Your titlepage forknowledgesection
Grade 7 Vocabulary List (Correlational Study on Earth’sSurface and Below)1.    correlation (n)2.    variable (n)3.    arch...
SUMMARY – Organizer Handout for Chapter 6, Section 1                                                                  Read...
Supporting Details 2 (1+ sentences)_______________________________________________________________________________________...
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________...
SUMMARY – Organizer Handout for Chapter 7, Section 1                                                                  Read...
Supporting Details 2 (1+ sentences)_______________________________________________________________________________________...
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________...
_________________________________          (Summary Note for Chapter 6, Section 2 and 3)You have begun to learn about a co...
on such a map. Normally, these maps are used when someone is interested in natural       features of the earth such as mou...
Latitude and longitude are useful because they allow you to easily pinpoint the location of   any position or place on a m...
Task 1-              Task 2 –Making a Map Projection     This is your second map creation task to perform.     This task...
Task 2 –Making a Map Projection    This is your second map creation task to perform.    This task will involve the creat...
 Ways to make your map more insightful ….  - Find and write about some correlation for something(s) in your continent  - ...
________________________________________________                 (Summary Note for Chapter 7, Section 2)__________________...
______________________________________?As explain above, soil varies as you go deeper down (ie. there are three layers or ...
2. Plants take root between the rock pieces. As their roots grow, they cause further   weathering and the area nearby gets...
Outside Soil Photo InvestigationTo introduce the next subarea of knowledge for Earth and Below, you are required to comple...
_________________________________________________________________                 (Summary Note for Chapter 8, Section 1)H...
movement is not easily seen by the human naked eye. But you can tell by looking at certaintrees. The bottom trunk part of ...
_________________________________________________________________              (Summary Note for Chapter 8, Section 2 and ...
scrapes eventually become huge and as the glacier moves, the whole land gets scoured. Longparallel marks are made into the...
kind of storm is called a _________________________. It can even destroy the topsoil andcarry soil across oceans.   B. ___...
CS on Earth knowledge handouts and notes
CS on Earth knowledge handouts and notes
CS on Earth knowledge handouts and notes
CS on Earth knowledge handouts and notes
CS on Earth knowledge handouts and notes
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CS on Earth knowledge handouts and notes

  1. 1. Your titlepage forknowledgesection
  2. 2. Grade 7 Vocabulary List (Correlational Study on Earth’sSurface and Below)1. correlation (n)2. variable (n)3. archive (n)4. survey (n)5. plain (n)6. plateau (n)7. latitude (n)8. longitude (n)9. contour (n)10. weathering (n)11. oxidation (n)12. humus (n)13. litter (n)14. leach (v)15. till (n)16. terrace (n)17. erosion (n)18. deposition19. slump (n, related to erosion)20. creep (n, related to erosion)21. glacier (n)22. plucking (n, related to glaciers)23. moraine (n)24. outwash (n)25. deflation (n)26. abrasion(n)27. dune (n)28. runoff (n)29. meander (n)30. basin(n)31. channel (related to water)32. groundwater33. permeable34. spring (related to water)35. geyser** Need to write for each word:1. Definition2. Your own sentence
  3. 3. SUMMARY – Organizer Handout for Chapter 6, Section 1 Reading NotesStep 1: Read one time.* Take notes too if you want! Step 2:Write the Main Idea (1-2 sentences) –_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Step 3: Write the supporting ideas. Write in the small boxes first!Step 4: Write the supporting details. Write in the bigger boxes later!Supporting Idea 1 (1-2 sentences)Supporting Details 1 (1+ sentences)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Supporting Idea 2 (1-2 sentences)
  4. 4. Supporting Details 2 (1+ sentences)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Supporting Idea 3 (1-2 sentences)Supporting Details 3 (1+ sentences)_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Supporting Idea 4 (1-2 sentences)Supporting Details 4 (1+ sentences)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  5. 5. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Supporting Idea 5 (1-2 sentences)Supporting Details 5 (1+ sentences)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Supporting Idea 6 (1-2 sentences)Supporting Details 6 (1+ sentences)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________** If you have more supporting ideas and details to write, just continue on A4paper using the same format!!! 
