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The use of chemical additives, such as flocculants, is a common step in solid-liquid separation operations. The correct selection of agent is an essential part of the design of such processes. Many excellent reviews and guides deal with this topic, and the interested reader is referred to works such as [l-4]. In particular the Harwell-Warren Spring Report “The Use and Selection of Flocculants" provides a good overview on the application of coagulants and flocculants. This section does not attempt to reproduce a detailed treatment of that kind; instead it is our intention to state a few general rules and principles concerning methods of choosing an additive, and to illustrate briefly their application in practice.
The types of agents employed in solid-liquid separation fall into three principal classes: