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Lecture 29 Chlamydia
 

Lecture 29 Chlamydia

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    Lecture 29 Chlamydia Lecture 29 Chlamydia Presentation Transcript

    • ‫بسم ا الرحمن الرحيم‬ GENUS: CHLAMYDIA Prof. Khalifa SifawGhenghesh
    •  Small Gram-negative bacteria (Stain poorly with Gram’s stain)  Like Bacteria  Have both DNA and RNA, Ribosomes, a Cell wall, and Divide by Binary fission  Like Viruses  Obligate intracellular parasites  Differ from Bacteria    Have no peptidoglycan in their cell wall Can not produce their own ATP Require to use host ATP (Energy parasite)
    • Chlamydia species  C. trachomatis  3 biovars  Those causing trachoma and inclusion conjunctivitis (TRIC)  Those causing lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)  The one causing mouse pneumonitis (MoPn)  C. psittaci > Infect both mammals and birds  C. pneumoniae > both humans and animals  C. pecorum > Some infect mammals
    •  Trachoma biovars  14  Serovars: A-K Serovars A, Ba, B, C  Classic trachoma  Serovars D-K  Inclusion conjunctivitis and Genital infections  LGV biovars 3 Serovars: L1, L2, L3
    •  Can be stained with Giemsa stain  Elementary body (EB)  Extracellular, infectious metabolically inert form of chlamydiae  Reticulate body (RB)  Intracellular, non-infectious, metabolically active particle
    • Infection to Humans  Ocular infection  Trachoma > in countries where sanitation and hygiene standards are poor  Spread by eye seeking flies, or fingers, from one patient to another  Blindness   “Trachoma belt” > North Africa to South-East Asia Adult inclusion conjunctivitis (paratrachoma)   Acute stage >> follicular conjunctivitis Self-limited
    •  Chlamydial ophthalmia neonatrum (inclusion blennorrhoea)  5-21 days after birth  If not treated > after 1 year > secondary bacterial infection > ocular damage and even blindness  Source:  infected genital tract of the mother
    •  Genital infection  C. trachomatis is the Commonest cause of non-gonococcal urethritis in males (30%)  LGV  In both males and females in tropics and subtropics
    •  In females Mucopurulent cervicitis and urethritis  Vaginitis and vaginal discharge  Asymptomatic females if not treated   Ascending infection >> Pelvic inflammatory disease (endometritis or salpingitis or both)  Tubal damage >> ectopic pregnancy and infertility
    •  Infection in pregnancy  C. psittaci Miscarriage or intra-uterine death  Patients had contact with sheep   C.  trachomatis Isolated from abortion products
    •  Respiratory infection  C. pneumoniae  3rd or 4th cause of pneumonia  Pharyngitis, bronchitis, otitis and sinusitis  C. psittaci  Psittacosis in humans from avian strains  Disease ranges from an influenza-like illness, to severe illness with typhoidal state ad pneumonia.
    •  C. trachomatis  Pneumonitis in neonates (infection acquired from the mother)
    • Laboratory Diagnosis  Cultivation  MacCoy cells treated with cycloheximide  Organism detected by staining for inclusions or EBs  Detects only living cells  Antigen detection   Using probes for DNA or mRNA that identify the infected cells PCR  Amplification of parts of the genome
    • Chlamydia trachomatis from a urethral scrape
    •  Serology  Micro-immunofluorescence  Using Ags from all chlamydial strains to detect species-specific and serovar-specific Ab  Complement  test fixation test Detecting Ab in serum directed against group Ag
    • Chlamydia psittaci Direct FA stained mouse brain impression smear
    • Treatment and Control  Chemotherapy  Tetracycline in adults and Erythromycin in babies   For 3 weeks Azithromycin  Single dose  Contact tracing  Partners of index cases (even if clinically normal)  Neonatal infection  Both parents should be treated
    •  Animal contact  Avoidance of contact with sources of infection (specially pregnant women)   Sheep, milking and shearing Control of importation of psittacine birds  Hygiene