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Ghanasan public share

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A public document sharing our recent design work on portable toilets for urban poor areas in Ghana.

A public document sharing our recent design work on portable toilets for urban poor areas in Ghana.

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  • 1. GHANASANUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 1
  • 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe Ghanasan project is a collaboration between Unilever, Water and Sanitationfor the Urban Poor (WSUP), and IDEO to develop new products and services forin-home sanitation in Kumasi, Ghana. The project aims to address the barriers thatprevent 1 billion people in urban areas from accessing adequate sanitary facilities.These include insecure or non-existent land tenure, cramped living conditions andpoor access to finance.The project team used the Human Centered Design process to better understandthe needs and aspirations of people in the city and identify potential solutions tothe challenges they face. An overview of the research and methods used in thisprocess has been made public on www.ghanasan.com to engage and inspire thesanitation community at large to participate in the project.This document presents the product design direction and suggestions for theservice design to pursue for further development and pilot testing in the field.Unilever + WSUP + IDEO 2
  • 3. THIS TOILET HAS BROUGHT HONOR AND DIGNITY TO OUR FAMILY. -MOHAMMED, ALABARUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 3
  • 4. HAVING A TOILET IN THE HOME IS GREAT FOR EMERGENCIES... YOU NEVER KNOW WHEN YOU HAVE TO GO. -STELLA AND FAMILY, KOTEIUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 4
  • 5. RESEARCH OVERVIEWUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 5
  • 6. RESEARCH OVERVIEWHUMAN CENTERED DESIGN: UNDERSTANDING pHASE ONE: NEW OppORTUNITIES FOR URBAN SANITATION For the first six weeks of our collaboration, we focused on uncovering newpEOpLE’S NEEDS AND DESIRES TO IDENTIFY opportunities for providing in-home sanitation to the urban poor. In orderNEW SOLUTIONS THAT WILL BE DESIRABLE, to better understand the end-users’ challenges and aspirations, our team conducted interviews on the individual, community, and civic level. WeFEASIBLE, AND VIABLE. used research tools such as inspiration cards, observations, shadowing, and storytelling to gain a deeper understanding of their day-to-day lives and sanitation needs and preferences. Additionally, the OpenIDEO community and the project team worked together to share inspirations and generate concepts, working together to uncover unmet opportunities in urban sanitation. pHASE TWO: pROTOTYpING AND OVERALL DESIGN DIRECTION Building upon our work from Phase One, we spent the second six weeks building and refining prototypes of our early ideas and incorporating the learnings from those prototypes into the designs presented in this document. We brought with us to Kumasi four toilet prototypes, each designed to test a different functional approach to collecting and removing waste from the home. We left each toilet with a family for several days, returning afterward to gather the family’s feedback, collect and clean the toilets, and repeat the test with a new families. Additionally, we sought to understand users’ preferences regarding placement in the home, service and maintenance, branding and marketing, and pricing and purchase. The following pages represent an overview of the key learnings from Phase Two, followed by our recommendations for the overall product design, design variations, service, branding and pilot testing.Unilever + WSUP + IDEO 6
  • 7. TOILET FUNCTIONALITYUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 7
  • 8. THIS WOULD BE GREAT FOR MY ELDERLY MOTHER, BUT IT’S TOO COMpLICATED. IT SHOULD BE SO SIMpLE THAT NOBODY COULD MESS IT Up. -HAIJA, ALABARUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 8
  • 9. TOILET FUNCTIONALITY• IN-HOME SANITATION IS INHERENTLY ASpIRATIONAL, WITH OR WITHOUT WATER• MOVING pARTS AND SEALS ARE TOO FRAGILE FOR LONG-TERM USE• COMpLEXITY OF WATER-FLUSH CAUSES CONFUSION AND DISCOURAGES USE• WATER AND URINE OVERFILL TOILETS QUICKLY• URINE DIVERSION IS READILY ACCEpTED AND UNDERSTOOD• SIZE, MATERIALS, AND STRUCTURE ARE IMpORTANT INDICATORS OF VALUE• TOILETS ARE IN REGULAR CONTACT WITH WATER, BOTH INSIDE AND OUTUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 9
  • 10. THIS IS THE FIRST TIME I’VE FELT COMFORTABLE SITTING ON A TOILET SINCE GRADE SCHOOL. -KAMAL, ALABARUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 10
  • 11. pLACEMENT IN THE HOMEUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 11
  • 12. pLACEMENT IN THE HOME • MOST COMpOUNDS IN KUMASI HAVE SpACE FOR TOILETS • FAMILIES ARE WILLING TO SHARE WITHIN THE COMpOUND • BATHROOMS HAVE DRAIN TO STREET GUTTER • BATHROOMS ARE WET AND HAVE SLOpED FLOORS • FLOORS ARE ROUGH AND SCUFF BOTTOM OF TOILETUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 12
  • 13. IT’S GOOD BUT IT’S TOO SMALL. WE’D NEED AT LEAST TWO FOR OUR FAMILY. -HARUNA’S FAMILY, ALABARUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 13
  • 14. SERVICE AND MAINTENANCEUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 14
  • 15. SERVICE AND MAINTENANCE• MOST pEOpLE DON’T TRUST SERVICE IN GHANA, AND WANT TO ‘SEE IT TO BELIEVE IT’• SIGNIFICANT EDUCATION AND OVERSIGHT WILL BE REQUIRED TO ENSURE pROpER SERVICE• WOMEN CLEAN IN-HOME TOILETS FREQUENTLY WITH WATER OR LOCAL DETERGENTS• FAMILIES HAD NO OBJECTION TO SERVICE pERSON COMING INTO THEIR HOMES• UNIFORMS SIGNIFY QUALITY AND DEpENDABILITYUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 15
