Enteric viruses-Libya

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Enteric viruses-Libya

  1. 1. Detection of Adenovirus, Astrovirus, Norwalk Virus and Rotavirus in Libyan Children with Diarrhea. Amal Rahouma, Ezzedin Franka, Zaineb Krema, Khalid Treesh, Omar Abusnena, John Klena and Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh Departments of Microbiology and Immunlogy and Family and Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Tripoli University, Al-Jala Children Hospital, Tripoli-Libya, and NAMRU3, Cairo-Egypt
  2. 2. Introduction • Viral agents are an important cause of diarrhea worldwide, which accounts for several million deaths each year with children under five years of age in developing countries being most often affected. • The World Health Organization estimated that diarrhea accounts for 1.6–2.5 million deaths annually and that each child in the developing world experiences an average of three episodes of diarrhea per year.
  3. 3. Common Viral Agents Associated with Diarrhea • Rotavirus – – – Double-stranded RNA virus. Species: A, B, C, D, E, F & G Leading single cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and young children. – Nosocomial gastroenteritis • Adenoviruses – Non-enveloped icosahedral viruses composed of a nucleocapsid and a double-stranded linear DNA genome. – Over 52 different serotypes in humans. – Most infections with adenovirus result in infections of the upper respiratory tract. – Adenoviruses can also cause gastroenteritis (stomach flu).
  4. 4. Viral Agents Associated with Diarrhea •• Astrovirus Astrovirus – Non-enveloped single stranded RNA genome. – Non-enveloped single stranded RNA genome. – A newly recognized cause of gastroenteritis in children and – A newly recognized cause of gastroenteritis in children and adults. adults. – Several species that affect mammals with many serotypes – Several species that affect mammals with many serotypes within human astrovirus species. within human astrovirus species. •• Norovirus (formerly Norwalk virus) Norovirus (formerly Norwalk virus) – Non-enveloped single stranded RNA viruses. – Non-enveloped single stranded RNA viruses. – Highly infectious associated acute gastroenteritis (winter – Highly infectious associated acute gastroenteritis (winter vomiting diseases) and foodborne outbreaks. vomiting diseases) and foodborne outbreaks. – Nosocomial gastroenteritis. . – Nosocomial gastroenteritis
  5. 5. Adenovirus
  6. 6. Astrovirus
  7. 7. Rotavirus
  8. 8. Norovirus
  9. 9. Aim of the Study • To determine the prevalence of rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus and astrovirus associated with children diarrhea in Tripoli, Libya.
  10. 10. Materials and Methods • Study subjects: – Included in the study 88 children (38 females) aged a few days to 5 years. – Diarrhea was defined as the occurrence of three or more watery stools in a period of 24 hours. – Parents (or care-providers) of all patients were informed of the purpose of the study and their consent was obtained before stool samples were collected. • Stool samples were collected in sterile containers, and were frozen at -20 ̊C. • The study was carried out between February-June 2008.
  11. 11. Materials and Methods • Rotavirus, adenovirus, astrovirus and norovirus were detected in faecal samples by specific commercial enzyme-immunoassay [EIA] kits. • The tests were performed according to the manufacturer recommendations.
  12. 12. Results • Of the 88 stool specimens examined enteric viruses were detected in 48.8% (43/88) of diarrheic children. • The different enteric viruses detected in the present study are shown in Table. • Gender and age had no significant influence on the detection rates of the examined enteric viruses in the population studied.
  13. 13. Viral Agents of Children Diarrhea in Tripoli-Libya Agent No. ( %) Positive (n=88) ----------------------------------------------------------• Rotavirus 19 (21.6%) • Adenovirus 9 (10.2%) • Astrovirus 3 (3.4%) • Norowalk virus 12 (13.6%) ----------------------------------------------------------43 (48.8%) • Total
  14. 14. Conclusion • The present work has clearly demonstrated that adenovirus, Norwalk virus, rotavirus and, to a lesser extent, astrovirus are important causative agents of diarrhea in Libyan children. • In the future, studies are needed on larger groups of patients from major cities in Libya to determine the exact role of these viruses in children diarrhea in the country.

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