Designing a school garden knowledge handouts and notes
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Grade 6 Vocabulary List 11.organism2. cell3. homeostasis4. nucleus5. host6. organic7. osmosis8. mitosis9. chromosome10. fertilization11. mutation12. heredity13. dominant14. recessive15. evolution16. fission17. pathogen18. protest19. spore20. cellulose21. pollination22. germination23. chlorophyll** Need to write for each word: 1. Definition2. Your own sentence
____________________________________________________________If someone asked just what is in our school garden, you might say perhaps there are plants,rocks and maybe even some garbage. But there is so much MORE in the garden and believe itor not, there are a lot of living things in your garden.So…what is actually living in our garden then? To answer the question, you first need tounderstand what “living” actually means: ______________________________________________________________The word living is used to describe a set of specific ______________________that certain kindsof things possess it he world. If such a thing has all of these characteristics then it is called aliving thing or an organism. If cannot have all of the characteristics, it is simply an (inanimate)object. So what are these characteristics then? …Part 1- _________________________________________- A. Living Things are ___________________________All living things are made of very small units called __________________.People believe thatthe cell is the smallest unit of an organism that can carry all functions of life. In other words, allorganisms depend on the functioning of their cells to survive. All the things that an organism cando is because of what their cells can do. B. Living Things ________________________________All living things will react to other things in their surroundings. The things that cause anorganism to react or change are called _______________. (singular stimulus). The way anorganism responds to a stimulus is called its ____________________. For example, a catplaying in your garden might jump when it hears a loud noise. The loud noise is the stimulus andthe jumping action is the cat’s response. Similarly plants respond when there is no light nearby.They actually slowly move towards the direction of any light farther away.Living things also respond to things INSIDE them. They do this to maintain the right amounts ofimportant things like temperature, water and food. For example, if there is not enough foodinside of you, you will respond by getting a desire to eat something. An organism’s ability tomaintain the proper amounts or conditions inside it is called ____________________________. C. Living Things _________________________________All living things require energy to maintain the right amounts of things or conditions inside them.Different living things get energy in different ways. Plants get energy directly from the sun.Humans get energy by eating plants and other organisms and breaking them down which cancause energy to be released. Some bacteria get energy consuming carbon dioxide and breakingdown special chemicals inside them. They do not require oxygen or sunlight at all.
D. Living Things _______________________________________All organisms also experience some sort of growth. And as they grow, they often change. Thesechanges that take place and are dependent upon the organisms’ own cells are referred to as_______________________________.Organisms grow and develop for different amounts of time. The entire time they live is called alife span. Life span can vary from organism to organism. Certain turtles can live for over 180years. Some pine trees have lived for over 4600 years. But flies live only day. E. Living Things ____________________________________All living things can make more of their kind. Reproduction is important as it allows living thingsto make more of their own kind to replace themselves when they die.Part 2 – ___________________________________________ ?In order to do or have all of the characteristics above, all living things need the following twothings for survival i) _______________________________ – the organisms must be in a place where suitable food can be obtained ex. your garden! ii) _______________________________- there are so many kinds of materials that all living things need to function and survive. Among them, one very important one is __________________. Blood is mostly water and it serves to transport food and wastes in animals. Sap in plants is also almost water and transports materials too. Also, living things need _____________________ in order to get important components that make them up including proteins, fats and sugars.
SUMMARY – Organizer Handout Reading NotesStep 1: Read one time. * Take notes too if you want! Step 2:Write the Main Idea (1-2 sentences) –________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Step 3: Write the supporting ideas. Write in the small boxes first!Step 4: Write the supporting details. Write in the bigger boxes later!Supporting Idea 1 (1-2 sentences)Supporting Details 1 (1+ sentences)____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Supporting Idea 2 (1-2 sentences)Supporting Details 2 (1+ sentences) _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
(knowledge) What is a Plant?A plant is a kind of species that includes trees, flowers, vegetables, fruits and other fieldcrops like wheat and rice. There are over 260 000 species and they are very important to otherorganisms including humans for food.Plants vary in size from microscopic species to giant trees over 100 m tall. Most have rootsand you can find them in almost any climate. All need water.As well, all plants have cells that included a cell membrane, nucleus and other organelles likemost other living things. However, plant cells also have a cell wall unlike animal cells. Andmany plant cells contain chlorophyll, a green pigment that is found in a cell organelle calledthe chloroplast. In addition, many plant cells have a central vacuole which is important forregulating the amount of water in a plant cell.Origin and Evolution of Plants-It is believe that plants evolved (came from) ancient green algae that is found in the seabecause both plants and green algae of today have the same type of chlorophyll