  • 16. I DON’T TRUST SERVICE pEOpLE, SO I’D HAVE TO SEE THE SERVICE TO BELIEVE IT. -LANDLORD, KOTEIUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 16
  • 17. BRANDING AND MARKETINGUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 17
  • 18. BRANDING AND MARKETING• ‘CLEAN TEAM’ WAS THE FAVORITE NAME BY FAR• pRIVATE SERVICES ARE TRUSTED MORE THAN pUBLIC ONES• CORpORATIONS ARE TRUSTED MORE THAN INDIVIDUALS• CONVENIENCE AND EMERGENCY ACCESS ARE KEY BENEFITS• LOCAL LEADERS ARE pOWERFUL VOICES IN THE COMMUNITYUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 18
  • 19. THIS IS NOT A SIMpLE pROBLEM, IT WILL HAVE TO TAKE A GOOD TEAM TO DO IT WELL. - RESIDENTS IN ALABARUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 19
  • 20. pRICING AND pURCHASINGUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 20
  • 21. pRICING AND pURCHASING • SHARING pAYMENTS IS DIFFICULT, BUT NOT IMpOSSIBLE • SAVING IS TOUGH, SO FREQUENT pAYMENTS ARE pREFERRED • FIRST MONTH FREE HELpS pEOpLE OVERCOME WORRIES • pEOpLE ARE USED TO NEGOTIATING FOR SERVICES • IT’S HARD FOR MANY FAMILIES TO COMpARE pRICING TO THE pUBLIC TOILETSUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 21
  • 22. IT’S GOT TO BE CHEAp. AND IT’D BE BEST IF WE COULD pAY EVERY DAY... IT’S HARD TO SAVE IN AFRICA! -FAMILY, ALABARUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 22
  • 23. DESIGN pRINCIpLESUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 23
  • 24. pRODUCT SERVICE BRANDSimplicity trumps features. Professional and organized. It takes a team.The toilet should be intuitive to use without People trust a service with a central office that The simple visual of people working togetherinstruction. Water pumps and seals are set up can be held accountable. Small, local or public struck a chord. People understand thefor failure and misuse, especially from outside services have a bad reputation for getting importance of this service and that it needs avisitors and children. things done. coordinated team to be successful.Sturdy and familiar. Create routine. Visualize benefits.People aspire to owning what we think of as People naturally think in weekly increments. Communicating the value of the service andthe “classic” toilet. Camping sized seats and Regular pickups, when possible, are easier to its cost to customers will require educationunstable bases are both hard to use and not plan for and organize around. and visualization of the long term benefits andtrusted. The final design should look and feel convenience compared to using public toilets.like a robust fixture in the home, and feature afull sized seat. Pay incrementally. Communicate credibility. People are used to paying very small amountsTake out the urine. at the public toilet. The service will need to When it comes to products and services, people accommodate frequent small payments. favor visual consistency and professionalismPeople will naturally urinate while using over local aesthetics and craft.these toilets. Diverting the urine to a separatecontainer or the gutter reduces smell, saves See it to believe it.volume and reduces the overall servicing cost. Due to a history of bad service experiences, people resonate strongly with the idea of tryingDiscourage tampering. out the toilet in their home for the first month before paying for a regular service pickup.Prevent illegal disposal of the waste bysecuring the tank to the toilet. The tank shouldbe designed to interface seamlessly with theIBC/disposal site.Unilever + WSUP + IDEO 24
  • 25. BASIC SERVICE MODELUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 25
  • 26. SERVICE MODEL 01 Branded household toilet with bio-digester chemical and 05 removable waste container. Waste used to generate electricity or create fertilizer to sustain and grow local business. 02 Local franchised operator provides household waste collection service. 04 Vacuum truck services local transfer tanks. 03 Waste taken to neighborhood transfer tank for interim storage.Unilever + WSUP + IDEO 26
  • 27. BRANDINGUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 27
  • 28. NAME AND LOGO Badge is meant to be placed on the toilet and accompanying products. The team mark can stand on its own, and be embossed or stenciled as needed. The script should stand alone when used on the uniform of a service person.Unilever + WSUP + IDEO 28
  • 29. UNIFORM AND EQUIpMENT SERVICE ASSOCIATE SERVICE pERSON Makes financial and scheduling Replaces the waste tank arrangements with families. and cleans toilet surfaces.Unilever + WSUP + IDEO 29
  • 30. OVERALL TOILET DESIGNUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 30
  • 31. WET URINE DIVERSION TOILETBased on feedback received in Ghana, our conclusion is thata urine diverting toilet in combination with a bio-digestorand removable sealed waste tank is our best option. Standard size toilet seat comfortably fits even larger users. Urine diversion comes out back with flexible tube. Shortened base allows room for feet.Unilever + WSUP + IDEO 31
  • 32. Seat hinges on sides to simplify cleaning. Lid blocks smell and insects when closed. Wide hole funnels waste into tank below. Urine is diverted to tube and out to gutter/outdoor collection.Unilever + WSUP + IDEO 32
  • 33. TANK REMOVAL Top half of toilet unlocks and hinges up, allowing tank to be hygienically sealed and removed by service person.Unilever + WSUP + IDEO 33
  • 34. WASTE TANK Tanks stack for shipping, transport, and storage. Smooth rounded shape allows easy cleaning and evacuation of waste.Unilever + WSUP + IDEO 34
  • 35. THANK YOUUnilever + WSUP + IDEO 35