Educational Problems in India
Background
Information
Diversity
Issues
Educational
Structure
Problems and
Priorities
Background Information
an ancient civilization
2500 BC
Aryan tribes invaded and
they set the classical
Indian culture
1500 BC
Arabs
700s A.D.
Turks
1100s A.D.
British
colonization of India
1800s A.D.
independence in
1947
establishment of the
Republic of India
The
Republic of India
today
…
1,220,800,359
July2013est.
Population
1,220,800,359
50%
population constitute
school-aged children
(25 years old and below)
Population
total GDP
$570 billion
unemployment rate
9.9 %
educational expenditure
from GDP3.3%
2010
73% age 15 and over
can read and write
Literacy Rate
80.90%
64.60%
19.10%
35.40%
MALE FEMALE
GENDER AND LITERACY RATES 2011
Literate Illiterate
Diversity Issues
Ethnic Diversity
Religious
Diversity
Linguistic
Diversity
Indo-Aryan
Dravidian
Mongoloid
Negrito
Western
Bracycephals
80.5
13.4
2.3
1.9
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
HINDUISM ISLAM CHRISTIANITY SIKH
RELIGION
“India has 200,000 gods, and
worships them all. In religion, all countries
are paupers; India is the only millionaire”
(Tw...
National Language
English
Hindu
Educational Structure
1968 1976 1986
Initial attempt to
design a National
Education Policy
Constitutional
amendment to
Educational Policy
India ...
1992 2001 2005
National
Education Policy
was modified
Launch of the
National
Campaign for
Education for All
Proposed bill ...
Major Educational Goals
Universal access
and enrolment
Universal retention
of children up to 14
years of age
Improvement i...
Central and State Government
Governing Bodies
Ministry of Human Resource
Development
Department of
Elementary
Education an...
Structure of School Education 10+2 years
Pre-school
(2-3 years)
Elementary School
(Grade 1 – 8)
Primary
School (Grade
1 -5...
Structure of School Education 10+2 years
Pre-school
(2-3 years)
Elementary School
(Grade 1 – 8)
Primary
School (Grade
1 -5...
Structure of School Education 10+2 years
Pre-school
(2-3 years)
Elementary School
(Grade 1 – 8)
Primary
School (Grade
1 -5...
Structure of School Education 10+2 years
Pre-school
(2-3 years)
Elementary School
(Grade 1 – 8)
Primary
School (Grade
1 -5...
Structure of School Education 10+2 years
Pre-school
(2-3 years)
Elementary School
(Grade 1 – 8)
Primary
School (Grade
1 -5...
The Curriculum
• Developed by the National
Council of Education, Research
and Training NCERT
• Core areas of curriculum ar...
The Curriculum
• More focused on what to teach
and not how to teach
• National Curriculum
Framework 2000 depends on
the co...
The Curriculum
• Traditional
• Irrelevant
• Theoretical
• Overcrowded
• Dominated by examinations
Traditional
Information
Provision
Learner-oriented
and competence-
based
gradual change in
perspective
Gross Enrollment ratio
82.5%girls enrollment has
been higher than boys
End of lower
primary 34.9%
End of upper
primary 52.8%
End of
secondary
school
(Grade 10)
Estimated drop out rates
62.6%
20...
Problems &
Priorities
Economic Issues
Spending
• Ineffective use of funds
• Very low expenditure on education
Equity
• Unequal opportunity for a...
Educational Issues
Quality
• Teacher/Student Absenteeism
• High teacher pupil ratio
• Inadequate teaching material and fac...
Diversity Issues
Nationalism
• politicization of Hindu nationalism
• biases and stereotypes in textbooks (religious &
cult...
reform initiatives are needed
Design by:
Ghaidaa H. Naguib
@ghido86
@ghido86
Education in India
Education in India
Education in India
Education in India
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Education in India

  1. 1. Educational Problems in India
  2. 2. Background Information Diversity Issues Educational Structure Problems and Priorities
  3. 3. Background Information
  4. 4. an ancient civilization 2500 BC
  5. 5. Aryan tribes invaded and they set the classical Indian culture 1500 BC
  6. 6. Arabs 700s A.D. Turks 1100s A.D.
  7. 7. British colonization of India 1800s A.D.
  8. 8. independence in 1947 establishment of the Republic of India
  9. 9. The Republic of India today …
  10. 10. 1,220,800,359 July2013est. Population
  11. 11. 1,220,800,359 50% population constitute school-aged children (25 years old and below) Population
  12. 12. total GDP $570 billion
  13. 13. unemployment rate 9.9 %
  14. 14. educational expenditure from GDP3.3% 2010
  15. 15. 73% age 15 and over can read and write Literacy Rate
  16. 16. 80.90% 64.60% 19.10% 35.40% MALE FEMALE GENDER AND LITERACY RATES 2011 Literate Illiterate
  17. 17. Diversity Issues
  18. 18. Ethnic Diversity Religious Diversity Linguistic Diversity
  19. 19. Indo-Aryan Dravidian Mongoloid Negrito Western Bracycephals
  20. 20. 80.5 13.4 2.3 1.9 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 HINDUISM ISLAM CHRISTIANITY SIKH RELIGION
  21. 21. “India has 200,000 gods, and worships them all. In religion, all countries are paupers; India is the only millionaire” (Twain, 1987, as cited in Meyer & Brysac, 2012, p.27).