and otherpigments called carotenoids.It is hard to know the history of plants because they have no bones which makes it difficult forfossils to be formed and survive for analysis. Plants are at least 420 million years old in origin.This is when a fossil for the earliest plants dates back to.Land Adaptations-If plants came from algae that lived in the sea, somehow over time they had to evolve in orderlive later on the land because living on land is much different and requires certain adaptations: i) Conservation of water- water is very important for plants for many processes for many reactions such as photosynthesis that gives them energy. So they have lots of water inside them However, on land there is less water surrounding plants. Without some protection adaptation, water would leak out of plants by diffusion as with green algae which must always live in water. Many plants on land have a cuticle and a rigid cell wall. The cuticle is waxy which helps to slow the loss of water. Also, plants have a rigid cell wall that contains cellulose. This compound helps to make cell walls strong and supportive by forming tangled fibres. ii) Other Cell Wall Substances- in addition to cellulose, some plants secrete other substances into their cell wall to make it stronger. As well, plants contain other special structures that help to transport water and other nutrients or food to the inner cells of the plant iii) Reproduction- Plants also need to reproduce in order to keep surviving so they make spores or seeds but water could escape from these things too and kill them. So many spores and seeds are resistant to water.Classification of Plants-
Again, plants make up thousands of species. We put all plants under on grouping called akingdom. Then scientists have divided the kingdom of plants into major groupings calledphylum. Plants in each phylum share some common characteristics. For example, plants canbe divided into the vascular (having tubes to carry water) phylum and the non-vascularphylum (do not have the tubes).It is also useful to give each species of plants a name. However, many common names forplants are used for more than one species that look similar. Consquently, a special namesystem called binomial nomenclature was developed. Within it, every plant is given a uniquetwo-word name such as Chrysantheum maximum for Shasta daisy.
Seedless PlantsOne grouping often used to divide plants is the seedless group. Seedless plants can then befurther divided into nonvascular plants and vascular plants.Seedless Nonvascular Plants-Plants in this group do NOT growfrom seeds. Also, they are missing many distinct parts thatother plants have such as roots, stems, leaves and flowers.Usually, seedless nonvascular plants are only a few cells thick and are very small (less than 5cm). Most have stalks which are similar to stems. Also, most contain threadlike structurescalled rhizoids that are similar to roots in other plants. They usually grow in damp places andwater can enter into all cells directly because they are not big or thick. So they do not have anytube-like structures for carrying water inside of them. Also of importance, this group of plantsusually reproduces by spores.Most of these plants are able to survive in very harsh conditions such as very dry conditions.They are called pioneer species because they usually grow first in areas having bad conditions.Then, when they die, their decaying matter helps to make the soil better for other plants.There are many sub-groups (classes) for nonvascular plants: A. Mosses- most nonvascular plants fit in this group. They have green leafy growths that grow out from a central stalk. Sometimes, special stalks with caps grow and then produce spores to allow reproduction. Mosses usually grow on tree trunks and rocks or just on the ground. They are usually found in damp areas. B. Liverworts- these plants have no roots and flat leaflike bodes. Their rhizoids are usually only one-celled. People used to think they are good for treating liver diseases. C. Hornworts- They are very small (about 2.5 cm) and resemble liverworts. However, they are different in that they usually one have one chloroplast in each cell and their spore- producing structures look like cow horns.Seedless Vascular Plants-These plants differ because they contain vascular tissueinside them which is a bunch of long,tubelike cells. These cells are used to carry water, minerals and food from outer cells to othercells further inside. Consequently, these plants are usually big and thick because theirvascular tissue ensures that all cells receive important materials. It is also believed that manyspecies of seedless vascular plants flourished (lived very well) a long time ago (360 millionyears ago) when the Earth was warmer and conditions were more moist.Three important types of Seedless Vascular Plants are:
A. Ferns –this the largest group of seedless vascular plants. They have stems, leaves and roots. Their leaves are called fronds. They grow to be about 3 – 5 m tall but are believed to have been much taller in earlier history. (as tall as 25 m) B. Club Mosses- they included ground pines and spike mosses. They have needlelike leaves. They also produced spores that look like tiny pine cones. They can be found in many climates. C. Horsetails – Horsetails have a single stem that is jointed and hollow with a ring of vascular tissue. Leaves grow out of each joint. They are very fragile. Their stems are however useful for polishing things because they contain a gritty substance called silica.How Seedless Plants are Important to Humans- 1. Coal – when these plants die, their remains get submerged and packed deep in the earth over time. Eventually, coal is produced which is an important fossil fuel for energy. 2. Peat – similar to coal formation, certain seedless plants that die in bogs get compressed to form peat. Peat also be used as a source of energy such as in Ireland. 3. Decoration- many seedless plants are kept as household plants or as landscape plants to help make an area more shady 4. Food and medicine- some parts of certain seedless plants can be eaten. Flour can also e made from the dried stems of horsetails. Man seedless plants have been used to treat ailments such as bee stings, burns, fevers and also dandruff.
