Study 1: Concept Hazard Review

  • 233 views
Uploaded on

Study 1: Concept Hazard Review …

Study 1: Concept Hazard Review
CONTENTS
1.0 PURPOSE
1.0.1 Team
1.0.2 Timing
1.0.3 Preparation
1.0.4 Documentation
HAZARD STUDY 1: APPLICATION
1.1 Project Definition
1.2 Process Description
1.3 Materials Hazards
1.4 External Authorities
1.5 Organization and Human Factors
1.6 Additional Activities to be Completed
1.7 Review of Hazard Study 1
APPENDICES
A Chemical Hazard Guide Diagram
B Safety Risk Criteria - Limit Values for Tolerable Risk
C List of Additional Assessments

More in: Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
233
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
28
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com GBH Enterprises, Ltd. Process Safety Guide: GBHE-PSG-HST-020 Study 1: Concept Hazard Review Process Information Disclaimer Information contained in this publication or as otherwise supplied to Users is believed to be accurate and correct at time of going to press, and is given in good faith, but it is for the User to satisfy itself of the suitability of the information for its own particular purpose. GBHE gives no warranty as to the fitness of this information for any particular purpose and any implied warranty or condition (statutory or otherwise) is excluded except to the extent that exclusion is prevented by law. GBHE accepts no liability resulting from reliance on this information. Freedom under Patent, Copyright and Designs cannot be assumed.
  • 2. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Process Safety Guide: Study 1: Concept Stage Hazard Review CONTENTS 1.0 PURPOSE 1.0.1 Team 1.0.2 Timing 1.0.3 Preparation 1.0.4 Documentation HAZARD STUDY 1: APPLICATION 1.1 Project Definition 1.2 Process Description 1.3 Materials Hazards 1.4 External Authorities 1.5 Organization and Human Factors 1.6 Additional Activities to be Completed 1.7 Review of Hazard Study 1 APPENDICES A Chemical Hazard Guide Diagram B Safety Risk Criteria - Limit Values for Tolerable Risk C List of Additional Assessments
  • 3. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com 1 PURPOSE The depth of hazard identification and risk assessment and the methodology used should be appropriate to the risk to the Business, safety, health or the environment. This document covers Hazard Study 1, where the basic hazards of the materials and the operation are identified and SHE criteria set. It identifies what information is needed and the program of studies required, ensuring that all safety, health and environmental hazards and risks are adequately addressed. In addition, any constraints due to relevant legislation are identified. An outcome from this study is a decision on which of the remaining hazard studies (two to six) should also be undertaken. This document should be used in conjunction with a process safety publication such as ’HAZOP: Guide to best practice’ (available from IChemE) or ‘Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures’. 1.0.1 Team The team composition should be agreed between the Hazard Study Leader and the Project Manager. Assistance in selecting team size and membership can be found in chapter 5.2.3 of the 'HAZOP: Guide to best practice' book. The final outcome of Hazard Study 1 should be agreed by the full team. Separate sub-groups may be formed to progress specific parts of the study. 1.0.2 Timing Hazard Study 1 should start as early as possible in the life of a project. enerally, the Business or project management will have formed a basic idea of the project before appointing the project team and Hazard Study Leader.
  • 4. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Since the study defines the key parameters for the project on safety, health and environmental issues it should be completed prior to the production of a sanction estimate on every project. 1.0.3 Preparation Before the first formal meeting it is advisable that the project team has been identified and that the following is available: (a) A draft project definition. (b) A process description. (c) A project plan that is part of a capital project management process. This will include defined project stage-gates. A typical project process model is available from GBHE. (d) A review of SHE incidents with respect to the same or similar technology. (e) A block diagram or flowsheet of the process. (f) Completed chemical hazard, interactions and handling worksheets (information from MSDS’s). GBHE's preferred approach to the control of hazards will always be their elimination where this is reasonably practicable. This is aided by the application of the concept of Inherent SHE. This concept can be applied particularly effectively at the early stages of a project and it is therefore specially valuable and important at Hazard Study 1. Inherent SHE is explained in the book 'Guidelines for Engineering Design for Process Safety'.