  6. 6. SUMMARY – Organizer Handout for Chapter 7, Section 1 Reading NotesStep 1: Read one time.* Take notes too if you want! Step 2:Write the Main Idea (1-2 sentences) –_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Step 3: Write the supporting ideas. Write in the small boxes first!Step 4: Write the supporting details. Write in the bigger boxes later!Supporting Idea 1 (1-2 sentences)Supporting Details 1 (1+ sentences)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Supporting Idea 2 (1-2 sentences)
  7. 7. Supporting Details 2 (1+ sentences)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Supporting Idea 3 (1-2 sentences)Supporting Details 3 (1+ sentences)_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Supporting Idea 4 (1-2 sentences)Supporting Details 4 (1+ sentences)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  8. 8. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Supporting Idea 5 (1-2 sentences)Supporting Details 5 (1+ sentences)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Supporting Idea 6 (1-2 sentences)Supporting Details 6 (1+ sentences)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________** If you have more supporting ideas and details to write, just continue on A4paper using the same format!!! 
  9. 9. _________________________________ (Summary Note for Chapter 6, Section 2 and 3)You have begun to learn about a correlational study where you try find a correlation (connection)between 2 different things.Also, you have hopefully begun to see how a map can be useful in a correlational study to showa correlation more clearly (ex. Climate and weathering rates).Maps can also be used for many other purposes in addition to helping the scientist complete acorrelational study. In this note, you will learn the basic features and skills required to make anumber of useful maps._______________________________?A map is simply a ______________ of some area. It is used by scientists and other to showvarious places, features or other materials that are located within the area of interest.Part 1 - ______________________- There are a variety of maps that are being used forvarious scientific purposes in the world such as a correlational study. Below is a shortdescription of some of the more common ones: 1. ________________________ – Map projections are models of the Earth’s surface where are all points and lines on a globe (a 3D model of Earth) are ___________________ onto a 2D writing sources like paper. Map projections are the most common types of map that most people use including probably you. Road maps, world maps and land feature maps are a few examples. Look in your textbook at figure 12.There are also different kinds of map projections including: i) ________________________ – All lines and points are transferred to paper such that the lines of longitude are ALL straight and parallel to each other. Such a map is convenient to read but it is less accurate. Longitude lines are NOT supposed to be straight because the world is a sphere and not a cube. As a result, all areas have the right shapes but areas near the pole become bigger than they really are such as Greenland. ii) __________________________ – The longitude lines are transferred to paper as curves. This makes the map more circular and accurate. In general, all areas have the right shape and are the right size including the areas close to the poles. See figure 13. iii) ________________________ – the longitude and latitude lines are projected along a cone format. This makes the latitude lines curved and the longitude lines straight but at different angles from each other. Conic projections are useful for smaller areas that are far from the poles. Road maps are a good example 2. Topographic Maps – Topographic maps are models that show the changes in elevations of the earth’s surface. So you can identify both your location AND elevation
  10. 10. on such a map. Normally, these maps are used when someone is interested in natural features of the earth such as mountains, hills and valleys. However, it is also common to put other common features like cultural features on these maps too. (ex. Roads, cities, dams, … etc)Topographic maps are created by drawing ___________________________. A contour line is aline on the map that connects points having the same elevation. As well, contour lines are alsoalways drawn such that the change in elevation between any two line is always the same. Thisdifference is called the _______________________________. Simply, by drawing contour linescloser or farther from each other, the mapper can keep this rule. See figure 15 for an example.It is also common to mark some of the contour lines with their actual elevation. Then, you canfigure out the elevations for any other contour lines if you know the contour interval and then usesimple math. 3. ___________________________- you can also use certain tools like graph paper and the coordinate system in math or even just a computer to create a map in 3D. Doing so makes it easier for people to visualize certain land features cuh as rock layers or river systems.Part 2 – ___________________________Although maps can vary in type and consequently in makeup, most maps share the followingfeatures that make it easier to use the maps and may even be necessary for accurate use ofthem: 1. ________________________ – map scale is the relationship between the ________________on the map and the distances in real (ie. on the real Earth’s surface). Normally, map creators use a ratio to show the scale. For example, 1: 50 000 m means any distance of 1cm on map equals a distance of 50 000 cm on the real surface of the earth. 2. _________________________ – this is box or separate page that gives a list of all _________________________used on the map (Ex. For cities, land features, regions etc.) and a description of what each symbol means. 3. ____________________________- many maps also contain horizontal and vertical lines (with some even being curved lines). The horizontal lines represent the latitude. _________________ is the distance from the equator either north or south. It is measured in _________________ based on the angle of an interior triangle (see Figure 8) from 0 degrees to 90 degrees north or south. Only whole numbers are represented but you can use minutes and segments to describe the decimal part of any degree. Similarly, _______________________ is the distance from an imaginary line called the __________________________. Again, __________________and also minutes and segments can be used.