Pass the (Plant) Food Activity Today’s activity should help you learn more about seed plants and your school garden Try your best and learn more in science!Instructions – 1. Work in a group. 2. Make the following chart below on lined paper or in your notebook. Use a whole A4 size paper so make the chart nice and big! I recommend that you orientate your paper using the landscape orientation. Examples of Plant Food Plant Food Looks Smells Tastes Part(s) of Our Name Like Like Like Plant Reasoning 3. Your teacher will pass out food to your group one at a time. For five minutes, look at, smell and taste each food. Then decide on what part or parts of a plant the food comes from. Also, explain your reasoning. As you talk, fill in your chart for each food. 4. Finally, make second summary chart below on the parts of the plants you examined. You will need to also discuss an appropriate title and the number of rows. Then fill them in!
_____________________________________________ (you decide title) Our Chosen Plant Parts Plant Part Description …. You decided how many rows (it depends on how many plant parts you can identify)
_______________________________________ (Summary for Chapter 9, Section 3)The ______________________ are another general classification (grouping) of plants. Theydiffer from other plants in many ways. The most basic differences are the presence of leaves,stems, roots and vascular tissue (water tubes). Other plants don’t always have all of thesethings. 1. ______________________________________ A. __________________________– leaves are plant organs that are responsible for making food (by a process called photosynthesis). Leaves can vary in size but most have the same basic organization of cells through special layers as shown below.The waxy __________________ and the __________________ are harder and stronger. Theyprotect the leaf from damage. There is also a stoma (an opening) through these layers to letthings like water, oxygen and carbon dioxide enter or exit. They are protected by___________________. The next layers is the _____________________ (or palisademesophyll). It contains the chloroplasts and chlorophyll . Food for plants is made in this areausing energy from the sun. In the very middle of the leaf is a more spongy area with a loosearrangement of cells. ___________________________________________ extend into leaveshere for transporting things like water. They are the main components of the plant’s vasculartissue. B. _________________________– stems are the main support organ of the plant. They can woody which means they are big, hard and strong like tree trunks. They can be _______________________ which means they are soft and green but still pretty strong such as flower stems. (see figure 15 in your textbook for examples) C. ______________________________- roots are the lower part of most seed plants. They are usually found in the ground (but not always). They are a system of long strands. They have many functions. First, they ____________________the plant to the ground to prevent it from being blown or washed away. Second, they allow various things like water to enter and then they have vascular tissue (xylem and phloem tubes) which can ____________________the water and other things to other areas of the plant. Third,
they can ___________________ that the plant makes such as certain sugars. Fourth, some can even take in oxygen and perform the process of ____________________ like animals do. (See Figure 16) (or type roots in google images for more illustrations but be critical) D. Vascular Tissue – vascular tissue is NOT one distinct part of a plant. Rather it is found throughout the plant in other parts. It is made up of three important tissues and is responsible for transporting things around the plant. _________________ is made up of connected vessels. They transport water and also help to support the plant. _________________________ is made up of tubes. They move food around the plant. __________________ contains special cells that can make xylem and phloem tissue. (just like bone marrow can make bones in animals) (See Figure 17)2. Subgroups of Seed Plants-Seed plants can be further divided into smaller groups as follows- i) ______________________ are vascular seed plants that make seeds that are ________protected by _______________. This group of plants can be further divided into smaller divisions including conifers (ex. pine tree), cycads, ginkgoes and gnetophytes. The conifer trees produce their seeds on cones. ii) __________________ are vascular seed plants that make seeds in _____________. There are many ways to divide angiosperms into sub-groups (ie. smaller group divisions). Some angiosperms are flowers such as tulip. Other angiosperms are called deciduous trees such as an oak tree. All angiosperms can also be divided into monocots and dicots. _______________ have flower parts in multiples of three. Also, there seeds have just one storing space for food called the cotyledon. Their vascular tissues are also scattered throughout their stems. _______________have flower parts in multiples of four or five. Their seeds have two storing spaces for food (ie. 2 cotyledons). Their vascular tissues are arranged in the form of rings in the stem. See figure 20.
