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Salata eng

  1. 1. I R R I G A T I O Nttuce Lettuce Lettuce Letettuce Lettuce Lettuce Letuce Lettuce Lettuce Lette Lettuce Lettuce Lettuce ttuce Lettuce Lettuce Le
  2. 2. 2 About Lettuce and Green-leave Crops • Lettuce is one of the most common crops, grown in many areas and in a variety of species, shapes and sizes. • Lettuce, like other green-leave crops, is characterized by a shallow root system that requires strict irrigation regime and control. • Moisture management throughout the growing season is a critical factor for the production of commercial quality lettuce and green leaves. Even relatively short periods of inadequate soil moisture can adversely affect the crop. • Lettuce yields can reach up to 50-70 ton/hectare, depending on the type of species, number of growth cycles and soil conditions. • Duration of growth on soil: in the autumn - 60-90 days, in the summer - 21-30 days. Climate control • The lettuce plant is most suitable to climate conditions with a moderate temperature of 13-16 C˚. • During germination, it requires temperature of 7-24 C˚. • Short days are ideal for growing lettuce. A day that lasts over 12 hours causes the lettuce to bloom. Soil • Neutral light soil (PH-7) or acidic soil characteristics are preferable, but commercial yields can be achieved also in heavy soil conditions. • The lettuce is sensitive to cold and salinity. Water with an EC of 1.3 or less should be used for irrigation. uce Lettuce Lettuce Lettu Lettuce Lettuce Lettucettuce Lettuce Lettuce Let
  3. 3. 3 Irrigation of Lettuce and Green Leaves Irrigation aims to avoid water stress especially during the formation of the harvest plant part. Crop water stress can occur when the soil moisture is excessive, or when it’s deficient. When O2 concentration levels in the soil atmosphere are lowered due to displacement by water for an extended period of time, severe damage to the root system can occur. Lettuce and green-leave plants are especially susceptible to water stress due to their shallow root systems. Water stress can lead to two main symptoms: • Poor yields and poor product quality (in terms of firmness, head size, color) due to damage caused to the head lettuce. • Rot at the base of the roots. Moisture deficiencies occurring early in the crop cycle may delay maturity season and reduce yields. Shortages later in the season often lower quality as well as yields. However, irrigation surplus, especially late in the season, can reduce quality and post harvest life of the crop. Uneven or surplus irrigation, above the amount required to replace evapotranspiration, cause N leaching below the root system and crop recoveries of N decreased. Efficient water use, meaning: irrigation scheduling, high water distribution uniformity and light precipitation rate that will help avoiding stress conditions. Irrigation scheduling • An irrigation threshold of 20-30% soil water deficit should be targeted to avoid water stress. If using tensiometers, 10 to 25 centibars should be used to trigger irrigation according to soil type. • Otherwise, irrigate every 1-3 days. • During hot weather it is preferable to pulse irrigate in order to preserve high humidity Water requirement calculation: Water requirement = daily ET (Evapotranspiration) x crop factor. Range of crop factor is 0.25-0.9 The crop factor is related to canopy coverage: Canopy coverage = Ca x Cb Ca= coverage between plants (%) Cb= coverage between rows (%)tuce Lettuce Lettuce Lette Lettuce Lettuce Lettuce ttuce Lettuce Lettuce Le
  4. 4. 4 Typical curve of water consumption vs. growing stage 4.0 harvest 3.5 3.0 Daily water use mm 2.5 2.0 beginning of head 1.5 1.0 5 cm 0.5 0 0 4 8 12 16 Date Lettuce head size Vs. water quantity 16 15 14 Head size (cm) 13 12 11 10 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 Water application depth (ml/ha) Irrigated performance and potential agronomic gains through improved uniformity* Crop Irrigation Region AE Measured Seasonal Potential system DU irrigation agronomic gain ML/ha/yr if DU > 90% Lettuce solid set Lockyer Valley 80-100% 70% 1.1 13% *Source: Scott A. Barber, Steven R. Raine and Evan J. Howard Queensland Fruit and Vegetable Growers Ltd. Brisbane, Australia. National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture, USQ, Toowoomba, Australia Fertilizers Potash and Phosphate recommended at season start Nitrate during the growing season The fertilizers based on Nitrate help to minimize tip burn. uce Lettuce Lettuce Lettu Lettuce Lettuce Lettucettuce Lettuce Lettuce Let
