Protection Systems for Machines: an Engineering Guide
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Protection Systems for Machines: an Engineering Guide
0 INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE
1 SCOPE
2 FIELD OF APPLICATION
3 DEFINITIONS
4 CRITICAL MACHINE SYSTEMS
5 POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES
5.1 Protection Against Over Pressure
5.2 Protection Against High or Low Temperature
5.3 Displacement Measuring Devices
5.4 Vibration Detection Devices
5.5 Pulsation Dampers
5.6 Knock-out Pots
5.7 Special Considerations for Dry Vacuum Pumps
6 DYNAMIC MACHINES
6.1 Dynamic Pumps
6.2 Sealless Pumps
6.3 Dynamic Compressors and Blowers
6.4 Gas Turbines/Expanders and Steam Turbines
7 CENTRIFUGES
8 LARGE ELECTRIC MOTORS AND ALTERNATORS
9 GEARBOXES
10 OIL LUBRICATED PLAIN BEARINGS AND LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEMS
11 SEALS AND SEALANT SYSTEMS
12 CONDITION MONITORING
13 TRIP AND ALARM SCHEDULES FOR ALL MACHINE
SYSTEMS
14 TESTING OF PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR MACHINES
14.1 All Machines
14.2 Critical Machines
15 MACHINES SAFETY DOCUMENTS
APPENDICES
A EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES DIRECTIVES
B REFERENCE DOCUMENTS FOR POSITIVE
DISPLACEMENT MACHINES
C REFERENCE DOCUMENTS FOR DYNAMIC MACHINES
DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS ENGINEERING GUIDE

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Protection Systems for Machines: an Engineering Guide Document Transcript

  • 1. GBH Enterprises, Ltd. Engineering Design Guide: GBHE-EDG-MAC-1601 Protection Systems for Machines: an Engineering Guide Information contained in this publication or as otherwise supplied to Users is believed to be accurate and correct at time of going to press, and is given in good faith, but it is for the User to satisfy itself of the suitability of the information for its own particular purpose. GBHE gives no warranty as to the fitness of this information for any particular purpose and any implied warranty or condition (statutory or otherwise) is excluded except to the extent that exclusion is prevented by law. GBHE accepts no liability resulting from reliance on this information. Freedom under Patent, Copyright and Designs cannot be assumed. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 2. Engineering Design Guide: Protection Systems for Machines: an Engineering Guide CONTENTS SECTION 0 INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE 2 1 SCOPE 2 2 FIELD OF APPLICATION 2 3 DEFINITIONS 2 4 CRITICAL MACHINE SYSTEMS 3 5 POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES 5.1 Protection Against Over Pressure 5.2 Protection Against High or Low Temperature 5.3 Displacement Measuring Devices 5.4 Vibration Detection Devices 5.5 Pulsation Dampers 5.6 Knock-out Pots 5.7 Special Considerations for Dry Vacuum Pumps 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 DYNAMIC MACHINES 6.1 Dynamic Pumps 6.2 Sealless Pumps 6.3 Dynamic Compressors and Blowers 6.4 Gas Turbines/Expanders and Steam Turbines 5 6 7 7 8 7 CENTRIFUGES 8 8 LARGE ELECTRIC MOTORS AND ALTERNATORS 9 9 GEARBOXES 9 10 OIL LUBRICATED PLAIN BEARINGS AND LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEMS 9 11 SEALS AND SEALANT SYSTEMS 10 Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 3. 12 CONDITION MONITORING 10 13 TRIP AND ALARM SCHEDULES FOR ALL MACHINE SYSTEMS 10 14 TESTING OF PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR MACHINES 14.1 All Machines 14.2 Critical Machines 11 11 11 15 MACHINES SAFETY DOCUMENTS 11 APPENDICES A EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES DIRECTIVES 12 B REFERENCE DOCUMENTS FOR POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES 13 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS FOR DYNAMIC MACHINES 14 C DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS ENGINEERING GUIDE 15 Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 4. 0 INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE This Engineering Guide contains information on specific machine types and protection systems that should be considered for adoption. The purpose of this guide is to lay down basic requirements which the equipment specifier and user should consider. This guide does not include rules for equipment design as it is assumed that the equipment has been properly designed and constructed for the conditions to which it will be subjected in service. This guide is written to highlight the need for ensuring that the protection systems for machines are appropriately classified and tested. Protection may be required for a number of reasons. Compliance with safety and environmental regulations and company policy is the most important. Avoidance of production loss or equipment damage is a commercial decision and the need for protection is determined by business requirements. To determine the level of protection required, risk based assessment is the most appropriate. 