Define nutrition, nutrients, diet, food, meal.Outline the characteristics of adequate diet.Describe the relationship between nutrition and health.Describe diet for normal individual throughout the lifecycle especially the vulnerable groupDevelop a diet plan using dietary guides and foodexchange lists.Describe major malnutrition health problems.Mention the diseases associated with vitamin andmicronutrient deficiencies.Outline methods of assessment of nutritional status.
maybe defined as the science of food and its relationship tohealth. It is concerned primarily with the part played by nutrientsin body growth, development and maintenance. are organic and inorganic complexes contained in food.
A balanced diet is defined as the diet whichcontains different types of food , possessing thenutrients- carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitaminsand minerals- in a proportion to meet therequirements of the body.
relationship between nutrition and health.Good nutrition – an adequate, well balanced diet is a cornerstone of goodhealth and development.Nutrition is essential for the maintenance of lifeEssential for growth, reproduction, normal functioning of organs andProduction of energyBetter nutrition is related to improved health , stronger immune systems, saferpregnancy and childbirth, lower risk of non-communicable diseases (such asdiabetes and cardiovascular disease), and longevity.Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility todisease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity.
Develop a diet plan using dietaryguides and food exchange lists.
Examples of servings Beans & Meat Vegetable Grou Milk Group Fruit Group Grain Group Group p 2-3 Servings 2-4 Servings 6-11 Servings 2-3 Servings 3-5 Servings Raw Meat: 2-3 Fruit Juice: 3/4Milk: 8 ounces Leafy Vegetable Bread: 1 slice ounces cup s: 1 cup 1/2 cup of other 1 ounce ofNatural Cheese: Peanut Butter: 2 vegetables Fruit, Sliced: 1/2 ready-to-eat1 1/2 ounces Tablespoons cooked or cup cereal chopped raw 1/2 cup ofYogurt: 8 3/4 cup of Fresh Fruit: 1 Beans: 1 cup cooked cereal,ounces vegetable juice medium rice, or pasta
Diet Throughout Life cycleIncluding nutritionof:-1-Pregnant&lactating2-Invent & children3- Adolescence4- Old people
pregnant & lactating
pregnant & lactating group particul energy Protein Fat carbohydrate ar Kcal d g/d g/dwoman 468 g d Moderate 2225 1gd 20 % 60% work 10%Pregnant woman + + 30 %Lactating 0-12 + + woman months + + 45 %
Infant & Children.
Group Particular Energy Protei Fat s n Kcal/d g/d g/d Infant 0-12m 102/kg 1.9/kg -Children 1-6y 1415 26 25 7-9y 1950 41
Adolescence.1- Energy needs are greater during adolescencethan at any other time of life with exception of pregnancy &lactation.2- Higher vitamins and minerals needs.3- Three nutrients of importance i.e. vitamin A,iron and calcium.4- Improving fruit & vegetable intake will help in obtainingadequate vitamin A .
1- As people get older and become less active the need still high for energy reduces but nutrient needs are 2- Calcium and vitamin D are important nutrients for bone health 3- Plenty of fluids and a fibre rich diet helps to prevent constipation4- Daily exercise such a walking is also important to keep healthy
Malnutrition : bad of nutrition. Cause by INCORRECT Amount of nutrient icrease risk of infection and chronic diseases over-nutrition under-nutrition may lead to obesity as may lead to increased well as to metabolic infections and decreases syndrome or type 2 in physical and mental diabetes development.
undernutrition Nutritional deficiency diseases may classified as:1-first type :that result directly from dietary lack of a specific essential nutrient2-second type :that result from the inability of the body to use a specific nutrient properly. Protein energy malnutrition kwashiorkor Marasmus
kwashiorkor in children of age 1-3 years cause Late weaning after two years, which due to shift from high biological value protein to starchy food deficient in proteins. characterized by edema. The classical syndrome is that of retarded growth and development with mental apathy , muscular wasting , edema especially the liver (become big) .
Marasmus one year of agein children under Marasmus is a severe form of malnutrition that consists of the chronic wasting away of fat, muscle, and other tissues in the body. Malnutrition occurs when your body does not get enough nearly all nutrients, especially protein and carbohydrates A child with marasmus looks emaciated
Comparison between the two kwashiorkor Marasmus1- Definition : 1- Definition :protein-energy malnutrition (PEM ) protein-energy malnutrition (PEM )characterized by dificiency of protein e characterized by severe and prolongedrelatively adequate energy intake . restriction of all food i.e energy and protein as well as other nutrients2- Essential Featuresa. Generalized edema 2- Essential Featuresb. Hair changes a. Muscle wasting.c. Skin change b. Loss of sub-cutaneous fatd. Psychomotor changes c. Very low body weight3- Age Group 3- Age GroupUsually in children of 1-3 years Usually under one year of age4- Important Cause 4- Important CauseLate weaning after extending over two Early weaning years
Comparison between the two kwashiorkor Marasmus5- Frequency 5- FrequencyOccur more frequently in rural area Occur in poor people in under developed countries who live in6- Clinical Features citiesa. Edemab. Hair become fine show flage sign 6- Clinical Featuresc. Pigmentation desquamation and a. edema is absent ulceration of skin b. Skin changes ,hair ,apathy andd. Child is apathetic and measureable anorexia are seldom encounterede. Anorexia c. Abdomen may be distended.f. Liver may be enlarged and fatty. d. Liver is not fatty.