  11. 11. Latitude and longitude are useful because they allow you to easily pinpoint the location of any position or place on a map. See figure 9 for a good example of reading latitude and longitude for a specific position on a map.4. _____________________ – you can also use a map to keep track of the time! Because the earth is constantly revolving on itself every 24 hours, time will be ____________________depending on the place in the world. We use time zones to show these differences. And time zones are determined by longitude. In general, every __________ degrees of longitude represents one time zone. Also, each time zone varies in time by ________________ from the zone ahead or behind it. So there are 24 time zones all together. The “last” time zone division line is called the _____________________________________. When you cross this line, you lose or gain a day.
  12. 12. Task 1- Task 2 –Making a Map Projection  This is your second map creation task to perform.  This task will involve the creation of a map projection.  As well, it will require a good understanding of other map related feature such as latitude, longitude and time zones  Last, keep in mind that this task will marked! ** To complete this task, be sure to follow and complete all of steps below: 1. Choose a continent. It can be any continent of your choice. Write your continent on the blank below: My chosen continent- _________________________________________________ 2. Trace your continent on an A4 or bigger size paper. Here’s a suggestion- i) Go to google images and type the following: “<Continent Name> blank map” ii) Choose an appropriate image and copy and paste in into word. iii) Enlarge your image in word to the appropriate size and print out.
  13. 13. Task 2 –Making a Map Projection  This is your second map creation task to perform.  This task will involve the creation of a map projection.  As well, it will require a good understanding of other map related feature such as latitude, longitude and time zones  Last, keep in mind that this task will marked!** To complete this task, be sure to follow and complete all of steps below: 1. Choose a continent. It can be any continent of your choice. Write your continent on the blank below:My chosen continent- _________________________________________________ 2. Trace your continent on an A4 or bigger size paper. Here’s a suggestion- i) Go to google images and type the following: “<Continent Name> blank map” ii) Choose an appropriate image and copy and paste in into word. iii) Enlarge your image in word to the appropriate size and print out. iv) Trace your printed image on another blank paper. v) Recycle the printed image. ** Remember you MUST use your own trace NOT the image 3. Draw all longitude and latitude lines with proper labels for your continent. Here’s a suggestion- i) Go to google.com and type “world longitude latitude” ii) Locate your continent and draw only the lines appropriate for the continent iii) Do not forget to label your lines. 4. Find at least 3 cities and use a symbol to represent them on your map. Also, be sure to label your cities on the map and write both the longitude and latitude for each city. 5. Find at least 2 other interesting land features or other in your continent and use symbols to show them on your map. Also, be sure to write what time zone each of them is in. 6. Last, add the following features to your map: i) Map title ii) Map Key (Legend) iii) Your name!
  14. 14.  Ways to make your map more insightful …. - Find and write about some correlation for something(s) in your continent - Add colour, highlights or other artistic features - Calculate your map’s scale - Include some other appropriate or interesting paragraph (ex. Why you chose this continent, Why this continent is important to you, Etc.)
