provide students with the opportunity Vacca and to decide what parts of the Vacca text are important, (1993)believe that the use ofgraphic aids and how ideas andin text will: concepts in the text are related.
• Graphic aids can help you better “see” and understand the information.• Graphic aids can provide visualexamples of things described in the text.• Graphic aids help us to show and compare information.
Several authors support the value of using graphic aids with text as they:• Create both verbal and nonverbal codes as well as connections between the two.• Graphic aids open a range of learning possibilities not available when language is used alone.
• Provide visual explanations of concepts and relationships.• Easier to understand than words alone.• Enables students to grasp and 90 80 70 recall information easily. 60 50 Ea 40 We No• Authors mention graphic aids 30 20 10 at a point in which they think 0 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr the graph will help the reader.
• Length. of parallel bars are used to make comparisons caneither be vertical orhorizontal.
Points areconnected toshow There may berelationshipsbetween two or one or moremore items. lines depending on the items.
in which the sizes ofthe slices presents part of a whole.
Shows steps in procedures or processes Uses boxes or othershapes connected by lines or arrows.
FAVORITE PETS OF STUDENTS DOGS CATS FISH BIRDS OTHER 820 700 350 320 615Number of Cars Sold for the Month of February by Week Week Number Number of Cars Sold 1 20 2 37 3 13 4 10
Authors use charts andgraphs to illustrate specific points or to present information contained in the text in a visual format that is easily understood by readers.
• The graph makes it easier to visualize the relationship between the facts. The graph can help a reader see and remember the facts.• Graphs and charts present numerical data pictorially, helping readers visualize relationships among those data.
The difference in the level of water at hightide and low tide varies from place to place,and from day to day. The average differencebetween high tide and low tide water levelsat Portland, Maine, is 9 feet and 1 inch. AtSandy Hook, New Jersey, it is 4 feet and 8inches. The difference at Boston,Massachusetts, is 9 feet and 6 inches. At KeyWest, Florida, it is 1 foot and 10 inches.
Average Differences in Water Levels: High and Low Tides10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Portland Sandy Hook Boston Key West
Tables present large amounts of data in a simple, brief, and clear linear format. The same data in prose would bebulky, confusing, and inaccessible.
Also, tables allow the writer tofocus attention on specific pieces of data while retaining a clear presentation of the whole. A table in a text can help to emphasize data for students to better understand. The table isgood for presenting data without having to compare it.
Photographs are themost realistic anddramatic representationof physical features. In agood photograph thereader can see exactlywhat the writer is talkingabout.
Canopy layerThe canopy layer contains the majority of the largest trees, typically 30–45 m tall. The densest areas of biodiversity are found in theforest canopy, a more or less continuous cover of foliage formed by adjacent treetops.
• Another common diagram, based on a physical object, is the exploded view, which does not aim to picture the object, but to show the working relationships among its parts.• A diagram is a symbolic representation well-suited to the presentation of ideas.
:• accurately shows the facts;• grabs the readers attention;• complements or demonstrates arguments presented in the text;• has a title and labels;• is simple and uncluttered;
• shows data without altering the message of the data;• clearly shows any trends or differences in the data;• is visually accurate.
• A map shows location.• A diagram shows the parts of an object.• A table compares information expressed as numbers.
• Graphic aids improve student performance; • It Improves students’ reading comprehension; • Improves thinking and learning skills; • Aids in Retention;• It supports implementation of cognitive learning theories;• It helps students link existing knowledge organized in schemas to new knowledge;
• Graphic aids communicate what words cannot; • Appeal to visual learners; • Provide pictures that will aid memory and retention;• Save space and record information in a concise manner; • Clarify relationships, such as numerical relationships;
Illustrates the steps or stages in a process, and their relationship to one another. Students need to see relationships and learn how to link ideas;
• are quick and direct;• highlight the most important facts; • facilitate understanding of the data; • can convince readers. • can be easily remembered
The text and the graphics support each other. , opinions and various concepts which are presented in thetext. In this way, the reader is able to clearly understand main ideas from text when they are able to see supporting information.