Vitamin & micronutrientdeficiency
Vitamin A deficiencyVitamin A deficiency cause : Night blindness. Conjunctival xerosis : xerosis means dryness Active corneal lesion : Cornea scars . Increase risk of infection: children who lack Vit A are more likely to get gut, respiratory, and other infection and to die from them than children with enough Vit A. even mild VitA deficiency , with no sign of xerophthalmia may increase risk of infection and death .
Vitamin B deficiency The deficiency of thiamin (B₁) causing beri-beri . The deficiency of riboflavim (B₂) causing Ariboflavinosis . The deficiency of Niacin causing pellagra .
Vitamin C deficiency Scurvy: It result from dietary lack of Vit C , scurvy usually occurs only on those consumes extremely poor diet that have a complete lack of fruit and vegetable scurvy can effect infant who is only source of food is cow’s milk.
Vitamin D deficiency Vitamin D deficiency can result : Osteomalacia : is the softening of the bones, osteomalacia in children is known as rickets, . It may show signs as diffuse body pains, muscle weakness, and fragility of the bones. Osteoporosis : is a disease of bones that leads to an increased risk of fracture. Rickets : is a softening of bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity. Rickets is among the most frequent childhood diseases in many developing countries.
Minerals deficiency Calcium deficiency : Osteomalacia, osteoporosis, Rickets and tetany . Phosphorus deficiency : affect growth and bone disease. Magnesium deficiency : cause problem in acid- base problem, tremor, spasm and muscle action.
Minerals deficiencyIodine deficiency : Iodine participate in the synthesis of thyroid hormones . Abnormal thyroid function leads to hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism due to increase or decrease intake of iodine . Goiter is due to iodine deficiency . Iron deficiency & Copperdeficiency :cause anemia .
Deficiency of Zinc Mild deficiency : Stunted growth in children . Decreased tasting sensation . impaired immune function . Sever deficiency : dwarfism . delayed sexual maturation. Hypopigmented hair .
overnutrition Overnutrition is a type of malnutrition where there are more nutrients than required for normal growth, development, and metabolism.. The term can refer to: 1- obesity, brought on by general overeating of foods high in caloric content, 2- Vitamin poisoning Iron poisoning, 3- Mineral overload : inborn errors of metal metabolism, toxicity
Introduction : Nutritional Status : - The state of a person’s health in terms of the nutrients in his or her diet. - Or the condition of health of a person that is influenced by the intake and utilisation of nutrients. The aim of nutritional assessment : discover the nutritional problem in order to suggest the possible solution.
Methods of assessment of nutritionalassessment : Indirect Direct methods use community methods deal with the indices that reflect the individual and measure community nutritional objective criteria status/needs.
Indirect Methods of Nutritional Assessment • Ecological variables including agricultural crops “production” • Economic factors e.g. household income. • population density, food availability and prices Vital health statistics: morbidity, mortality and other health indicators e.g., infant and under-fives mortality, fertility indices and sanitary conditions
direct Methods of Nutritional Assessment These are summarized as ABCD A nthropometric methods C linical methods D ietary evaluation methods B iochemical, laboratory methods
Anthropometry Measurements It is the measurement of body height, weight, skin fold thickness , circumference of (arm , head and chest) & proportions . It is an essential component of clinical examination of infants, children & pregnant women. These measurements are compared to the reference data (standards) of the same age and sex group, in order to evaluate the nutritional status
Clinical Examination :Clinical assessment It is an essential feature of all nutritional surveys. It is the simplest & most practical method of ascertaining the nutritional status of a group of individuals.It utilizes a number of physical signs, (specific & non specific), that are known to be associated with malnutrition and deficiency of vitamins & micronutrients
D ietary evaluation methods Dietary assessment Nutritional intake of humans is assessed by different methods. These are: 24 hours dietary recall Food frequency questionnaire Dietary history food diary or record
Biochemical & Laboratory assessment Laboratory Tests - Hemoglobin estimation. - Stool ( for intestinal parasites ) & Urine ( for albumen and sugar ) . Biochemical Tests measure : - Nutrient concentration ( e.g. serum ) - Detection of abnormal amounts of metabolites in urine ( e.g. urinary iodine ) - Enzymes concentration.
summaryNutrients: are organic and inorganic complexes contained infood.Diet :Mixture of foods that a person eats.Food: anything either liquid or solid passing chemical composition which enables it , when swallowed A balanced diet is defined as the diet which contains different types of food , possessing the nutrients- carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals- in a proportion to meet the requirements of the body. the relationship between nutrition and health. Nutrition has important effect on health Nutritional education is important to improve dietary habits
summary1-the food balance sheet technique.2-diet Servings3- Diet Throughout Life cycle
summary Meaning of Malnutrition and his type Under_nutrition Protein energy malnutrition 1- kwashiorkor 2- Marasmus And the different Vitamin & micronutrient deficiency methods of assessment of nutritional status In tow ways Direct & Indirect Direct summary in ABCD