  15. 15. ________________________________________________ (Summary Note for Chapter 7, Section 2)___________________________________?Soil is a mixture of 3 basic kinds of matter:1) _____________________________________________ - many of these rocks or mineralshave been greatly weathered to form the sand, clay or silt that is often found in soil. But therecan also be bigger pieces of rocks as well especially as you go deeper down. 2) ____________________________________________ – this material is formed from deadplants and animals. When they die on the surface of the earth, they are called litter. Thenbacteria and fungi can cause the litter to decay into a dark-coloured material called____________. Next, certain burrowing animals like worms, insects and rodents move it aroundso it gets mixed with other things like the rocks. Humus is also important for living plants as itserves as their prime source for nutrients.3) __________________________________________________- water, air or othercompounds fill up the many spaces between the pieces of soil.So, these 3 types of material get all mixed and compressed together to create the every outerlayer of our Earth that we call soil.________________________________________?Soil is not the same throughout any surface of land. Rather, it forms 3 distinct layers accordingto depth that altogether make up the ________________________. Each layer of soil is alsocalled a ______________________and is denoted by a letter: 1. ___________________- this is the top most layer of soil. It is also called _________________. Here can be found more humus but fewer rock and mineral pieces. This area tends then to be dark and fertile . 2. ________________________ – this is the next layer down. Here, there is less organic material and so this layer is lighter in colour and is less fertile. On the other hand, there tend to me more minerals in this area. This is because of _______________________ which causes any minerals originally located closer to the surface to be carried downwards. More specifically, leaching results because of the presence of water in the A Horizon. This water will mix with some the humus there to form a weak acid. Then the weak acid will dissolve often any minerals nearby and then carry them downwards to the B Horizon by some force. 3. ____________________________- this is lower most layer of soil. Here, there bigger pieces of rock as less weathering occurs as you go deeper down. Also, this area is too far down for humus to travel to before it gets used up as nutrients for plants. And it is also often too far for acids to travel to so there is not much leaching here. As a result, C Horizon tends to consist mostly of rock only.
  16. 16. ______________________________________?As explain above, soil varies as you go deeper down (ie. there are three layers or horizons). Butsoil can also in other ways too. Even the same type of horizon in one area of the world can lookvery differently in another part of the world. Things like colour, maximum soil depth, texture andfertility can all vary greatly. (See figure 13)What determines what one region of soil looks like? There are a number of factors as describebelow: 1. ____________________________ – the climate of an area can affect the nature of its soil. More specifically, the temperature, the amount of rain and the force of the wind can all create differences in how the soil forms. For instance, in very dry areas such as deserts, few animals live there and so these soils tend to have little organic material and are thinner. Soils in certain plains like the Prairies in North America tend to be thicker and darker because a lot of grass grows on top and then then when this grass dies, more humus will be created 2. ___________________- Glaciers are able to pick up tonnes of pieces of rocks, minerals and other materials as they move through an area. After travelling very far distances, the eventually stop and ___________ their material in another area of the land. Then, these deposited pieces of rock can experience weather and help form the very top layer of the soil. Yet, they will be very different from the rocks that are deeper down in the soil of the other area. This explains how the rocks minerals on the top of any area can be much different than those deeper down. 3. ___________________ – the original rocks in any given area called the __________________ can also affect how the soil develops. Some rock types make it easier for certain types of plants to grow than other rock types. So certain areas will have different kinds and different amounts of humus depending on what kind of rocks are there. The kind of rocks themselves will create different mixtures of soil when they get weathered. For instance, some weathered rocks turn into clay and make the soil contain more clay than other kinds of rocks. 4. _______________– the slope of the land can also affect how fertile land is. Normally, land at the top of a slope will be less fertile than the land at the bottom. This is because any dead or decaying material tends to get pushed ____________________the slope to its bottom before it can be pressed into the earth to help form soil._________________________________-The formation of soil is a complex process. The general idea is as follows: 1. Natural acids in rain water or freezing water that can flow in between the cracks of parent rocks. Eventually, the rocks get weathered and break into small pieces.
  17. 17. 2. Plants take root between the rock pieces. As their roots grow, they cause further weathering and the area nearby gets broken down to eventually form a thin layer of soil towards the top3. Other organism like worms and insects start to live among the plant roots. Eventually they and the roots of the plants themselves die too and their decayed matter is added to the soil.4. The above keeps happening. As more and more rock gets broken up by roots and as more and more organisms die and add humus to the area, the soil continues to develop into horizons with the more fertile soil at the top and less weathered and bigger rocks towards the bottom.