1 SCOPE This guide is intended to include the commonly used machine systems for which protection systems may be required. The decision on whether a protection system is necessary for safety, environmental or business reasons should be determined on a case-by-case basis. Instrument protection systems may be alarms or trips. They can also be either hard wired or incorporated into computer software. The decision processes covering the need for protection and how it should be provided is outside the scope of this guide. Machine Systems used within the European Union are required to comply with European Communities Directives (see Appendix A). For additional information on Critical Safety Instrumented Systems see GEP 3. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 5. 2 FIELD OF APPLICATION This guide is written to assist engineers in the selection of appropriate systems for machines if protection is considered necessary. 3 DEFINITIONS For the purposes of this guide, the following definitions apply: Registration Registration is a declaration within GBHE of formal status given to equipment for the purpose of ensuring integrity. Machine System A Machine System is any reciprocating or rotary device used to produce a change in the properties within chemical process plants. Examples are: pumps, fans, compressors, turbines, centrifuges and agitators. Included in the Machine System are sub-systems required for machine operation or safety. Critical Machine System Unacceptable Situation A Critical Machine System is a Machine System that has been assessed to cause an Unacceptable Situation if the machine or its protective systems should fail. An Unacceptable Situation is a situation resulting in one or more of: (a) harm or serious nuisance to the public; (b) serious harm to people on site; (c) serious harm to the environment. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 6. 4 CRITICAL MACHINE SYSTEMS Machine Systems should be classified critical if failure results in an unacceptable level of: (a) Hazard due to loss of containment of process substance. (b) Process system hazard. (c) Mechanical (not chemical) hazard e.g. ejection of parts. (d) Risk of serious business consequences (discretionary). The procedure to adopt for machine systems is specified in GEP 5. Critical Machine Systems may require specific protective systems to control the identified risk (see 14.2). 5 POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES This clause covers the following Positive Displacement (PD) machines: (a) PD pumps - rotary and reciprocating. (b) PD compressors and vacuum pumps - rotary and reciprocating. This group of machines is capable of generating high discharge pressures and low inlet pressures. The highest pressure possible may be limited by the driver power available, the machines component strengths, and the discharge system pressure strength. Note: For sealless PD pumps see also 6.2. A list of reference documentation for PD machines is provided in Appendix B. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 7. 5.1 Protection Against Over Pressure PD machines should be protected from over pressure on each discharge stage by a pressure relief device. This device may be internal, as is common for diaphragm pumps, or external as is common for reciprocating compressors. Pressure switches may be used to reduce the need to relieve. In some cases an instrument protection system could eliminate the need for a relief device. This approach may be appropriate if the process fluid cannot be vented safely and economically. Protection may not be required if the machine and the discharge system can withstand the highest possible pressure or if the risks associated with failure due to overpressure are acceptably low. All relief devices/streams that prevent an occurrence of an Unacceptable Situation, whether internal or external, should be subject to Registration and regular testing in accordance with GBHE-SPEC-05.01. The internal devices on pumps, for example, could either be tested in situ or after being removed as appropriate. Reciprocating compressor crankcases that could contain a flammable gas and cannot withstand an explosion pressure of 8 bar g. should be fitted with suitable relief devices in accordance with GBHE-EDG-MAC-5705. These should also be subject to Registration and regularly inspected to ensure freedom of movement (testing may not be possible). 