  • 5. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com 1.0.4 Documentation A draft Hazard Study 1 Report (worksheet f) should be issued as soon as practicable, giving details of the information still lacking and actions to be completed. The study report should be updated and reissued when all the actions have been resolved. A copy of this report should be filed in the Project SSHE dossier (worksheet j). This document should be retained and updated throughout the life of the plant.
  • 6. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com HAZARD STUDY 1: APPLICATION The following sections 1.1 to 1.7 describe how to conduct Hazard Study 1.
  • 7. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com 1.1 PROJECT DEFINITION Designs that will be safe and meet environmental and health standards require a clear understanding of the objective of the project and the processes involved. The Business Manager or the Project Manager should provide a definition of the project. The project definition should cover: (a) Objective. (b) Scope: (1) Capacity and patterns of demand; (2) Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE); (3) Process operating philosophy; (4) Maintenance philosophy; (5) Control principles (see 1.6.1); (6) Containment philosophy; (7) Buildings (e.g. purpose, numbers of people); (8) Demolition. (c) Timetable. (d) Location. (e) Project risks (e.g., the effect on the Business of loss or unavailability of the plant).
  • 8. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com 1.2 PROCESS DESCRIPTION The Project Manager should ensure that a brief description of the process or proposed operations is produced. This should also include: (a) Process raw materials, intermediates, and catalysts; specification, quantities and storage. (b) Products; specification, conditions and storage. (c) Effluents; quantities and treatment philosophy. (d) Utilities. It is recommended that at least a simple block diagram or process flowsheet be provided. 1.3 MATERIALS HAZARDS The purpose is to ensure that the material hazards will be fully understood by the project team and, subsequently, operating personnel, by use of the Chemical Hazard Guide Diagram shown in appendix A. In cases where large numbers of similar chemicals are involved, it may be appropriate to group these generically. 1.3.1 Material List Prior to the first Hazard Study Meeting a list of the materials, chemicals or substances involved should be produced (see Hazard Study 1 Chemical Hazards Worksheet, Part 1 - Materials List) (worksheet a). This should cover: (a) Raw materials, intermediate and/or intermediate mixtures, main product or products, by-products. (b) Effluents, Emissions and Waste produced from this process - gaseous, liquids, solids, slurries.
  • 9. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com (c) Emissions from adjacent facilities or materials from elsewhere which may be airborne, encountered in drains, utilities or in the ground and which may impact this process. (d) Support materials including catalysts, inhibitors, biological, radio-chemical, decontamination and detoxification materials, fumigants, any special maintenance materials or materials involved in supporting activities. (e) Services, including heat transfer oils, dielectric fluids, gases, steam, oil, nitrogen, cooling water, water, instrument air, waste disposal. (Include additives and contaminants in the list). (f) Principal materials of construction/construction materials (g) Materials encountered during construction/demolition. For example, contaminated ground, in ducts, drains, pipes and vessels or on surfaces: PCBs, insulation material (e.g. asbestos), lead, flammable materials, etc. Describe the material including, as far as possible, the composition and appropriate name (e.g. trade names, abbreviations, product codes/numbers). When the same material is present in different physical states, it may be helpful to list each physical state separately. 1.3.2 Hazard Data Sheets The Hazard Study should confirm that all necessary Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are available and identify where data is lacking and needs to be collected/determined. Often data will initially only be available for a limited number of process streams and individual component substances. Identify limitations in the data that could affect decision making and factors of safety which need to be applied. 1.3.3 Chemical Hazards Quantities of materials stored on plants may trigger the enforcement of major hazards legislation such as 29 CFR 1910.119 The Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals and 40 CFR Part 68, Chemical Accident Prevention Provisions (The EPA’s Risk Management Program – the RMP) and SARA, (The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act) in the US.