  18. 18. Outside Soil Photo InvestigationTo introduce the next subarea of knowledge for Earth and Below, you are required to complete asmall soil photo investigation as follows: 1. Go outside into the school yard and find an interesting sample of soil such as a piece of dirt, an unusual rock or maybe some specks of sand (you choose!) 2. Using a marker, put a small dot somewhere on the sample and then take a photo 3. Complete Box 1 below (you need to write the starting location and then you need to explain the ending location in 2 different ways as instructed below) 4. After 1 week, revisit the place. Is your soil sample still there? If not, can you find it? Take a look around for your dot if possible. (It may also help to keep an eye on your soil sample every day) 5. Complete Box 2 below (you need to explain what happened to the sample and if one of your predictions was right or not) BOX 1 Starting Location Photo Starting Location for My Soil Sample- ____________________________________________________ (optional) Predicted Ending Location for My Soil Sample - ____________________________________________ My Real Reason For My Prediction- ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ My Extraordinary Reason for My Prediction ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ BOX 2 ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ (Write on back if you need more space or other paper) BOX 2 What Happened to my Soil Sample?- ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Ending Location Photo (optional) ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________
  19. 19. _________________________________________________________________ (Summary Note for Chapter 8, Section 1)Hopefully, you can see that pieces of dirt, sand or even rock do not always stay in the same spotbut are constantly moving or more correctly they are getting moved by “something”. And it doesnot matter if it is a piece of dirt in your school yard or even huge boulders on a mountain top.They all eventually get moved and put somewhere else. What causes earth materials like soiland rock to be moved and put elsewhere? The answer to this question is a complex onebecause there are multiple factors that can do this. However, before describing such factors, it isgood to start with a definition of such movement. It is called _______________________.______________________________? – Erosion is the process by which surface materials (ie.pieces of soil at Earth’s surface) are moved (by something) from one place towards anotherplace. Further, these materials eventually will be dumped somewhere. The dropping or dumpingof materials to a different location is known as ____________________. Normally, this happensbecause the something in erosion stops moving them because it runs out of energy. So think ofdeposition as the end point of erosion. OR to use an analogy, erosion is like the process ofdriving someone somewhere and deposition is when you let them off.___________________________? As stated above, there are many causes of erosion and they can even work together. For thisparticular note, we will learn about one particular cause: ____________. Gravity can causethings to move (downwards such as on slopes). And when it does, this type of erosion isreferred to as ____________________________.______________________________________?Mass movement or the movement of materials downslope by gravity can occur in different waysand to different degrees. Some of the more common ones are discussed next:A) ___________________- slump is a kind of soil movement that occurs on a grand scale.Moreover, is not about a few pieces of rock or something moving down a slope. Rather is abouta HUGE part of the entire slope itself –slowly- shifting and moving downwards. See figure 2. Togive an analogy, it would be similar to the first floor of a house on some hill weakening. Then thesecond floor would fall down the hill as the first floor eventually collapses.A slump itself in a number of ways but always involves gravity and there needs to be a slope. Todescribe one way, a huge chunk of heavy rock could be on top of some lighter softer rock likeclay. The big weight of the heavy rock eventually causes the lighter rock underneath to weakenuntil it can no longer support the heavier rock Then the heavier rock crashes down the slope asone big mass. In another example, water could seep in underneath a big piece of land andweaken the underneath rock only causing it again to weaken and then the piece of land aboveall moves downwards.B) ____________________– creep is a much slower and less dramatic type of mass movementthan slump. Here, an area of land (normally a very small area) again weakens somewhere (atthe surface or underneath) This weakening again causes the little area to move but theweakening is very soft. So the little area just moves (shifts) a little. Normally, the shifted