Understand the Basics Behind Plant Reproduction – Note _____ ________________________________________________ (Summary Note for Chapter 10, Section 1- Introduction to Plant Reproduction)At present, we are about to learn more about how our plants function in our gardenOne of the biggest processes happening right now is Plant Reproduction (and Development)_____________________________________?--> To understand, let’s begin with the basics: A. __________________________________* Remember, there are different types of plants. Consequently, there are different types ofreproduction. Fortunately, we can divide them into two general categories i) ______________________________-In asexual reproduction, one plant produces offspring (new plants) that are____________________ to it (ie. a clone). Basically, one part of the plant gets separated. (ex.its leaf, a portion of its stem, even a few cells). Then, under the right conditions, an entire newplant grows out from the separated cells. These cells just keep dividing into more cells thatchange to become the new plant.Most plants can do this kind of reproduction.See: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3NmcEoLPUFM ii) __________________________________-In sexual reproduction, two different plant parts, one containing the _____________ and theother containing the ______________ get together in a plant. The sperm and the egg are knownas ___________. The two parts that contain them could be from the same plant or differentplants. Then, __________________ occurs. The sperm and the egg for the 2 parts combine toproduce the first cell of the new organism called the ________________. The zygote thendivides again and again and the resulting cells become the new plant.The new plant is not identical to one particular plant but contains portions of the same geneticmaterial of the parent plant(s). For some plants, something else (Ex. wind, an insect) is neededto bring the two different parts containing the sex cells together.Another important aspect of sexual reproduction is the ___________________. Plants thatsexual reproduce go through a 2-stage life cycle. In the _____________________, the sex cellsare made in the plant and contain only half of DNA that a normal cell has. The process by whicha sex cell is made is called _______________________. Then later, these two cells get joinedand the new cell contains the full amount of DNA as other cells. It can then divide normally to
make more cells and the new plant. This stage is known as the___________________________.(See Figure 4, pg. 275 in your textbook)
Name: ______________________________________ Date: ________________________ Student Exploration: Growing PlantsVocabulary: compost, fertilizer, mass, seed, soil, variablePrior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.)1. What do you think plants need to grow and stay healthy? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________2. Soil is a combination of tiny rock fragments and decayed plant materials. How do you think soil helps a plant? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________Gizmo Warm-up: Grow the Biggest Plant!1. In the Gizmo set up the three pots however you like: Choose a seed to drag into each pot. Click on the light bulbs to turn them on or off. Drag the Water slider up or down to set the amount of water each plant will get. If you like, drag fertilizer or compost into a pot. When the pots are ready, click Play ( ) and wait for the simulation to end.2. How tall was your tallest plant? __________________3. Click Reset ( ) and Clear pots. Run a few more trials to grow the tallest plants you can. What conditions led to the tallest plant? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________
Get the Gizmo ready: Activity A: Click Reset. Wet and dry Click Clear pots.Question: Do seeds need water to grow?1. Form hypothesis: Do you think seeds need water to start growing? Explain why or why not. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________2. Set up Gizmo: In the Gizmo, set up the three pots like this: Pot A: Bean seed, two lights on, 0 mL water per day Pot B: Bean seed, two lights on, 50 mL water per day Pot C: Bean seed, two lights on, 100 mL water per day3. Experiment: Click Play to start. When the simulation is done, observe the plants.4. Collect data: Fill in the data table below with the height and mass of each plant on day 50. (The mass of a plant is the amount of matter in the plant. It is related to how heavy it is.) In the last column describe what each plant looks like. Pot Water/day (mL) Height (cm) Mass (g) Appearance A B C5. Draw conclusions: Do seeds need water to grow? (Was your hypothesis correct?) _________________________________________________________________________6. Revise and repeat: Is more water always better? Create your own experiments to find the ideal amount of water for each kind of plant. Explain your findings below. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________
Get the Gizmo ready: Activity B: Click Reset. Light and dark Click Clear pots.Question: How does the amount of light affect how plants grow?1. Form hypothesis: A variable is something that can be changed in an experiment, such as the amount of light. How do you think the amount of light affects how plants grow? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________2. Experiment: Set up the three pots with 50 mL of water per day, plain soil, and turnip seeds. Turn on three lights over pot A, one light over pot B, and zero lights over pot C. Click Play. After 30 simulated days, click Pause ( ).3. Collect data: In the table below, describe each plant after 30 days. Number of Height (cm) Mass (g) Pot Appearance on day 30 lights on day 30 on day 30 A B C4. Draw conclusions: Select the Data tab. Look at the graphs for Plant Height and Plant Mass. How did the amount of light affect the growth of plants? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________5. Think and discuss: Click Play and let the simulation continue to 50 days. Based on what you have seen so far, what do seeds need to grow into healthy plants? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________
Activity C: Get the Gizmo ready: Design an Click Reset. experiment Click Clear pots.Question: You come up with the question! (See below.)1. Create question: Fill in the blanks below with the variable and the type of plant you would like to study in this activity. (Do not repeat an experiment you have already done.) How does ___________________ affect a __________________ plant?2. Form hypothesis: What is your hypothesis for the question above? _________________________________________________________________________3. Set up Gizmo: Set up the pots to test the variable you are investigating. Describe how you set up each pot in the table below. Pot Type of seed Water/day Number of lights Type of soil A B C4. Experiment: Click Play to start. When the simulation is done, observe the plants.5. Collect data: Examine your plant data on the Data tab. Record your results here. Pot Height (cm) Mass (g) Appearance A B C6. Draw conclusions: What did you discover? Why do you think it happened that way? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________