  • 10. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com These regulations may have a significant impact on the capital and operating costs of manufacturing facilities. Non compliance could result in significant fines and other sanctions. (a) Consider the hazards associated with the handling, storage and use of materials this can be done using the Chemical Hazards worksheet (worksheet a) to record relevant hazards and identify any need for additional information on the materials involved. Much of the information can be assembled before the meeting possibly with the help of an Occupational Hygienist, Environmental Specialist, Chemist or other specialist. In all cases, the worksheet and resulting notes should be reviewed by the Hazard Study team. Confirm that the required data is available or will be obtained. The purpose of the Chemical Hazards worksheet is to indicate the hazards of the materials used in the process and to ensure that the means of handling is commensurate with the hazards posed. (b) Identify potential hazardous interactions between the chemicals/substances To identify potential hazardous interactions between the chemicals/substances in the process, materials of construction and services, the Hazard Study 1 Chemical Interaction worksheet (worksheet b) should be completed outside the meeting and reviewed by the Hazard Study team. The purpose of the worksheet is to identify any combinations of materials used in or near the process which are incompatible or have a significant hazard. Fill the worksheet in a similar fashion to the Chemical Hazards worksheet. Materials of construction should be listed in the lower section of the worksheet: these include materials in direct contact with process fluids but consideration should also be given to other tools and equipment or building/construction materials which may come into contact with the process material. Use the matrix to consider possible hazardous interactions of each material with each of the other materials in the top section of the worksheet and with materials of construction in the lower section. The materials section may also be used to signal materials that are incompatible (e.g. copper with ammonia solutions) and should therefore not be used.
  • 11. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Information on interactions is available in Bretherick's 'Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards'. Ambient materials (e.g. air, water, soil) may be added to prompt possible oxidation, reactions with water and/or corrosion issues. When processing operations are being undertaken with reactive chemicals, the possibility of an exothermic run away reaction should be considered and will probably require further action in the form of a Chemical Hazard Assessment (assuming that one has not already been carried out for the exact system). Reactive Chemical Hazards are most often encountered in exothermic batch reactors and may impact on the design of the relief system. Some form of screening study should be carried out for these reactors. Materials which exotherm (start to decompose) at temperatures below 60º C or 140º F can also give problems in handling, storage and transportation. In this category are organic peroxides often used as catalysts. A full assessment will involve experimental work by a specialist contractor. The results of this work will ensure safe operation and the correct sizing of reliefs, etc. With research projects, where the material hazards are not precisely known, the appropriate safeguards should be established. 1.3.4 Loss of Containment Consider whether a quantity of material released from any section of the plant, or from any operation, with total loss of containment and under the conditions of storage or use, can give rise to unacceptable consequences for safety, health or the environment. If so, review the consideration that has been given to Inherent SHE acceptability and identification of Critical Equipment for the control of these hazards (e.g. GBHE_EP’s). Consider the potential effect of loss of containment on occupied buildings, (e.g. control rooms, workshops, offices, laboratories, houses, schools, hospitals, retail and sports centers, etc.). Methods of assessing risks are available. If risks appear to be significant then seek specialist advice.
  • 12. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Where the quantity of material to be handled is not known, the quantity that will cause off-plot effects should be estimated. 1.4 EXTERNAL AUTHORITIES Consideration needs to be given to the authority approval process. This should involve the full co-operation of staff with experience of the country in which the plant will be located. It is most important that a full and exhaustive list of the regulatory requirements for the project is obtained. The following questions should be addressed: (a) Which authorities will need to be contacted? (b) Who will be responsible for each contact? (c) Will the project change the status of the site under any existing legislation? (d) Do plant or site inventory lists need to be updated? (e) Are chemicals handled that are controlled by international protocols (e.g. chemical warfare). 1.5 ORGANIZATION AND HUMAN FACTORS In addition to the physical/geographical factors associated with site selection already considered, assess if it is necessary to review the major organizational and human factors. More detailed study of any of the following outside the meeting may need to be commissioned: (a) Will the site be able to provide suitably qualified and experienced staff for the construction, project development, commissioning, operation and maintenance? These considerations will be of prime importance where new hazards and/or a new technology is being introduced to a site, particularly if significantly different from those existing and familiar to site personnel.
