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Lecture 22 Haemophilis
Lecture 22 Haemophilis
Lecture 22 Haemophilis
Lecture 22 Haemophilis
Lecture 22 Haemophilis
Lecture 22 Haemophilis
Lecture 22 Haemophilis
Lecture 22 Haemophilis
Lecture 22 Haemophilis
Lecture 22 Haemophilis
Lecture 22 Haemophilis
Lecture 22 Haemophilis
Lecture 22 Haemophilis
Lecture 22 Haemophilis
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Lecture 22 Haemophilis

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  • 1. ‫بسم ا الرحمن الرحيم‬ GENUS: HAEMOPHILUS Prof. Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh
  • 2. • Small, Pleomorphic G-ve Rods • Require Growth Factors – Two factors > X & V – X = haemin – V = Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) = NAD phosphate (NADP) • BA • Chocolate agar
  • 3. Species Growth Factor Required ---------------------------------------------H. influenzae X+V H. parainfluenzae V H. ophrophilus X H. ducreyi X ----------------------------------------------
  • 4. Haemophilus influenzae • Smooth and rough colonies occur • Capsulated >> • Non-capsulated >>
  • 5. ANTIGENIC STRUCTURE 1. The capsular polysaccharide antigens: • 6 serotypes: a - f. • Encapsulated H. influenzae >> Quellung (capsular swelling) reaction. 2. Somatic antigens:
  • 6. VIRULENCE FACTORS • i. Capsule: • ii. Outer membrane components: • OMP & LOS • iii. Adherence: • iv. IgA proteases:
  • 7. PATHOGENESIS • Normal Carriage – H. influenzae > Human parasite – Non-capsulate HI > nasopharynx or throat of 25-80% of healthy people – Capsulate strains in 5-10% – Immunization with conjugate vaccine > • Invasive infections • Non-Invasive Disease
  • 8. INVASIVE INFECTIONS H. Influenzae type b Respiratory portal of entery (Inhalation) Colonization of nasopharynx Penetration of submucosa Invasion of Bloodstream Meningitis, Epiglottitis, Bacteraemia Pneumonia, Septic arthritis Non-Capsulate HI: > Meningitis and Septicaemia > the Neonate
  • 9. NON-INVASIVE DISEASE • Local Infections: – Physiological or Anatomical Abnormalities – Otitis Media, Sinusitis – Purulent episodes > patients with exacerbations of chronic obstructive airway disease – Non-capsulate strains of HI – Viral Infections ?
  • 10. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS 1. Direct examination: – Specimen: CSF, middle ear aspirate, sputum (purulent). 2. Culture: – Chocolate agar + CO 2 – Blood culture bottles – Antigenic detection – Molecular Techniques
  • 11. Blood agar plate culture of Haemophilus influenzae
  • 12. Haemophilus influenzae satelliting around Staphylococcus aureus
  • 13. TREATMENT • - Systemic illness – 3rd Generation cephalosporins – TMP-SMZ, Ciprofloxacin, Clarithromycin • - Otitis media in children • - Pneumonia in adults • - Acute sinusitis – Amoxicillin, Augmentin, Clarithromycin, PREVENTION • Vaccination
  • 14. • Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius (Haemophilus aegyptius) – Epidemic conjunctivitis – Brazillian purpuric fever • Haemophilus ducreyi> Chancroid • Haemophilus parainfluenzae

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