  22. 22. National Language English Hindu
  23. 23. Educational Structure
  24. 24. 1968 1976 1986 Initial attempt to design a National Education Policy Constitutional amendment to Educational Policy India as a whole had a uniform National Policy on Education 1964 Kothari Commission
  25. 25. 1992 2001 2005 National Education Policy was modified Launch of the National Campaign for Education for All Proposed bill for Education for all
  26. 26. Major Educational Goals Universal access and enrolment Universal retention of children up to 14 years of age Improvement in the quality of education Revival of Sanskrit and other classical languages for contemporary use Greater use of Educational Technology
  27. 27. Central and State Government Governing Bodies Ministry of Human Resource Development Department of Elementary Education and Literacy Department of Secondary and Higher Education CentralAdvisory BoardofEducation CABE National Council of Education, Research and Training NCERT Educational Policies National Curriculum Framework
  28. 28. Structure of School Education 10+2 years Pre-school (2-3 years) Elementary School (Grade 1 – 8) Primary School (Grade 1 -5) Middle School (Grade 6 – 8) Secondary Education(Grade 9 -12) Secondary Education (Grade 9 – 10) Senior Secondary Education (Grade 11-12)
  29. 29. Structure of School Education 10+2 years Pre-school (2-3 years) Elementary School (Grade 1 – 8) Primary School (Grade 1 -5) Middle School (Grade 6 – 8) Secondary Education(Grade 9 -12) Secondary Education (Grade 9 – 10) Senior Secondary Education (Grade 11-12)
  30. 30. Structure of School Education 10+2 years Pre-school (2-3 years) Elementary School (Grade 1 – 8) Primary School (Grade 1 -5) Middle School (Grade 6 – 8) Secondary Education(Grade 9 -12) Secondary Education (Grade 9 – 10) Senior Secondary Education (Grade 11-12)
  31. 31. Structure of School Education 10+2 years Pre-school (2-3 years) Elementary School (Grade 1 – 8) Primary School (Grade 1 -5) Middle School (Grade 6 – 8) Secondary Education(Grade 9 -12) Secondary Education (Grade 9 – 10) Senior Secondary Education (Grade 11-12) • Compulsory Education • Free Education – in states where education is not free annual fee varies considerably
  32. 32. Structure of School Education 10+2 years Pre-school (2-3 years) Elementary School (Grade 1 – 8) Primary School (Grade 1 -5) Middle School (Grade 6 – 8) Secondary Education(Grade 9 -12) Secondary Education (Grade 9 – 10) Senior Secondary Education (Grade 11-12) • Academic Stream • Vocational Stream
  33. 33. The Curriculum • Developed by the National Council of Education, Research and Training NCERT • Core areas of curriculum are common • Reviewed every 5 years • Teaching English is compulsory (Grade 6 -10)
  34. 34. The Curriculum • More focused on what to teach and not how to teach • National Curriculum Framework 2000 depends on the concept of Minimum Levels of Learning
  35. 35. The Curriculum • Traditional • Irrelevant • Theoretical • Overcrowded • Dominated by examinations
  36. 36. Traditional Information Provision Learner-oriented and competence- based gradual change in perspective
  37. 37. Gross Enrollment ratio 82.5%girls enrollment has been higher than boys
  38. 38. End of lower primary 34.9% End of upper primary 52.8% End of secondary school (Grade 10) Estimated drop out rates 62.6% 2002-03
  39. 39. Problems & Priorities
  40. 40. Economic Issues Spending • Ineffective use of funds • Very low expenditure on education Equity • Unequal opportunity for all sections of society to be educated • Disparity in the different states in the number of children completing school (drop rates rates)
  41. 41. Educational Issues Quality • Teacher/Student Absenteeism • High teacher pupil ratio • Inadequate teaching material and facilities • Failure in implementing curriculum Access in Higher Education • Availability of institutions Structure of the Vocational Education • Quality • Efficiency of the programs
  42. 42. Diversity Issues Nationalism • politicization of Hindu nationalism • biases and stereotypes in textbooks (religious & cultural) Gender • status of women; cost to family; child marriage and other cultural practices; child labor/domestic chores Exclusion: • linguistic groups (over 100) • disabilities (90 million) • orphans
  43. 43. reform initiatives are needed
  44. 44. Design by: Ghaidaa H. Naguib @ghido86 @ghido86
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