VULCAN Series A2ST Advanced Alumina Support Technology

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◆ Alumina Balls
◆ Saddles
◆ Super Saddles
◆ Berl Saddles
◆ Raschig Rings
◆ Pall Rings
◆ Cross- Partition Rings
◆ Molecular Sieves
◆ Honeycombs
◆ Structured Packings

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VULCAN Series A2ST Advanced Alumina Support Technology

  1. 1. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN Series A2 ST Advanced Alumina Support Technology HIGH PURITY ALUMINA CATALYST SUPPORTS Manufactured By CAMChem Crown Advanced Material Co.
  2. 2. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Table of contents GBHE A2 ST Introduction 1 Product range 2 Process controls 3 Product TDS 4 CAMChem profile 5
  3. 3. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com GBHE A2 ST: Introduction Mass transfer processes play an important role in the chemical and petrochemical industry, in the oil and gas processing industry as well as in environmental technology. Supports and bed hold down media are often used in conjunction with packed beds of catalyst and absorbents in syn gas plants. These supports and hold down materials can come in a variety of shapes and sizes dependent upon the application. GBHE A2 ST typical offering would be the supply of inert material, either as a high purity alumina or an alumino-silicate, the choice of which is dependent upon the reactor/converter conditions and gas compositions. Both of these materials are considered inert and do not participate in the reactions occurring within the vessel. Support media requirements will vary depending on the vessel configuration. If a mechanical support grid has been fitted then the support media requirements are generally a shallow layer of supports of similar size to that of the catalyst, although in some cases no support media will be used. When no mechanical grids are present the supports requirement is generally a larger diameter support used to fill the vessel head, topped with layers of smaller size material at the catalyst interface. The additional cost of introducing the mechanical support grid in vessel design usually negates its inclusion. Hold down material can be employed to satisfy a number of functions dependent upon the duty. Traditionally hold down material has been used to stabilize the top of the catalyst bed to prevent pellet movement by the flowing gas, though other applications include protection against solid foulants and liquid carryover. Traditionally support and hold down media have been chemically inert, offering only physical benefits. If the formulation of these materials were altered then this media could be used to participate in the vessel reaction thereby increasing the effectiveness of the reactor/converter conversion.
  4. 4. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com GBHE Vulcan Series A2 ST Advanced Alumina Support Technology: ◆ Alumina Balls ◆ Saddles ◆ Super Saddles ◆ Berl Saddles ◆ Raschig Rings ◆ Pall Rings ◆ Cross- Partition Rings ◆ Molecular Sieves ◆ Honeycombs ◆ Structured Packings Vulcan Series A2 ST offer a range of high purity alumina (Al2O3) products for use with catalysts and absorbents in syn gas plants. These products are manufactured at PINGXIANG HUANGGUAN CHEMICAL CO.,LTD. (CAMChem), A professional ISO certified manufacture for industry tower packings. The factory covers an area of 40,000 square meters and the annual output reaches 20,000 tons. “Top-quality products and professional service, large stocks for urgent delivery” We can deliver our products wherever and whenever it is in urgent need. With our order line, your shipment is just a phone call away. More than 80% of their products are exported to America, Europe and the Middle East.
  5. 5. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Process Control: CAMChem’s Assurance of Quality Pre-Qualification CAMChem qualifies the optimum raw materials well in advance of manufacturing. Extensive testing of core samples from the mine site identifies areas of prime reserves to ensure a consistent supply far into the future. Standard raw material tests are conducted in our laboratories as well as the supplier’s confirming data accuracy. Lot Qualification Our prequalification procedures ensure that only the prime mining sites are tapped; but we don’t stop here. Each shipment of raw materials must pass additional testing before we accept it at the plant. Blend Qualification When our testing does reveal subtle changes in raw material composition, our experimentally-derived knowledge of the relationships between material characteristics and final product allows us to apply predictive process control to fine-tune the blend at the front end to guarantee a consistent, high-quality support media.
  6. 6. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Process Checks CAMChem follows documented procedures at every stage of the manufacturing cycle to ensure consistent final product quality. Mixing Forming Drying Firing Screening Packaging Shipping Finished Product Tests The following tests are performed on all products. ・Size ・Shape ・Chemical composition ・Strength Additional tests are available on customer request ・Water absorption ・Thermal shock resistance ・Max. Use temperature ・Apparent Particle Density ・Attrition ・Elemental analysis Certificate of Analysis can be provided on request.
