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‫بسم ا الرحمن الرحيم‬

STERILIZATION
Prof. Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh
Dept. of Medical Microbiology,
Faculty of Medicine, Tri...
?What is Sterilization
• The removal of all forms of living
material.
• Important: First Objects to Be
Sterilized Should B...
METHODS OF STERILIZATION
1. DRY HEAT
– Red Heat
– Hot - Air Oven:
• 160o/ 60 minutes
• 180o/ 20 minutes

2. MOIST HEAT:
– ...
• TESTS FOR AUTOCLAVE FUNCTION
– The Bowie-Dick Autoclave Tape Test:
– Browne's Tubes:
– Automatic Controls or Pen Records...
• 2. IRRADIATION
• i. Ultra - Violet Radiation (UV):
– a. Not Recommended.
– b. Poor penetration in Air.
– c. Suitable to ...
• 3. FILTRATION
– Bacterial Stopping Filters.

• 4. GASES
• i. Ethylene Oxide Gas:
– a. Ventilators.
– b. Toxic & Explodes...
• 5. LIQUIDES:
– Disinfectants.
• i. Glutaraldehyde:
– a. Sterilizing Heat Sensitive Pieces
of Equipments.
Forms of Sterilization by Heat and Principle Uses.
_______________________________________________________________

Type o...
Heat Content of Water and Steam
_______________________________________
Phase
Temp.
Heat Content (kJ/kg)
of
oC
Sensible La...
• PROPERTIES OF STEAM
– i. Moisture content
– ii. Heat content
– iii. Penetration
PRESSURE STEAM STERILIZERS
1. Porous Load Sterilizers (Prevacuum type):
• Removal of air and heating of the chamber.
• Ste...
2. Downward Displacement Jacketed
Sterilizers:
• Gradual displacement of air by incoming
steam while the chamber is heated...
3. Unwrapped Instrument and Utensil
Sterilizers:
• DSL autoclaves

4. Fluid Sterilizers:
• e.g. water, iv solutions, etc.
• Factors influencing sterilization
time for fluids:
– rate of heating of the chamber:
– type of container:
– viscosity of...
"‫"بسم ا الرحمن الرحيم‬
DISINFECTION AND DISINFECTANTS

Prof. Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh
Dept. of Medical Microbiology,
Facul...
Disinfection
• The removal of most of the
pathogenic microorganism, but
often non-pathogenic or resistant
forms of pathoge...
Methods of Disinfection
• A. Cleaning
• Instruments with high risk organic
material >>
• Treat with strong disinfectant >>...
B. Disinfection by Heat
i. Pasteurization
ii. Boiling water
iii. Flaming off alcohol

C. Physical Methods
• Ultrasonics
Ul...
D. Chemical Disinfectants
Denaturing protein or lipid
Act: Disrupting the biosynthetic pathways

I. Phenols
•
•
•
•

Clear...
II. Halogenic Compounds
• Hypochlorites: Effective > HBV
• Iodine + Alcohol
Pre-operative skin antiseptic.
• Bovidone Iodi...
III. Aldehydes
• Formaldehyde
• Gluteraldehyde
• Alcohol
-----------------------

Antiseptics
• Are bacteriostatic agents ...
IV. Diguanides
• Chlorhexdine
0.5% + 70% alcohol >>> Skin
disinfectant

• Chlorhexidine gluconate
Treatment of oral candid...
V. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
• Cetrimide

VI. Organic Dyes
• e.g. gentian violet
• Factors Affecting the Effectiveness
of Disinfectants:
• Tests of the Proper Functioning of
Liquid Disinfectants:
" In-us...
Storage of Sterile Instruments
• Never store instruments in liquid
disinfectants.

Waste Disposal
Special Problems
• HBV, ...
Sterilization and Disinfection
in Dentistry
• Sterilization >>> Autoclave.
• Dental instruments can and should be
autoclav...
Sterilization, Disinfection and Disinfectants
Sterilization, Disinfection and Disinfectants
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Sterilization, Disinfection and Disinfectants

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Transcript of "Sterilization, Disinfection and Disinfectants"