5.2 Protection Against High or Low Temperature High temperature reduces the strength of most engineering materials and may mean that the machine can no longer contain the pressure. Low temperature can change the material behavior from ductile to brittle. Material in the latter condition is significantly more liable to sudden, catastrophic failure than in the former. Fitting appropriate temperature devices can provide protection. One situation where high temperature protection is strongly recommended is the discharge side of air compressors where oil is in contact with discharge air. Examples are reciprocating compressors that use oil to lubricate the valves and cylinders and oil flooded screw compressors. The hazard is fire or explosions and there has been a number of each in compressors on client sites (see GBHEMAC-5703). Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 8. 5.3 Displacement Measuring Devices On horizontal reciprocating compressors, bearer rings normally support the piston weight. As these rings wear in service, the bottom clearance between the piston and the cylinder bore will reduce. This can be monitored by the use of rod drop indicators. On high pressure reciprocating plunger pumps (e.g. URACA), crankshaft deflection devices should be fitted. On-line detection is recommended because the interval between initiation of a crack and catastrophic failure can be very short. On-line detection is essential on hazardous duties (see GBHE-MAC-2235 / GBHE-SPEC-06.05). 5.4 Vibration Detection Devices Vibration levels typically vary due to either changes in mechanical condition or in the process. Often detection of increased vibration at an early stage can lead to actions that prevent a major failure. For reciprocating compressors, the device would normally be in the form of a seismic transducer or peizo-electric accelerometer. This type of device can be wired-in so that it can be removed from the machine without taking it out of service. However, the risk of running the machine without protection needs to be assessed. For large screw compressors, e.g. with power > 500 kW radial vibration should be monitored using at least one accelerometer on the casing. For detailed guidance see GBHE-EDG-MAC-4506. 5.5 Pulsation Dampers Reciprocating machines can cause large pressure pulses that could result in failure. Fitting pulsation dampers can reduce the pulses to an acceptable level. For reciprocating compressors, pulsation dampers are usually volume bottles engineered within the inlet, interstage and delivery pipework. Inspection of these is often covered by the relevant pressure vessel regulations. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 9. The dampers used for reciprocating and rotary PD pumps are similar, but normally include a gas volume trapped in a ’bag’ to absorb the pulse. In the event of a damper failure the pump could be subjected to very high pressures, so it may be necessary to build in appropriate pressure detection or relief. Relief devices should be subject to Registration and regularly tested in accordance with GBHE-SPEC.05.01. 5.6 Knock-out Pots Knock out pots can be used to reduce the risk of liquid ingestion by a reciprocating compressor. If liquid is ingested, a major rupture of the machine is possible. Normally the first stage cylinder is the most vulnerable to liquid entrained with the process gas, but condensation or liquid build up can affect later stages. The pots should be designed to effectively separate gas and liquid and should be fitted with high liquid level detection. In some cases it may be necessary to use two dissimilar level measurement systems to obtain satisfactory overall reliability (Average Probability of Failure on Demand – PFDavg). Oil-injected rotary PD compressors can fail in a similar way. For example on direct refrigeration systems liquid refrigerant has been known to migrate into the compressor. Knock-out pots prevent this occurrence. For reference see GBHE-EDG-MAC-1013 and GBHE-EDG-MAC-1033. 5.7 Special Consideration for Dry Vacuum Pumps Explosions can occur within dry vacuum pumps when used on flammable gas duties. The ignition source is typically a local hot spot created by heat of compression, friction, tight clearances, piping corrosion deposits and possible mechanical rubs. As the fire or explosion requires oxygen, the startup cycle often presents the highest risk. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 10. For intrinsic safety, vacuum pumps and associated pipework, etc. should be designed to withstand 1.5 x the maximum explosion pressure. This is typically up to 10 times the nominal maximum operating pressure. The factor depends on the characteristics of the flammable vapor. The calculation of the maximum pressure in multi-stage pumps depends on the pump and system design. In this case, amplification between chambers (known as ‘pressure piling’) may be possible. A detailed assessment should be carried out. Explosions can occur on either the inlet side or the exhaust and could transmit along process pipework. Inlet and exhaust flame arrestors may need to be fitted; however these need to be evaluated by test. If the pump and its systems are not able to withstand the explosion pressure appropriate protection measures are necessary to prevent the incident. These could include monitoring pump cooling, vibration levels or preventing a flammable atmosphere. The use of temperature protection to detect the onset of a hot spot is of doubtful value since the location is difficult to predict. The preferred, and most common, solution is pressure containment. 6 DYNAMIC MACHINES This clause covers the following dynamic machines: (a) Dynamic pumps - centrifugal, axial, mixed flow. (b) Dynamic compressors and blowers - centrifugal, axial, mixed flow. (c) Gas turbines/expanders and steam turbines. A list of reference documentation for dynamic machines is provided in Appendix C. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 11. 6.1 Dynamic Pumps This group of machines has a maximum pressure raising capability that depends on the fluid density, impeller tip speed and the number of stages. It is normal design practice for the machine to have a maximum pressure rating that exceeds the maximum possible operating pressure. Therefore, overpressure protective devices for these machines are not normally required. If the machine is driven by a variable speed prime mover, e.g. electric motor with inverter, steam turbine, etc. protection against over speeding may be necessary to prevent excessive pressure or mechanical stresses. Operating a centrifugal pump in a fully isolated condition, whilst full of liquid, results in a pressure increase due to thermal expansion. An external mechanical seal or packed gland may relieve the pressure. An internal seal may not. If the pump is constructed from brittle materials, like grey cast iron or thermosetting resins, it could burst catastrophically. In some cases the attached pipework is also ruptured as a consequence and the total contents of the system are lost. Ductile pumps or the local pipework system will normally yield and leak to relieve the pressure. The maximum loss in this case would be the trapped volume. Some self-priming pumps have built-in non-return valves on the suction side and in this case the pump can be fully isolated with only the discharge valve obviously closed. With thermally sensitive fluids, operating with the discharge valve closed (dead heading) can generate sufficient temperature to cause an explosion. If the risks associated with isolated operation cannot be adequately controlled by relying on correct operating procedures, suitable protection will be necessary. Depending on the hazard, this typically could be one (or more) of a reliable kickback (recycle) to suction vessel, relief valve, valve position interlocked with pump drive and high temperature trips. The last should be placed so as to detect the local high temperature in the event of no flow. Consideration should also be given to the use of an intrinsically safe fluid transfer system if this is possible. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 12. The radial loads on a pump impeller increase as the flow moves away from the best efficiency point (b.e.p.). These loads increase shaft stresses and bearing loads and in many cases will lead to fatigue failure if prolonged. Depending on pump design, the minimum allowable continuous flow is typically between 25 and 40% b.e.p. Also pumps with relatively large suction areas, such as boiler feed pumps, suffer from suction re-circulation at low flow. This can cause unstable flow and initiate the onset of cavitation. Again dependent on design, a minimum flow of 25 to 50% b.e.p. may be required to prevent pump damage. Appropriate minimum flow provision needs to be made in such cases. This would typically be a re-cycle to the suction vessel. For small pumps a simple orifice restriction in the recycle is suitable. On larger pumps, where the power loss would be significant, the economics of the various options such as orifice, control valves, leak off valves needs to be considered. It may be necessary on certain other centrifugal pumps to provide shutdown protection (see 6.2). 6.2 Sealless Pumps Sealless pumps can be of the canned motor or magnetic drive type. Most are dynamic (e.g. centrifugal), but they are also available as PD pumps. This clause applies to all of these. Canned motor pumps have reliable secondary containment and in this case most of the protection listed below is to prevent equipment damage and production loss. Exceptions may be the use of high temperature devices if the fluid is thermally sensitive. Magnetic drive pumps have secondary containment of varying effectiveness and reliability depending on the design. Most make no special provision, but, for example, double can arrangements, secondary shaft seals options, etc. are available. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 13. The requirement for protection depends on the design and associated identified failure modes, but the following devices may be considered for fitting. These are in addition to those discussed in 6.1. (a) Thermistors, in the canned motor windings or thermocouple probes on magnetic drive cans to trip on high temperature. (b) Motor power sensing to alarm or trip on high or low power draw. (c) Liquid sensing to detect leakage from primary containment. (d) Liquid detection to prevent dry running. (e) Internal cooling flow temperature monitoring to alarm and/or trip on high temperature. (f) Low flow detection to alarm or trip at minimum flow value. (g) Bearing monitor for alarm and/or trip on excessive bearing wear. The device may also detect corrosion. (h) Axial position monitor; for alarm and/or trip on excessive axial movement. When a canned pump is used in an explosive atmosphere it may be a requirement of the certification that low liquid level and high temperature trip devices are fitted. These should be appropriately classified and tested. 6.3 Dynamic Compressors and Blowers These machines are often of high capital cost and there is rarely a complete spare available. The following protection systems are typically fitted to cover safety and environmental considerations and also equipment damage and production loss. However, machine systems of this type need to be considered individually and the requirements for protective systems based on risk assessment. The need for alarm and/or trip functions also needs to be determined. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 14. Typical protection systems: (a) Anti-surge control to maintain flow above surge limit. This is not strictly protection, but is included for completeness. (b) Surge detection. Axial compressors are more easily damaged by surge and require a higher integrity system than centrifugal machines. Traditionally anti-surge trip systems have been hard-wired and independent of other computer control functions. (c) Low suction pressure. (d) Protection against over pressure by a relief valve is generally the best option if the process fluid can be vented safely and economically. If this is not the case, a high integrity safety instrumented system could be considered. A further option is a combination of the two where the instrument set point is lower than the relief valve. The intention is to reduce the demand on the relief valve whilst retaining it as ultimate protection. (e) High discharge temperature. (f) Axial position for hydrodynamic thrust bearing installations. (g) Non-return valve or automatic isolation valve to prevent reverse flow/reverse rotation when not driven. The integrity required of this system needs to be addressed. (h) High liquid level in inlet vessel (if fitted and liquid entrainment is possible). (j) High vibration. (k) Where the process substance hazard is high, e.g. toxic or flammable gases, seal failure detection should be provided. See clause 11 for more information. For further detailed design information including surge protection see GBHEMAC-1135. Bearing and lubrication system protection is covered separately in clause 10. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 15. 6.4 Gas Turbines/Expanders and Steam Turbines The comments on compressors in 6.1 also generally apply to these machines as does the requirements for protective systems. The main difference is the potential for overspeed. Where the speed of a driver is controlled by limiting the input energy, as with gas or steam turbines, there is the potential for overspeed. Causes could be the failure of the control system or sudden loss of load, e.g. due to coupling failure. The machines in this group should have overspeed protection that is completely independent of the normal speed control system. Traditionally this device would be mechanical, e.g. a governor or a spring-loaded bolt, but electronic speed measuring systems are now becoming common. In the latter case it is normal to install three independent systems and obtain the reliability necessary by using 2 out of 3 voting. The function of the overspeed system is to initiate the closure of an emergency stop valve on the steam or gas inlet if the speed increases to a pre-determined safe limit, usually 10% above the normal speed. Typically, the emergency stop valves are designed to be fail safe and are spring closed and oil or steam pressure opened. In cases where the motive fluid is at high pressure, the emergency trip valve should be positioned at or close to the machine to minimize the response time. Testing the operation of the emergency trip system may be hazardous, as it often requires the machine to accelerate to trip speed. During testing, the speed should be carefully monitored and, if the emergency valve does not operate as required, manual intervention may be necessary. Consequently, the method and frequency of testing the emergency stop system needs to be carefully considered. On large steam turbines machines, facilities should be included for on-line trip testing by incorporating dual valves. Inspection of components in the trip system that are liable to wear and prejudice the operation is recommended. Note: GBHE-EDS-MAC-21-05A specifies instrumentation for special purpose steam turbines with reference to API 612. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 16. 7 CENTRIFUGES On duties that are non flammable, the minimum requirement is typically a vibration monitor. Solid bowl decanter centrifuges can also have high conveyor torque measurement in addition to the normal electrical overload protection. On flammable duties, a nitrogen inerting system may be required. The operation of this would normally be monitored by flow and pressure measurement. Permanent oxygen monitoring may also be fitted, but alternatively spot checks at (say) the end of the inerting purge phase may be sufficient. Inerting systems, including protection and monitoring, are normally designed for each application as the arrangement of chutes, hoppers, vessels, etc associated with the centrifuge vary considerably. The atmosphere in these should also not support combustion. 8 LARGE ELECTRIC MOTORS AND ALTERNATORS Protection for electrical systems is not covered in this guide. Motors and alternators with rolling element bearings require no special protection. Oil lubricated plain bearing and lubrication system protection is covered separately in clause 10. 9 GEARBOXES Vibration monitoring may be appropriate for gearboxes. Experience in GBHE indicates that the best option is to fit one accelerometer per shaft in the vertical direction set to measure peak velocity. The frequency range should be up to 10,000 Hz or twice tooth meshing frequency if this is higher. For additional protection, separate seismic transducers can be installed to detect major failure. Rolling element bearings require no special protection. For further detailed information, see GBHE-MAC-1102. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 17. Oil lubricated plain bearing and lubrication system protection is covered separately in clause 10. 10 OIL LUBRICATED PLAIN BEARINGS AND LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEMS Machines with non pressurized, oil lubricated plain bearings (e.g. pedestal bearings with oil sumps and oil rings power) should be provided with visible oil level indication and possibly bearing temperature measurement. Where pressurized systems are used, protection needs to be considered for the complete system. When a shaft driven oil pump is used, auxiliary electric motor driven pumps are often fitted as both backup and to enable the machine to start. Falling oil pressure is used to start the auxiliary pump. On critical duties twin auxiliary pumps fed from different electrical supplies may be appropriate. The design and operating parameters of the auxiliary system should be decided on a case-bycase basis. Systems should be considered to protect against: (a) Low oil level in tank. (b) Low oil supply pressure (the location will depend on the system). (c) High supply filter differential pressure. (d) High oil temperature. (e) Low oil temperature (start inhibit). (f) High thrust and radial bearing temperature. (g) Loss of lubrication during run down after power failure. In this case an overhead tank that provides gravity feed during the run down period is typical. For lube oil systems for special purpose steam turbines see GBHE-EDS-MAC21-05A. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 18. 11 SEALS AND SEALANT SYSTEMS There are no reliable means of preventing the failure of a single mechanical seal by protection systems. Reducing maximum vibration levels (by suitable monitoring systems) may help, but the benefit is not predictable. The most effective approach is early detection of a leak followed by appropriate mitigating actions, e.g. shutdown and isolate. Gas detection systems can be used when appropriate. Double mechanical seals provide more secure containment since, in most cases, only one good seal is necessary to prevent leakage. Monitoring the barrier fluid system to identify abnormal conditions can be used to minimize the risk of two failed seals. When the barrier fluid is liquid, level in the reservoir and seal supply pressure are typical measurements. If the system uses a pump for circulation, then flow measurement should also be considered. For gas seals a low differential pressure together with low and high flow are normal. These should also be considered for purged labyrinth seals. 