  7. 7. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN A2 ST Alumino-Silicate Ceramic Support Balls GBH Enterprises offer a range of alumino-silicate ceramic products for use with catalysts and absorbents in syn gas plants. Alumino-silicates will generally contain > 90 % by weight of Al2O3 and SiO2, with the balance consisting of Ti2O, Fe2O3 and alkaline oxides such as CaO, MgO, Na2O and K2O. Typical figures for these components have been determined at 25 wt% Al2O3, 69 wt% SiO2, Ti2O plus Fe2O3 at < 2.0 wt% and combined alkaline oxides at 4.5wt%. There will likely be some variability in coloration of alumino silicate materials due to the different raw material clays sourced for manufacture. This coloring is generally off white. Product Duty Alumino-silicates are significantly cheaper than the equivalent high purity alumina materials and therefore are usually specified where the duty will not be affected by silica-containing materials. Alumino-silicate materials are generally used in all support and hold down applications with the exception of high temperature steam environments such as pre-reformer, secondary reformer and HTS duties. For clarity high purity alumina materials should be used in steam environments at temperatures above 300°C. In these conditions alumino-silicate balls should not be used as silica leaching can occur leading to disintegration of the balls, silica poisoning of the installed catalyst and possible fouling of downstream equipment such as heat exchangers. VULCAN Series A2 ST-CB23 Typical chemical composition
  8. 8. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Typical physical properties Sizes, size tolerances, packing density, specific surface, void fraction and compressive strength
  9. 9. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN Series A2 ST-CB23 Sizes, size tolerances, packing density, specific surface, void fraction and compressive strength
  10. 10. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN Series A2 ST-AB52 Typical chemical composition Typical physical properties
  11. 11. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN Series A2 ST-AB52 Sizes, size tolerances, packing density, specific surface, void fraction and compressive strength
  12. 12. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN Series A2 ST-AB70 Typical chemical composition Typical physical properties
  13. 13. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN Series A2 ST-AB70 Sizes, size tolerances, packing density, specific surface, void fraction and compressive strength
  14. 14. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN Series A2 ST-AB92 Typical chemical composition Typical physical properties
  15. 15. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN Series A2 ST-AB92 Sizes, size tolerances, packing density, specific surface, void fraction and compressive strength Alpha-alumina Alpha-alumina is the most stable phase of the various aluminas available and as such provides excellent thermal stability. This guarantees that the VULCAN A2 ST products can withstand elevated temperatures without affecting their physical integrity. The alpha alumina ball is fired to 1550o C, a temperature high enough to sinter the alumina, ie to create a strong alumina bond. The sintering process can be defined as the process of heating a compacted powder to a temperature lower than that necessary to produce a liquid phase, but sufficiently high for a solid state reaction or inter-crystallization to take place, so that the fired body acquires strength.
  16. 16. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com High Purity Alumina GBH Enterprises offer a range of high purity alumina (Al2O3) products for use with catalysts and absorbents in syn gas plants. High purity aluminas will generally contain > 99 % by weight Al2O3 and < 0.2 % wt silica maximum, with typical figures for SiO2 of 0.1 wt%. Other components include TiO2 at < 0.5 % wt and Fe2O3 at < 0.2 wt%, and minor alkaline oxides such as CaO, MgO, Na2O and K2O making up the balance. High purity aluminas are preferred over alumino-silicate ceramics when there is a potential for silica to be leached from the alumino-silicate by the action of steam at elevated temperature. Examples of applications in which alumina is specified include pre-reformers, secondary reformers and high temperature shift converters. Note: Inclusion in Medium Temperature Shift (MTS), Isothermal Shift (ITS)and Sour Shift is also recommended if the temperature exceeds 300 o C. High purity alumina balls should be used in steam environments at temperatures above 300 o C. In these conditions alumino-silicate balls should not be used as silica leaching can occur, leading to disintegration of the balls and silica poisoning of the installed catalyst. High purity aluminas can be used in other duties other than high temperature steam environments though the cost is often prohibitive when compared with the much cheaper alumino-silicate materials. VULCAN A2 ST 99HD high density alpha-alumina balls are universally accepted for a range of chemical and petrochemical applications. The physical characteristics and low silica content give assured benefits in varied catalytic applications. Typical Chemical Composition:
  17. 17. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Typical physical properties
  18. 18. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN Series A2 ST 99 Sizes, size tolerances, packing density, specific surface, void fraction and compressive strength BENEFITS THERMAL RESISTANCE: The excellent refractory properties of VULCAN A2 ST pure alumina products give them very high thermal shock resistance and the ability to withstand extreme process temperatures. In addition this means that steam and heat treatment for regenerating catalysts will not erode this media.
