) A zig-zag or staircases to go up and down with one space at the top for observation. 12 meters
  • Simple Local Guard Towers - Located in Teluk Cempedak Beach, Kuantan - Constructed with concrete and consists of wooden or steel handrails for stairs - Simplest structure with one staircase around the tower to go up and down - Located between Hyatt Hotel and Commercial street nearby Mc Donald Restaurant - Provide good overall view of the sea for safety purpose
  • Korkeasaari Lookout Tower -Situated on a site 18 meters above sea - Competition for design of Ten meters high Timber Tower - Provide spectacular views of the sea and city of Helsinki - Landmark of Korkeasaari Island Ville Hara Helsinki, Finland
  • - The load bearing structure consists of 72 long battens, with a section of 60mmx60mm, that are bent and twisted on the site from seven pre-bent types. - Over 600 bolted joints hold the shell structure together. - The wood is treated with a linen oil-based wood balm with UV-protection.
  • - A batten is a thin strip of solid material, typically made from wood, plastic or metal. - Battens are used in building construction and various other fields. - Ideal for external cladding and facades - Light and strong material
  • JeJawi Tower, Pulau Ubin, Singapore - Located at Chek Jawa Wetlands, - Big attraction for bird watching and view most of greenery in Pulau Ubin - 21 meters tall viewing tower - Includes 7 storeys of 3-meter risers and at each storey, there is a small deck for observing the surroundings
  • - There is one staircase to go up and come down. - Can accommodate 20 people at the top cabin. - Materials – Steel and Timber
  • - Construction includes diagonal bracing from the base to the top. - Consists of Four primary post columns with bracings Cross Bracing K-Bracing Eccentric Types of Bracing
  • Killesberg Tower - Observatory Tower completed in 2000, designed by Jorg Schlaich - Consists of 5 floors above the ground - 40.3 meters high and base width is 21 meters - Landmark of Stuggart Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany
  • - The tower is accessed by two open-air spiral staircases : One to go up and one to go down. - 4 platforms and 2 counter-rotating stairs (348 steps) - Height to observation deck from ground – 31 meters - The tower has different heights in viewing platforms – 8 m, 16m, 24m, 31m.
  • - Main Material used is Steel. - Constructed with steel mesh and pre-stressed cable net type with an open lattice structure. - There are 48 cables.
  • Bird Observation Tower - Located on the far-projecting peninsula Graswarder, Heiligenhafen, Germany - 12.5 meters high - Gross External Area : 48 meter squared - Heiligenhafen Germany Designed by GMP architects Wooden construction made of Siberian Larch
  • Two flight staircase providing access to the tower Type of staircase – Half-Landing Stairs
  • Siberian Larch Wood is used for Decking and Siding. With great stability, durability, and its natural resistance for decay are the most impressive features. A type of hard wood with high density and they are aesthetically beautiful with natural color.
  • Inspirations Observation Tower on the River Mur, Border of Austria and Slovneia The Jübergtower, Germany Lookout tower at Pipestem Resort, West Virginia Vienna Jubilaeumswarte Tower at Honda Wetlands,Ohio Observation Tower at Putrajaya Water Sports Complex Bird-watching Tower in Heitasaari Island, Finland