  20. 20. movement is not easily seen by the human naked eye. But you can tell by looking at certaintrees. The bottom trunk part of such trees may curve parallel to the slope and then the rest ofthe trunk is bent straight up. This happens because the land around the tree has shifted slightlywhere tree’s roots are. This causes the tree to be oriented away from the sky and the it curvesitself upwards by phototropism to get more sunlight. See figure 3.C) ___________________________________ – this is probably the easiest type massmovement to understand. Basically here, pieces of rock located higher up a slope first breakloose (by weathering) from their current locations. Once they are loose, there is nothing tosupport them and keep them at the top. So they naturally, fall down the slope thanks to gravity.Also, the first falling rocks could hit other rocks and then cause them to break free and fall aswell. So, rock movement like this tends to get bigger and bigger as the slide continues. Now, ifjust a few rocks fall, we call their movement a ____________. If many rocks fall together andmore suddenly, we call the movement a ___________________. If whole bunch of soil such assand or even snow gets stirred and begins falling down as a huge mass, we call suchmovement an ____________________.D) ______________________ – a mudflow is similar to both a slump and a rock fall. Like a rockfall, a mudflow involves sediment of rock that have become loosened somehow. However, amudflow also involve a huge area of land to fall downwards like a slump. However, there is onekey difference: __________. Before a mudflow, there must have been a huge rainfall or someother soaking such that the entire area almost has been changed to a thick and pasty materialthat we called ______________. The formation of mud makes the changed earth part muchlooser and increase the chances that it will not remain where it is but fall downward creating amudflow._____________________________-Erosion by gravity can be problematic to many and even tragic to some. Imagine if you were afarmer who had planted important crops in some area on or by a slope. Then, if a slump or rockfall or even a creep occurred, it could ruin your plants. For example, the soil moves and uprootsyour trees. Big boulders fall on your plants. So it is important to a number of people that steepslopes should be kept safe. As a result, certain people spend time strengthening the underlyingsoil For example, to strengthen an area, they could add plants. The plants will take root and inthe process plant themselves well.
  21. 21. _________________________________________________________________ (Summary Note for Chapter 8, Section 2 and 3)You have learned about erosion and you have also learned about one type of erosion caused bygravity: mass movement. In this note, you will about two other types of erosion each caused bysomething else: glacial erosion and wind erosion.Part 1 – ___________________________________________________________________________?To understand glacial erosion, you first need to understand what a glacier is. A________________is simply a large mass of ice and snow that can move because of its hugeweight. The basic idea is that over time, snow can accumulate in certain cold areas of the worldand (almost) never melt. As more and more snow piles up, the snow beneath gets compressed.Eventually this bottom snow can turn into ice and become slippery. Then, the enormous weightof the snow can cause the bottom part to flow and move away from its current location. Hence,we now have a moving mass of ice and snow or what we call a glacier.____________________________________________-There are also 2 types of glaciers: _____________________________________________.Continental glaciers are the ___________ ones. They cover (or covered) huge areas of landincluding ___________ _______________________ such as the continental glacier that coversAntarctica. The size and number of continental glaciers depends on the climate. When theworld’s climate is colder, continental glaciers get bigger and cover more land. When the climateis warmer, they melt and get smaller.The second type are valley glaciers. These are the _________________ glaciers. They areusually found in _____________________. They can also help shape the mountains and alsothe valleys between them as the move through them in different ways. Many interesting landfeatures can be made including U-shaped valleys.__________________________________________?Hopefully, you now know what a glacier erosion. The next BIG IDEA is to understand how aglacier can cause erosion (ie. pick up rocks, sand and other sediment and move it away).Glacial Erosion mainly occurs in 2 important steps:Step 1 – ____________________ – Plucking is a process where the glacier picks up rocks andother things. Plucking happens because bottom or side parts of the glacier were first water andthen later froze. More specifically, when glacier ice is first water, this water can flow in cracksbetween rocks. Then later, the water freezes and it also expands which causes some rocks tofracture (break). The broken pieces get also stuck in the ice and are thus taken with the glacieras it slowly moves away.Step 2 – ____________________________ – this step simply refers to the movement of therock that got plucked. Because the rock is frozen well into the sides and bottoms of the glacier, itwill get taken along with the glacier wherever it goes. It will even be taken to far away places. Inother words, the rock is transported. Also, another interesting effect happens. As more and morerocks gets plucked up and transported, they can scrape up the soil as they are moved. These