  19. 19. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN A2 ST 99 pure alumina balls are manufactured with a monolithic rather than a layered structure. This method of manufacture eliminates spalling and delamination thus avoiding the incidence of fine chips and splinters plugging beds. HIGH PURITY: VULCAN A2 ST 99 pure alumina balls typically contain less than 0.2% Silica dioxide and are free of chloride, sulphur, boron, leachable iron and other catalytic poisons. The absence of excess silica means that users will not suffer from costly maintenance or shutdowns due to silica migration, also making it the ideal support media for the severe high temperature, high steam environment in the secondary reformers of ammonia plants. LOW PRESSURE DROP: VULCAN A2 ST 99 alumina balls are manufactured with a highly consistent shape and size. This results in a lower pressure drop than that associated with the random sized and shaped particles of screened media. CRUSH STRENGTH: The contamination of catalysts is minimized by the excellent resistance to erosion and attrition exhibited by VULCAN A2 ST 99 products. The very high crush strength associated with VULCAN A2 ST products allows the use of deep beds. To measure crush strength CAMChem employs the standard test of crushing alumina balls between 2 flat steel plates. CAMChem also manufactures VULCAN A2 ST 99 HDL which are irregular lumps, the preferred media by some ammonia plant operators for secondary reformer duty. The high density and low surface area of the VULCAN A2 ST pure alumina catalyst support media ensures chemical inertness and a long service life.
  20. 20. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN A2 ST APPLICATIONS VULCAN A2 ST is used in a wide range of refinery and petroleum applications. One common use is in the role of support material supplying a sustainable low pressure drop across a catalyst reactor vessel for prolonged periods of time. It is also utilized in its high-density form as a hold down layer protecting active catalysts from turbulent flows, ensuring a constant flow distribution throughout the catalyst bed. This application is particularly useful in the prevention of bed lifting in vessels designed for up-flow duty. VULCAN A2 ST is produced in a range of sizes from 3mm to 75mm diameter and can be used in graded support systems to ensure an even distribution of flow from vessel inlet to catalyst surface. Specific examples of vessels utilizing VULCAN A2 ST alumina include: High temperature shift catalyst support and hold down CRG Type pre-reformer catalyst support and hold down Hydrocracker hold down Hydrotreater hold down (for jet fuel, diesel, naphtha) Alkylation unit support Claus catalyst support Secondary reformer hold down Methanol synthesis catalyst support
  21. 21. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Other areas in which high purity VULCAN A2 ST is include: Powerformer reactors HDPE units Styrene plants Cumene units Ethylene Oxide reactors Acetaldehyde units
  22. 22. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com NEW From CAMChem VULCAN A2 ST Series Ceramic Knob - CATALYST PROTECTION MEDIA The life cycle of numerous catalytic processes is often limited not by catalyst activity but by increased pressure drop which can lead to reduced production yields, early catalyst replacement and unscheduled plant shutdown. Hydrotreating and catalytic reforming plants are increasingly susceptible as associated economics demand processing of more “bottom of the barrel” feedstocks. Increase in pressure drop by plugging of the catalyst bed usually at the inlet of down-flow reactors can result from a number of sources: * Heavy metals contained within the process feedstocks e.g. nickel and vanadium. * Tramp iron contamination. formed as corrosion products within the pipe- work. * Scale and carbon deposits from heaters and heat exchangers carried over to the catalyst beds. * Feedstock particulates or from attrition of upstream catalysts which are not removed due to in-efficient filtering. Particulates may be deposited in the voids between individual catalyst particles or may directly reduce catalyst activity, by plugging porosity and blinding access to active metal sites within the internal pore structure. A simple and cost-effective solution is to use a layer of shaped highly porous VULCAN A2 ST Series Ceramic Knobs on top of the catalyst bed. The Ceramic Knobs act as a hold-down layer and improve gas flow distribution, prevent increases in pressure drop and protect the active catalyst against plugging and deactivation. Ceramic Knobs have a lower initial pressure drop and larger void volume than traditional ceramic balls and as a consequence can tolerate a higher degree of inter-particulate blockage before reaching a limiting pressure drop constraint.