12 CONDITION MONITORING Condition monitoring can be used to detect and trend changes in the condition of machine systems (e.g. increasing vibration). Trend information is much more useful than a single high vibration signal as it can be used to predict the rate of deterioration and allows maintenance to be planned. It is also less sensitive to spurious signals. When condition monitoring is effective, the protection system would rarely be activated. The implementation of a condition monitoring program for a machine should be based on a cost/benefit assessment. It is only of value if the main failure modes that are under consideration are progressive and can be detected, the key factors to be considered are: (a) Would an unplanned outage lose more income than one that is planned. (b) Would the machine suffer secondary damage as a consequence of the first failure and what would be the additional costs associated with this. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 19. 13 TRIP AND ALARM SCHEDULES FOR ALL MACHINE SYSTEMS The schedule should list those devices that protect the machine system or mitigate consequential damage. These could be fitted to the process system or be part of the machine or package (e.g. low oil pressure trip, etc.). The schedule should provide the following details: (a) A description of the device (explaining its function). (b) Its reference (tag number). (c) Its set point with reference to its normal operating range. (d) Method of testing. (e) Frequency of testing. 14 TESTING OF PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR MACHINES 14.1 All Machines Protection systems should be classified in accordance with GEP 3. The inspection/testing frequencies should be based on the importance of the particular protective system. In general, systems that need high reliability would be tested more frequently than those that have a lower requirement. The test method will depend on the system design. Ideally, the complete system from sensor to output signal would be included. However, in some cases it may be appropriate and sufficient to test the system downstream of the sensor only. This could be by signal injection. 14.2 Critical Machines For classified Critical Machines, design verification will identify those protective devices that are necessary to prevent the particular machine from causing an Unacceptable Situation. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 20. 15 MACHINES SAFETY DOCUMENTS The following is a list of Machines Safety documents for reference purposes: (a) Engineering Procedures GBHE-EDP-MAC-6601 Registration of Machines: Critical Machine Systems GBHE-EDP-MAC-3602 Registration of Machines: Classification GBHE-EDP-MAC-66-03A Registration of Machines: Documentation GBHE-EDP-MAC-3604 GBHE-SPEC.05.01 (b) Design Verification of Critical Machine Systems Registered Pressure Equipment : Procedures and Standard Forms. Engineering Guides GBHE-EDG-MAC-2234 Lubricated Air Compressors: Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions GBHE-EDG-MAC-2235 GBHE-EDG-MAC-5703 Fire Precautions in Lubricated Air Compressors GBHE-EDG-MAC-5705 (c) The Periodic Inspection of URACA Pumps Reciprocating Compressors: Protection Against Crank Case Explosions. Allied Documents Engineering Aspects of Safety Auditing. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 21. APPENDIX A EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES DIRECTIVES The suppliers of all Machine Systems first used within the European Union since 1 January 1995 are required to ensure that they comply with the European Communities Machinery Directive 89/392/EEC and all amendments. This directive is implemented in each country by national regulations. As part of the risk assessment carried out under the regulations, the supplier should identify the protective systems necessary for machine system safety. The declaration of conformity cannot be issued unless these are provided and referred to in the operating and maintenance instructions supplied with the machine. The user also has responsibility for the safe use of Machines Systems under the national regulations arising from the Use of Work Equipment Directive 89/655/EEC and all amendments. The requirements are similar to those of the Machinery Directive and risk assessment is necessary. To adequately control risk, there may be a need for protective systems. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 22. APPENDIX B REFERENCE DOCUMENTS FOR POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES The following is a list of reference documentation for positive displacement machines: GBHE-EDG-MAC-1010 Integration of Special-Purpose Reciprocating Pumps into a Process GBHE-EDG-MAC-1012 Integration of Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps into a Process GBHE-EDG-MAC-1013 Integration of Reciprocating Metering Pumps into a Process GBHE-EDG-MAC-1033 Integration of Special Purpose Reciprocating Compressors into a Process GBHE-EDG-MAC-1110 Construction of Special-Purpose Multiplex Plunger Reciprocating Pumps GBHE-EDG-MAC-1536 Hydrogen Compressors. APPENDIX C REFERENCE DOCUMENTS FOR DYNAMIC MACHINES The following is a list of reference documentation for dynamic machines: (a) Engineering Guides GBHE-EDG-MAC-1014 Integration of Special Purpose Centrifugal Pumps into a Process GBHE-EDG-MAC-10244 Integration of Special Purpose Centrifugal Fans into a Process GBHE-EDG-MAC-1119 Vertical Shaft Immersed Casing Pumps GBHE-EDG-MAC-1134 Centrifugal Compressors GBHE-EDG-MAC-1135 Centrifugal Compressors: Technical Specification Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 23. GBHE-EDG-MAC-1503 Pumps for Ammonium Nitrate Service GBHE-EDG-MAC-1504 Boiler Feedwater Pumps GBHE-EDG-MAC-1507 Large Water Pumps GBHE-EDG-MAC-1508 Pumps for Hydrocarbon Service GBHE-EDG-MAC-1514 Pumps for Sodium Hydroxide Service GBHE-EDG-MAC-1515 Boiler Water Circulation Pumps. (b) Engineering Specifications GBHE-EDS-MAC-21-05A Special Purpose Steam Turbines. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 24. DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS ENGINEERING GUIDE This Engineering Guide makes reference to the following documents: GROUP ENGINEERING PROCEDURES GEP 3 Critical Safety Instrumented Systems (referred to in clause 1 and 14.1) GEP 5 Critical Machine Systems (referred to in clause 4) ENGINEERING PROCEDURES GBHE-EDP-MAC-6601 Registration of Machines: Critical Machine Systems GBHE-EDP-MAC-3602 Registration of Machines: Classification (referred to in clause 15) GBHE-EDP-MAC-66-03A Registration of Machines: Documentation (referred to in clause 15) GBHE-EDP-MAC-3604 Design Verification of Critical Machine Systems Registered Pressure Equipment: Procedures and Standard Forms (referred to in 5.1, 5.5 and clause 15) Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 25. ENGINEERING GUIDES GBHE-EDG-MAC-1010 Integration of Special-Purpose Reciprocating Pumps into a Process (referred to in Appendix B) GBHE-EDG-MAC-1012 Integration of Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps into a Process (referred to in Appendix B) GBHE-EDG-MAC-1013 Integration of Reciprocating Metering Pumps into a Process (referred to in Appendix B) GBHE-EDG-MAC-1014 Integration of Special Purpose Centrifugal Pumps into a Process (referred to in Appendix C) GBHE-EDG-MAC-1024 Integration of Special-Purpose Centrifugal Fans into a Process (referred to in Appendix C) GBHE-EDG-MAC-1033 Integration of Special Purpose Reciprocating Compressors into a Process (referred to in 5.6 and Appendix B) GBHE-EDG-MAC-1102 High Precision Gears (referred to in clause 9) GBHE-EDG-MAC-1110 Construction of Special-Purpose Multiplex Plunger Reciprocating Pumps (referred to in Appendix B) GBHE-EDG-MAC-1119 Vertical Shaft Immersed-Casing Pumps (referred to in Appendix C) GBHE-EDG-MAC-1134 Centrifugal Compressors (referred to in 6.3 and Appendix C) GBHE-EDG-MAC-1135 Centrifugal Compressors: Technical Specification (referred to in Appendix C) GBHE-EDG-MAC-1503 Pumps for Ammonium Nitrate Service (referred to in Appendix C) GBHE-EDG-MAC-1504 Boiler Feedwater Pumps (referred to in Appendix C) GBHE-EDG-MAC-1507 Large Water Pumps (referred to in Appendix C) Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 26. GBHE-EDG-MAC-1508 Pumps for Hydrocarbon Service (referred to in Appendix C) GBHE-EDG-MAC-1514 Pumps for Sodium Hydroxide Service (referred to in Appendix C) GBHE-EDG-MAC-1515 Boiler Water Circulation Pumps (referred to in Appendix C) GBHE-EDG-MAC-1536 Hydrogen Compressors (referred to in Appendix B) GBHE-EDG-MAC-2234 Lubricated Air Compressors: Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions (referred to in clause 15) GBHE-EDG-MAC-2235 The Periodic Inspection of URACA Pumps (referred to in 5.3 and clause 15) GBHE-EDG-MAC-4506 Vibration Monitoring of Machines (referred to in 5.4) GBHE-EDG-MAC-5703 Fire Precautions in Lubricated Air Compressors (referred to in 5.2 and clause 15) GBHE-EDG-MAC-5705 Reciprocating Compressors: Protection Against Crank Case Explosions (referred to in 5.1 and clause 15) Engineering Aspects of Safety Auditing (referred to in clause 15) ENGINEERING SPECIFICATIONS GBHE-EDS-MAC-21-05A Special Purpose Steam Turbines (referred to in 6.4 and clause 10) Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 27. GBHE REPORTS Liquid Ingestion by Reciprocating Compressors (referred to in 5.6) OTHER DOCUMENTS AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE API 612 Special-Purpose Steam Turbines for Refinery Service (referred to in 6.4) EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES DIRECTIVES 89/392/EEC Approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to Machinery (referred to in Appendix A) 89/655/EEC Minimum safety and health requirements for the use of work equipment by workers at work (referred to in Appendix A). Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 28. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com