  • 13. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com The Training and Experience worksheet (worksheet c) may be used to assess requirements. (b) Does the project introduce hazards for which new systems of work or procedures are required? If so, who will be responsible for providing these? (c) Are the key control, operational and manning concepts clear? (d) Have facilities for construction manning been considered, (e.g., medical, hygiene and eating facilities)? 1.6 ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO BE COMPLETED 1.6.1 Control Philosophy Describe the basic control philosophy. For example: (a) What is it and what does it do. (b) Is the proposed application suitable for the intended type of process control (e.g. Programmable Electronic Systems)? (c) What type of trip system is proposed and how does it interface with the process control (e.g. PES)? (d) Is there an existing plant and how does any PES fit in? (e) Who is responsible for ergonomic (man-machine communication and health) aspects? (f) Vulnerability in an emergency or calamity? 1.6.2 Incident Review Initiate a review of any incidents with significant safety, health or environmental effects that have occurred on similar projects or processes/projects using the same or related technology. This should cover GBHE experience and other known incidents.
  • 14. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Information should be sourced externally if not available within the company. The incidents identified above should be reviewed to ensure that the precautions necessary to control the hazard are understood. It is recommended (mandatory in the USA) to consider and document how repetition of each incident will be prevented. Describe how findings from previous relevant incidents are being incorporated into this project. 1.6.3 Inherent SHE Inherent SHE is important. Inherent SHE emphasizes changing the design as early as possible and makes use of the concepts of: (a) Substitute (e.g. replace solvents with water); (b) Minimize (e.g. lower inventory); (c) Simplify (e.g. remove separations); (d) Moderate (e.g. lower temperature or pressure). Guidance on the application of Inherent SHE is available. This is covered by a book ’Guidelines for Engineering Design for Process Safety’ published by the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), part of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. 1.6.4 Safety Risk Criteria It is a requirement of Group SHE Standards that risks should be reduced as far as is reasonably practicable. In general, this will be achieved by the proper application of appropriate codes, standards and good working practices. In some cases it will be judged necessary (or a regulatory requirement) to use Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) to help decide the level of precautions needed. Any relevant risk criteria set by site requirements or by local or national authorities should be identified, e.g.:
  • 15. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com (a) Toxic gas emission criteria. (b) Employee risk. (c) Off-site individual risk. (d) Off-site ‘group’ risk (‘societal’ risk). (e) Major incident frequency. Normally the business unit will establish agreed safety risk criteria. The limit values for tolerable risk are summarized in appendix B. 1.6.5 Health The Occupational Health issues associated with the project should be considered and any special features should be identified. This should give guidance to the project team in relation to risk control either by specifying design criteria, recommending involvement of experts or recommending further studies. This should identify health hazards resulting from: (a) Chemical and biological properties of the materials. (b) Noise. (c) Ergonomics: (1) Health related (manual handling, repetitive movements, posture, visual display terminals); (2) Human factors (human error and things likely to cause it). (d) Radiation (radioactive sources, ultraviolet, lasers).