  23. 23. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN A2 ST Ceramic Knob is a specially developed shape with high macro- pore content and maximized pore volume to trap and filter extraneous material present in the feedstock. The Knob shape provides a higher void fraction than conventional raschig rings and thus a lower resistance to flow as well as an enhanced geometric surface area for efficient particulate removal. VULCAN A2 ST Ceramic Knob is manufactured in alpha-alumina and is characterized by high mechanical strength and excellent attrition resistance. VULCAN A2 ST Ceramic Knob Available as standard sizes [16x16x7 / 16x10x7 / 16x7x7mm ] Knobs, other sizes available on request.
  24. 24. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN A2 ST Activated Alumina Balls Molecular Formula: Al2O3. n H2O (0<n≤0.8) Typical physical properties Ceramic Random Packings CAMChem ceramic tower packings are fired at high temperature and have excellent mechanical strength, abrasion and acid resistance; it can resist the corrosion of various inorganic acids, organic acids and organic solvents Except hydrofluoric and can be adapted to high or low temperature condition, the packing can be used in drying columns, absorbing columns, cooling towers, etc.
  25. 25. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Ceramic Random Packings Typical Chemical Composition Typical physical properties Specific properties of Ceramic Berl Saddle
  26. 26. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Specific properties of Ceramic Cross Partition Rings Specific properties of Ceramic Pall Rings Specific properties of Ceramic Super Saddles
  27. 27. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Specific properties of Ceramic Raschig Rings
  28. 28. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN A2 ST Carbon Raschig Ring Are fully carbonized tubular rings used for tower packing. They have the properties of corrosion resistance, thermal shock resistance and high temperature stability. Carbon Raschig Rings provide a large surface area for the interaction between the material. Availability We can produce sizes ranged from 13mm to 80mm in order to meet all packed tower requirements. Features 1. Low coefficient of thermal expansion resists damage caused by severe shocks. 2. May be used in most acids, alkali’s and solvent environments. 3. Light in weight with high mechanical strength, having no soluble bond. 4. Long-life packing with high temperature operation capabilities. 5. Used in chloride-hydrochloric mixtures and phosphoric acid. 6. Fully carbonized to eliminate extractable impurities. Typical Specifications:
  29. 29. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN A2 ST Molecular sieves VULCAN A2 ST PHC-3A Application: mainly used for unsaturated hydrocarbon materials, such as pyrolysis gas ethylene, propylene, Butadiene, acetylene and deep drying of natural gas, may also be used for the drying of polar liquids (such as ethanol liquids), liquefied petroleum gas and solvent. Our 3A molecular sieves, are used in large ethylene plant as desiccants, the water content of the gas can be reduced below 1PPM (dew point<-70℃). Regeneration: PHC-3A molecular sieves can be regenerated and reused after being swept by the heated dry gas, with minimal adsorption of undesirable components, then the absorbed water removed and molecular sieves regenerated. The molecular sieves regeneration level depends on the regeneration time, temperature and humidity.
  30. 30. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN A2 ST PHC-4A Application: PHC-4A molecular sieves widely used in the drying of gas and liquids, such as the drying of pyrolysis gas, natural gas, refrigerants, LPG and naphtha, kerosene, diesel, transformer oil, and the preparation of argon gas, purification and desulfurization. PHC-4A molecular sieves can adsorb H2O, NH3, CO, CO2, SO2, H2S, CH3OH, C 2H5OH, C3H6, C2H4, C2H2, etc. Regeneration: 4A molecular sieves can be regenerated and reused after being swept by the heated dry gas with minimal adsorption of undesirable components,, then the absorbed water removed and molecular sieves regenerated. The molecular sieves regeneration level depends on the regeneration time, temperature and humidity.
  31. 31. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN A2 ST PHC-5A PHC-5A is an alkali alumino silicate; it is the calcium form of the Type A crystal structure. Type 5A has an effective pore opening of 5 angstroms (0.5 nm). It will adsorb molecules with a kinetic diameter of less than 5 Angstrom and exclude those larger. It is especially suitable for PSA adsorber applications where it may be used for the separation of normal- and iso paraffins (C4 to C6 species), in PSA hydrogen purification and in oxygen concentrators. Application The strong ionic forces of the divalent calcium ion makes it an excellent adsorbent to remove water, CO2, H2S from sour natural gas streams, while minimizing COS formation. Light mercaptans are also adsorbed. It is also used for the separation of normal- and iso paraffins. Production of high purity N2, O2, H2 and inert gases from mixed gas streams.
