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Introductiont To Aray,Tree,Stack, Queue
 

Introductiont To Aray,Tree,Stack, Queue

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    Introductiont To Aray,Tree,Stack, Queue Introductiont To Aray,Tree,Stack, Queue Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Data Structures By: Abdul Ghaffar
    • Contents
        • Introduction
        • Queues
        • Stacks
        • Linked lists
        • Trees
    • Basic Terminology
        • Data
              • Raw facts and figures are called data.
        • Information
            • Data with given attributes, or meaningful or processed data is called information
        • Group & Elementary data items
            • If a data item can be divided into sub items then it is called group item else it is called elementary item.
        • Entity
            • An entity is something that has certain attributes or properties which may be assigned values.
    • Basic Terminology
        • Entity Set
            • Entities with similar attributes form an entity set .
        • Hierarchy of data organization
          • Field
            • A field is a single elementary unit of information representing an attribute of an entity.
          • Record
            • A record is collection of field values of a given entity.
          • File
            • A file is a collection of records of the entities in a given entity set
    • Basic Terminology
        • Primary Key
          • If the value in certain field may uniquely identity the record in the file then such a field is called primary key
    • Basic Terminology
      • Data Structures
          • The logical and mathematical model of a particular organization of data is called Data structure
            • Essential to implement most algorithms
            • Data Structures + Algorithms = Programs
            • Computer languages support their creation
            • Defined using “primitive types” and language constructs
        • Steps the in study of Data Structures
            • Logical or mathematical description of the structure
            • Implementation of the structure on a computer
            • Quantitative analysis of the structure (time & Space)
    • Data Structures
        • Arrays
          • A list of finite number n of similar data elements referenced respectively by a set of n consecutive numbers
            • One-Dimensional
            • Two-Dimensional
            • Three-Dimensional
    • Data Structures
        • Linked List
          • A linked list is a linear collection of data elements, called nodes, where linear order is given by means of pointers.
      7 next head 11 next 14 next 18 next NULL
    • Data Structures
        • Trees
          • The data structure which reflects hierarchical relationship between various elements is called a rooted tree or simply Tree.
      17 15 14 9 6 5 8
    • Data Structures
        • Stack
          • A stack is a linear list in which insertion and deletion can take place only at one end (LIFO)
      9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 7 18 14 S top
    • Data Structures
        • Queue
          • A queue is a linear list in which deletion & insertion can not take place at the same end (FIFO)
      1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 7 18 14 Q head tail
    • Data Structures
        • Graph
          • The data structure which reflects relationship between pairs of elements is called a graph.
    • Data Structures
      • Data Structure Operations
          • Traversing
          • Searching
          • Inserting
          • Deletion
          • Sorting
          • Merging
        • MINIMUM(S)
        • MAXIMUM(S)
        • IsEMPTY(S)
        • PRINT(S)
        • COUNT(S)
    • Algorithm
      • Algorithm
          • An algorithm is a finite step by step list of well defined instructions for solving a particular problem.
    • Algorithm
      • Example
    • Algorithm
      • Control Structures
        • Sequence logic
        • Selection logic
          • Single alternative
            • If condition, then
            • [Module A]
            • [End of if structure]
    • Algorithm
          • Double Alternative
              • If condition, then
              • [Module A]
              • Else
              • [Module B]
              • [End of If structure]
    • Algorithm
          • Multiple Alternatives
              • If condition, then
              • [Module A]
              • Else if condition2, then
              • [Module B]
              • Else if condition3, then
              • [Module C]
              • Else if condition4, then
              • [Module D]
              • Else
              • [Module E]
              • [End of if structure]
    • Algorithm
      • Example
    • Algorithm
      • Control Structures
        • Iteration logic
            • Repeat for K=R to S by T
            • [Module]
            • [End of loop]
            • Repeat while condition
            • [Module]
            • [End of loop]
    • Algorithm
      • Example
    • Algorithm
        • Complexity of Algorithm
          • The complexity of an algorithm f(n) is the function which gives the ruining time or space in term of the input size.
        • Time-Space trade-off
          • The Time-Space trade-off refers to a choice between algorithmic solution of a data processing problem that allows one to decrease the running time of an algorithmic solution by increasing the space to store the data and vice versa.
              • Linear Search
              • C(n) = (n+1)/2
              • Binary Search
              • C(n) = log 2 n
    • Algorithm
          • Binary Search