  • 16. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com The health risks that may arise during the life cycle of the plant should be identified: (1) Construction. (2) Commissioning. (3) Operation. (4) Maintenance. (5) Demolition. 1.6.6 Environment As with safety hazards the preferred approach to environmental hazards is their elimination through choice, selection and development of appropriate process routes and technology. The study should consider the 'Environmental Impact’ issues offsite and onsite. This is normally achieved through an Environmental Statement and an Environmental Impact Assessment. Hazard Study 1 reviews and agrees the Environmental Statement. Have means of waste reduction at source been adequately considered? Is the impact acceptable? The Environmental Statement should identify: (a) Process route options. (b) The treatment options considered and justification of the chosen option. (c) How will the material be disposed of, controlled and monitored? (d) Are the potential effects of this disposal understood? (e) The impact of discharges to the environment. In comparison with the EIA criteria or national legislation, do you need an Environmental Impact Assessment for this project? To decide this, Hazard Study 1 should further consider whether:
  • 17. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com (1) There are any effluents not included on the list considered within the Environmental Statement. (2) The data for the environmental effects of the materials being handled are sufficient for the project and for ongoing operation. (3) There are any problems associated with the disposal of catalysts, inhibitors, decontamination, detoxification, radioactive or biological /pathological materials, maintenance wastes and packaging from received materials. (4) Consideration has been given to the disposal of out of specification, returned or contaminated material. (5) Consideration has been given to the need to build on contaminated land and to the disposal of contaminated land, materials encountered during construction or demolition, demolition material and building wastes. (6) Special precautions are needed to prevent dust or leakage of materials during construction/demolition affecting drains. (7) It will be necessary to take measures to prevent soil or groundwater contamination. (8) Special provision will be needed for containment/treatment of contaminated firewater. (9) Consideration is necessary for the disposal of customers' waste (including packaging). (10) Any special mechanisms can result in loss of containment and spread (e.g. flood, wind, storm, fire water runoff). (11) Harmful or toxic/biologically environmentally active materials can be created accidentally during unusual conditions, such as process upsets or fire exposure. Can these have an effect beyond the site boundaries? (12) Construction, demolition or operation may involve significant effect on tree removal, natural vegetation or flora and fauna. (13) Special measures are required to reduce or monitor fugitive emissions (e.g. leaks from glands or seals).
  • 18. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com (14) The location is the site of any endangered flora or fauna. (15) There are any native titles (access, burial grounds). Agree and record the responsibility for any further Environmental Assessments’’. 1.6.7 Material Transport and Siting (a) Material Transport Stages Consider those factors that are relevant to the selection of a site and a plot, including the transport between sites and plots. The study should include consideration of potential knock-on effects on existing hazardous or vulnerable pipe routes, buildings, services, storage, etc. A key objective is to ensure that the overall risk is minimized: (1) Define the transport stages involved in broad terms (e.g., road, rail, ship, pipeline, etc.) taking account of the flow of major raw materials through to the destination of the products. (2) Define in broad terms the transport stages involved in demolition /construction taking account of the flow and storage of demolition and construction materials and equipment. (3) Review whether the risks arising from the construction/demolition work or from the transport and storage of hazardous materials could be minimized by the choice of plant location, material to be transported, etc. A simple diagram showing material and transport movement may assist. (4) In difficult cases, a Quantified Risk Assessment (QRA) may be called for. In all of the above it is important to concentrate on the major material flows. Detailed assessment of routes to individual customers will only be necessary in a very limited number of cases and will generally not require consideration in the case of established businesses.
  • 19. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com (b) Existing Plants Consider the potential effect of existing plants or operations on the proposed development. Existing plants may need modifying or their impact studies updating. Give consideration to bulk storage of potentially hazardous materials. Include potential hazards of chemical interactions in or from drains and contamination of intake air. Consider if the proposed project will restrict future site development. 1.6.8 Design Guidelines and Codes Internal GBHE and national guidelines to be followed should be listed. Consideration should be given as to whether the project requires any new design guidelines, codes of practice, guides and standards. 1.6.9 Emergency Facilities Review the adequacy of site emergency facilities to ensure that these are adequate to meet the needs of the proposed project. The Site Emergency Facilities worksheet (worksheet d) may be used in consultation with site personnel to ensure a full coverage. 1.6.10 Further Studies Consider and agree what additional safety, health, environmental, quality or financial related studies will be required during the design of the project, and whether these will be covered as part of the Hazard Study process or carried out as independent studies. A list of additional assessments is shown in appendix C and a worksheet (worksheet e) is available to record which studies are to be considered as part of the project.
  • 20. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com 1.7 REVIEW OF HAZARD STUDY 1 At the completion of this study the following key activities should have been completed: • Agreed the extent of further hazard studies and the need for any QRA. • If the hazard study process is to be curtailed then justify and document the reason, using the Extent of Further Hazard Studies worksheet (worksheet g). • Additional assessments to be considered as part of the project (worksheet e). • Actions identified (worksheet h). • Agreed the responsibility and date for progressing actions. The Project Manager is responsible for progressing any identified hazard studies and actions.
  • 21. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 22. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 23. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 24. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 25. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 26. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 27. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com