  32. 32. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN A2 ST PHC-10X Application: 10X molecular sieve is mainly used for gas adsorption and refining liquid paraffin, removal of sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, organic acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, etc. Also used to isolate kerosene and aromatic hydrocarbons in petrol fractions, also used to isolate cycloalkanes from petroleum distillates. Regeneration: desorption by vapor, then long-term recycling, after reusing some time, using the vapor-air mixing to scorch and regeneration. Regeneration level depends on the burning temperature, process time. VULCAN A2 ST PHC-CUX Application: PHC-CUX molecular sieves are mainly used for deodorizing applications. PHC-CUX desorbs hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, Thiols and disulfides from gasoline, aviation fuel, lamp oil, propane, butane and pentane, butylenes, liquefied petroleum gas, etc.
  33. 33. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Regeneration: PHC-CUX molecular sieves can be continually regenerated. The deodorizing efficacy can be maintained, provided enough oxygen is in the feeds stream, facilitating the catalytic oxidation process. VULCAN A2 ST PHC-13X Application: PHC-13X molecular sieves are mainly used for gas drying, purifying of raw gas in the air separation oxygen production plant, desorbs the H2O、CO2、C2H2 from the air, with the exit H2O level below 2ppm, CO2 below 1ppm,C2H2 circa zero, also can be used for the desulfurization of liquid petroleum hydrocarbons and natural gas, removing H2S and mercaptan, separation of kerosene and the aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline fractions. Regeneration: PHC-13X molecular sieves can be regenerated and reused after being swept by the heated dry gas without being adsorption components, then the absorbed water removed and molecular sieves regenerated. The molecular sieves regeneration level depend on the regeneration time, temperature and humidity
  34. 34. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Package: 135kg steel drum, inside vacuum bag packing, other packages request by the customers. Attention: Avoid damp and pre-adsorption of organic before running, or must to be reactivated.
  35. 35. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com VULCAN A2 ST Honeycomb ceramics Honeycomb ceramic is a new developed porous industrial ceramic; it has the properties of corrosion resistances, high specific surface area, low resistance, low thermal expansion coefficient, good thermal conductivity and thermal-shock resistance performance, widely used in the industrial field. Using the advanced production technology and strict management, we have bath produce the honeycomb ceramics series; also we can produce according customers’ requirements. ★ Material: Mullite, Cordierite, Alumina, Mullite Zirconium, Mullite Corundum, Corundum and other materials. ★Size: According to customers’ requirements. ★ Hole shape: square, hexagon, rectangular, circular, triangle, diamond. ★ Holes number: According to customers’ requirements. (1~400 holes/square inch) Application of VULCAN A2 ST Honeycomb Ceramics Can be used as a catalyst carrier for clean-up of automobile tail gas, a carrier for various purification systems, a heat retainer in the heat accumulation burner in metallurgy industry, used as structured packing, gas burning distribution plate.
  36. 36. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Chemical Composition of VULCAN A2 ST Honeycomb Ceramics
  37. 37. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Honeycomb Ceramics- Heat Exchanger Honeycomb Ceramics- Heat Exchanger is the key component in the HTAC technology, widely used in the industry. HTAC technology:
  38. 38. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Specification and type of Honeycomb Ceramics Mechanical property index of Honeycomb Ceramics
  39. 39. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Commercial Request Form Company Name: Address: Fax Number: Telephone Number: Contact Name: Contact E-mail: End User Company Name & Address: (if different from above) Plant Name: Plant Number: Duty: Current Catalyst Grade Used: Catalyst Grade requested (if known): Catalyst Volume as charged in vessel: M3 or ft3? Catalyst Volume Requested (if different from above) M3 or ft3? Delivery Terms: (eg EXW, FOB, CIP, CIF) Delivery Location: Preferred Catalyst Delivery Date: Preferred payment terms: Required Quote Response Date: Preferred Packaging (Drums/Big Bags/socks/Unidense bags/other) Included services required: (Charging/reduction assistance/other) Quote for disposal of spent catalyst required? Budget/ Fixed Price Quote?: Any Special Requirements? Please fax to our local Agent or our head office on +52 55 2614 8349, FAO MCZ
  40. 40. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Information contained in this publication or as otherwise supplied to Users is believed to be accurate and correct at time of going to press, and is given in good faith, but it is for the User to satisfy itself of the suitability of the product for its own particular purpose. GBHE gives no warranty as to the fitness of the product for any particular purpose and any implied warranty or condition (statutory or otherwise) is excluded except to the extent that exclusion is prevented by law. GBHE accepts no liability for loss or damage resulting from reliance on this information. Freedom under Patent, Copyright and Designs cannot be assumed.

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