  22. 22. scrapes eventually become huge and as the glacier moves, the whole land gets scoured. Longparallel marks are made into the land as the glacier moves and its rocks keep scraping the land.If the marks are fairly small, they are called ____________________. If the marks are deeperand longer, they are called ____________________.___________________- Glaciers can cause erosion in ___________________ by simplypushing rocks and other sediment that are in front of them. (like a bull dozer). Also in____________________, when a glacier melts, the melting water can flow away from theglacier and carry things like rocks with it as well to cause erosion._______________________________________? – It is also important to remember the endpoint of erosion: _________________________. This is when the erosion stops and the pickedup things are put down somewhere. Deposition happens with glaciers too. Indeed, glaciers alsoeventually stop moving because over time temperatures changes can cause enough of theglacier to melt that it cannot move well anymore or the parts of the glacier with the stuck rockmelt and can no longer hold the rock. Also, because the melting happens gradually and incertain places first, the glacier normally stops moving by retracting or we can say the glacier______________________.Further, the rock pieces can get deposited in different ways. If they are slowly deposited overlarge areas when the glacier is retreating back, we refer to such deposition as _____________.On the other hand, the glacier can also first push pieces of rock that are ahead of it like a bulldozer into bigger and bigger piles. Then later when the glacier retreats, the pile stops gettingpushed and remains as a ridge. This kind of deposition is called a ________________. Third,some rock can also be carried and then dropped by some of the melted water from a glacier.This rock gets dropped off a little differently. Usually big rocks drop first and then smaller andsmaller rocks. This kind of deposition is called an ____________________________________________. It is when the glacier is retreating thatall the rock pieces are depositedPart 2 – _________________________________________You should know what wind is. It is also important to understand that the wind can also movethings and this even includes loose earth material like rocks. In other words, erosion can alsooccur by the wind.____________________________________________?Wind erosion typically occurs in two ways. A. _____________________________________First, the wind is capable of moving pieces of rock over large areas as it can pick up things andthrow it high into the air. This kind of wind erosion is known as deflation. Normally with deflation,lighter loose material only gets carried away and removed. Then, heavier coarse rock material isleft behind exposed.As well, deflation can also result in the formation of ____________________________.Normally, the wind is fairly weak and it cannot pick up many things. But at other times, wind mayblow very hard. If this occurs in deserts, a powerful wind can even pick up sand grains andmove them around violently to form low clouds of sands. This kind of wind storm is called a_________________________. As well, in other areas where the soil is dry, a more powerfulwind can even pick up pieces of the soil such as clay or silt and blow them around hard. This
  23. 23. kind of storm is called a _________________________. It can even destroy the topsoil andcarry soil across oceans. B. ___________________________Any thing picked up by the wind can also hit other things. When windblown sediment (pieces ofrock) strike other rocks, they can cause weathering for these rocks. In other words, they knockoff pieces of the other rock as they hit it and then these pieces can be carried away by the windtoo. This type of wind erosion is known as __________________________. It often leaves theremaining rock looking more polished like with a sandblasting machine.________________________________________?As with all erosion, eventually wind erosion slows and stops as the wind will eventually becomecalmer and “die”. Then again, pieces of rock, sand or soil will be dropped somewhere ordeposited. There are different ways the wind deposits its picked up sediment: a) ____________________ – winds that pick up very fine-grained sediments (fine pieces of rocks) may carry them to hilltops or valleys. When these grains are eventually dropped, they can pile up together to create a thick, un-layered, yellowish-brown deposit. Such a piling is called a ______________. b) _________________________– a dune forms when a wind carrying sediment hits some obstacle like a big rock. The wind will then travel around the obstacle but some of its carried sediment may not and start to collect at the obstacle. Eventually, enough sediment gathers to form a kind of big mound called a ____________________. This kind of deposition is common with sand in deserts. Dunes will also have 2 sides. The side facing the wind will be more _______________than the side away from the wind because of the way the sand gets piled up against the obstacle. Eventually, the dune may even ____________________ in the other direct of the wind as the sand pile shifts towards the more gentle side. As well, dunes can be formed into _________________________________ depending on the type and strength of the wind. See figure 23 for an example of a star dune.

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