  1. 1. ‫بسم ا الرحمن الرحيم‬ STERILIZATION Prof. Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh Dept. of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tripoli University Tripoli - Libya
  2. 2. ?What is Sterilization • The removal of all forms of living material. • Important: First Objects to Be Sterilized Should Be Cleaned by Washing.
  3. 3. METHODS OF STERILIZATION 1. DRY HEAT – Red Heat – Hot - Air Oven: • 160o/ 60 minutes • 180o/ 20 minutes 2. MOIST HEAT: – Tyndallization: > 100oC/ 30 minutes On 3 Consecutive Days. – The Autoclave: > Pressurized Steam. • 121oC/ 1.1 bar for 15 minutes. • 134oC/ 2.2 bar for 3 minutes.
  4. 4. • TESTS FOR AUTOCLAVE FUNCTION – The Bowie-Dick Autoclave Tape Test: – Browne's Tubes: – Automatic Controls or Pen Records: – Bacteriological Tests (Spore Tests):
  5. 5. • 2. IRRADIATION • i. Ultra - Violet Radiation (UV): – a. Not Recommended. – b. Poor penetration in Air. – c. Suitable to Reduce Microbial Counts in Safety Cabinets. • ii. Gamma - Ray Radiation – Source: Cobalt 60. – a. Lethal to All Forms of Microbial Life. – b. Used Commercially.
  6. 6. • 3. FILTRATION – Bacterial Stopping Filters. • 4. GASES • i. Ethylene Oxide Gas: – a. Ventilators. – b. Toxic & Explodes When Mixed with Air. • ii. Formaldehyde: – a. Rooms and Lab. Cabinets.
  7. 7. • 5. LIQUIDES: – Disinfectants. • i. Glutaraldehyde: – a. Sterilizing Heat Sensitive Pieces of Equipments.
  8. 8. Forms of Sterilization by Heat and Principle Uses. _______________________________________________________________ Type of Heat Use _______________________________________________________________ DRY: 1. Red Heat. Microbiological Loops. Incineration of Used Lab. Culture Plates. 2. Hot - Air Oven. Many Surgical & Dental Instruments but Not Fabrics or Rubber. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- MOIST: 1. Steam at 100oC On 3 Consecutive Days. 2. Pressurized Steam (Autoclave). Some Bacteriological Media. Most Surgical and Dental Instruments, Fabrics & Dressings (If Wrapped); Most Microbiological Media & Glassware. _______________________________________________________________
  9. 9. Heat Content of Water and Steam _______________________________________ Phase Temp. Heat Content (kJ/kg) of oC Sensible Latent Total Water Heat Heat Heat ----------------------------------------------------------------Liquid 100 419 0 419 Vapour 100 419 2257 2676 Vapour 121 509 2199 2708 Vapour 135 567 2160 2727 _______________________________________
  10. 10. • PROPERTIES OF STEAM – i. Moisture content – ii. Heat content – iii. Penetration
  11. 11. PRESSURE STEAM STERILIZERS 1. Porous Load Sterilizers (Prevacuum type): • Removal of air and heating of the chamber. • Sterilization of the load. • Removal of steam and drying of the load by mechanical evacuation. • Admission of filtered air to restoration atmospheric pressure.
  12. 12. 2. Downward Displacement Jacketed Sterilizers: • Gradual displacement of air by incoming steam while the chamber is heated to the selected sterilizing temp. • Sterilization of the textile packs for 30 min/ 121oc. • Drying of the load by partial vacuum. • Restoration of the chamber to atmospheric pressure.
  13. 13. 3. Unwrapped Instrument and Utensil Sterilizers: • DSL autoclaves 4. Fluid Sterilizers: • e.g. water, iv solutions, etc.
  14. 14. • Factors influencing sterilization time for fluids: – rate of heating of the chamber: – type of container: – viscosity of the liquid: – volume of the liquid: – trapped air:
  15. 15. "‫"بسم ا الرحمن الرحيم‬ DISINFECTION AND DISINFECTANTS Prof. Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh Dept. of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Fateh University Tripoli - Libya
  16. 16. Disinfection • The removal of most of the pathogenic microorganism, but often non-pathogenic or resistant forms of pathogens remain.
  17. 17. Methods of Disinfection • A. Cleaning • Instruments with high risk organic material >> • Treat with strong disinfectant >> Cleaning >> Sterile or dispose of.
  18. 18. B. Disinfection by Heat i. Pasteurization ii. Boiling water iii. Flaming off alcohol C. Physical Methods • Ultrasonics Ultrasonic vibration > Disrupte microorganisms e.g. Ultrasonic scalers.
  19. 19. D. Chemical Disinfectants Denaturing protein or lipid Act: Disrupting the biosynthetic pathways I. Phenols • • • • Clear phenolic solutions: Black and White Phenolic Compounds: Chloroxylenol: (Dettol) Hexachlorophane: Pre-operative scrub
  20. 20. II. Halogenic Compounds • Hypochlorites: Effective > HBV • Iodine + Alcohol Pre-operative skin antiseptic. • Bovidone Iodine: an anti-plaque agent.
  21. 21. III. Aldehydes • Formaldehyde • Gluteraldehyde • Alcohol ----------------------- Antiseptics • Are bacteriostatic agents that can be used on skin and mucosal surfaces.
  22. 22. IV. Diguanides • Chlorhexdine 0.5% + 70% alcohol >>> Skin disinfectant • Chlorhexidine gluconate Treatment of oral candidosis + oral ulceration
  23. 23. V. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds • Cetrimide VI. Organic Dyes • e.g. gentian violet
  24. 24. • Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Disinfectants: • Tests of the Proper Functioning of Liquid Disinfectants: " In-use" Tests.
  25. 25. Storage of Sterile Instruments • Never store instruments in liquid disinfectants. Waste Disposal Special Problems • HBV, HCV and HIV (AIDS)
  26. 26. Sterilization and Disinfection in Dentistry • Sterilization >>> Autoclave. • Dental instruments can and should be autoclaved after each patient. • Nozzles of air and water spray: ??
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