  5. 5. 5 NaanDan Jain Irrigation Systems High investment costs are associated with producing green- leave crops. The selection of the most suitable irrigation system and its management is crucial for success. NaanDan Jain offers two main systems for optimal irrigation: IrriStand and Amirit. IrriStand system The IrriStand system for lettuce and green leaves is a low- flow sprinkler that simulates light rain. Based on a flexible in-and-out solid-set PE system, the system successfully meets all crop development stages and requirements: • Germination • Uniform irrigation (while maintaining soil aeration conditions) • Continuous application of nitrogen • Micro-climate • Soil erosion prevention • Frost protection Main system advantages • Low precipitation rate • High efficiency and uniform water distribution • Full control over wetted profile • Availability of optimal moisture and nutrients IrriStand laying operation for the root system • Increase of lettuce production up to 70 ton/ha, according to the different varieties and season High distribution uniformity and low application rate, at frequent irrigation cycles, provide maximum control and monitoring of the wetted and aerated soil profile, which is essential for the lettuce shallow root system. • Low application rate (3-5 mm/h): allows optimal absorption of water into the soil, no run-off even on slopes. • Low droplet impact: preserves soil structure and prevents crust formation to allow perfect germination and development. • Short irrigation cycles: prevents stress caused by water surplus; provides optimal growing conditions with highly accessible moisture and nutrients in a controlled wetted and aerated soil profile; no nitrate leaches below the root zone and leakage into the groundwater. Amirit system Based on the IrriStand concept, Amirit is a solid-set system including 50 mm PE pipes with 10-12 meter segments. The system is flexible, portable and easy to operate.tuce Lettuce Lettuce Lette Lettuce Lettuce Lettuce ttuce Lettuce Lettuce Le
  6. 6. 6 Sprinklers for IrriStand and Amirit Systems NaanDan Jain developed a wide range of sprinklers for the irrigation of lettuce and green leaves. Characterized by their sturdy construction, corrosion resistance and extremely high water distribution, they respond to the specific field conditions. Super 10 Amirit system installation • Compact ball-driven sealed mechanism for spacing up to 12m • Available with flow regulator 5022-U • Impact sprinkler for spacing up to 12m • Reliable at low-pressure conditions • Available with flow regulator Maestro • Sprinkler for wide spacing of up to 15m. • Based on Variable Trajectory Drive for maximal uniform coverage and close-in watering. • Designed to operate under windy conditions (up to 2.0 m/sec, 7.2 km/h). Under stronger wind conditions reduced spacing is recommended. • Is used with PVC risers and Amirit system. Non-drainage System The addition of a “check valve” (PRC 4040) to IrriStand & Amirit systems will result in increased performance and avoid water logging in low areas. 5022-U Super 10 5022 Super 10 assembled assembled Maestro on on on Amirit PRC 4040 PRC 4040 uce Lettuce Lettuce Lettu Lettuce Lettuce Lettucettuce Lettuce Lettuce Let
  7. 7. 7 Agro-technical Considerations Pesticide control The IrriStand solid-set system enables complete flexibility of irrigation timing and spraying. In some cases, the sprinkler system can be used for chemigation. Temperature damage During hot days season the CA++ uptake by the plant decreases. Overhead irrigation with IrriStand helps to minimize tipburn. Fertigation The high water distribution uniformity of the IrriStand system ensures accurate application of fertilizers to each square meter in the field. System Comparison IrriStand system vs. traditional sprinkler system and drip system Traditional overhead Drip system IrriStand sprinklers system NaanDan Jain system Precipitation rate (mm/hr) 12-15 8-10 (2-3 lateral per bed) 3-5 Droplet size medium not relevant small Evaporative cooling effect medium none very effective Soil crust happens often none none Herbicide activation yes no yes Germination 80-90% very difficult 100% Fertilizers application metal component successful successful with corrosion and leaks complete P.E. setup N leaching common not common controlled and avoided Oxygen status average to low average maximal Blowing sand damage limited problematic none Cost solid set - expensive expensive cheaper than drip Portable - economical and aluminum solid set Income and profit moderate good increasedtuce Lettuce Lettuce Lette Lettuce Lettuce Lettuce ttuce Lettuce Lettuce Le
  8. 8. The NaanDan Jain IrriStand 1007 Studio NaanDan Jain P110902 system has revolutionized the traditional sprinkler market. Lettuce and green-leave growers will achieve immediate benefits from the system. Contact your dealer or our office for further information. ards Ins and tit St u e tio Th no ISO SI f Israel Q uali 9 200 001: 0 ty A m ss ure d Fir THE IRRIGATION ASSOCIATIONtuce Lettuce Lettuce Lettttuce Lettuce Lettuce Let uce Lettuce Lettuce Lettu Lettuce Lettuce Lettucettuce Lettuce Lettuce Let I R R I G A T I O N NaanDan Jain Irrigation (C.S.) Ltd. Head Office: Post Naan 76829, Israel Tel: 972-8-9442180 Fax: 972-8-9442190 E-mail: Dan site: Post Dan 12245, Israel Tel: 972-4-6953811 Fax: 972-4-6953855 E-mail: w w w. n a a n d a n j a i n . c o m