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Orifice Restrictors - Design Guidelines

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ORIFICE RESTRICTOR: DESIGN GUIDELINES …

ORIFICE RESTRICTOR: DESIGN GUIDELINES

SPECIFICATION OF FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION OF FLUID
INLET FLUID PHASE(S)
FLOWRATE
UPSTREAM PRESSURE
DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE
OPERATING TEMPERATURE
TEMPERATURE EXTREMES: MINIMUM
TEMPERATURE EXTREMES: MAXIMUM
UPSTREAM DENSITY
UPSTREAM COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR.
IS RESTRICTOR PART OF SAFETY SYSTEM?
LINE SIZE
LINE REFERENCE
CALCULATED ORIFICE DIAMETER

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  • 1. GBH Enterprises, Ltd. Process Engineering Guide: GBHE-OE-037 ORIFICE RESTRICTORS: Design Guide Lines Process Information Disclaimer Information contained in this publication or as otherwise supplied to Users is believed to be accurate and correct at time of going to press, and is given in good faith, but it is for the User to satisfy itself of the suitability of the Product for its own particular purpose. GBHE gives no warranty as to the fitness of the Product for any particular purpose and any implied warranty or condition (statutory or otherwise) is excluded except to the extent that exclusion is prevented by law. GBHE accepts no liability for loss, damage or personnel injury caused or resulting from reliance on this information. Freedom under Patent, Copyright and Designs cannot be assumed. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 2. CONTENT ORIFICE RESTRICTOR: DESIGN GUIDELINES SPECIFICATION OF FUNCTION DESCRIPTION OF FLUID INLET FLUID PHASE(S) FLOWRATE UPSTREAM PRESSURE DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE OPERATING TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE EXTREMES: MINIMUM TEMPERATURE EXTREMES: MAXIMUM UPSTREAM DENSITY UPSTREAM COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR. IS RESTRICTOR PART OF SAFETY SYSTEM? LINE SIZE LINE REFERENCE CALCULATED ORIFICE DIAMETER OTHER DESIGN INFORMATION Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 3. ORIFICE RESTRICTORS: DESIGN GUIDELINES SPECIFICATION OF FUNCTION The function is a brief description of the purpose of the orifice restrictor and is used as a descriptive title for it. The information may be supplemented by an ELD (Engineering Line Diagram) grid location or Line Reference or Equipment No. to identify the location of the restrictor. DESCRIPTION OF FLUID The name of the fluid should be given together with its concentration or composition where the latter are important from the point of view of corrosion or safety. The choice of materials of construction of the orifice restrictor should be compatible with the composition of the fluid under normal operation, but should also take into consideration abnormal compositions of the fluid due to maloperation of the process or the operating system, as well as start up and shut down conditions. It should also be used to describe mixtures of fluids with unusual or vastly differing chemical or physical properties. These may be expanded under 'Other Design Information'. INLET FLUID PHASE(S) State the fluid phase or phases at the restrictor inlet. If the fluid is 'dirty', i.e. it contains solid particles which could deposit on or erode the restrictor, and then the fluid should be specified as 'dirty'. If the fluid is a saturated gas at the restrictor inlet it should be described as 'wet'. Examples are Gas/dirty, Gas/wet, Solids/liquid (slurry), Liquid/dirty, etc.. FLOWRATE If the fluid is steam, give the mass flowrate in kg/h; for liquids and gases give the volumetric flowrate in m3/h. Gas flowrates should preferably be at 0 °C and 1.013 bar ABSOLUTE (bar abs.). Only one of the fields for flowrate should be filled in; a facility exists for calculating the other from the data provided. UPSTREAM PRESSURE Give the upstream pressure of the fluid in bar abs.. The facility to use bar GAUGE (bar g.) is also provided. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 4. DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE Give the pressure downstream of the restrictor in bar abs. or bar g. (same units as for Line 12). The difference in pressure between the upstream and downstream pressures should be used to size the restrictor orifice diameter so that the pressure drop is lost across the restrictor. OPERATING TEMPERATURE Give the temperature at the restrictor inlet in °C under normal flowsheet operating conditions. TEMPERATURE EXTREMES: MINIMUM Give the lowest temperature extreme in °C to which the orifice restrictor may be exposed. This information is used to select the correct material of construction of the restrictor plate. TEMPERATURE EXTREMES: MAXIMUM Give the highest temperature extreme in °C to which the orifice restrictor may be exposed. This information is used to select the correct material of construction of the restrictor plate. UPSTREAM DENSITY Give the actual density of the fluid at the normal upstream conditions in kg/m3. UPSTREAM COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR. For gases only, give the compressibility factor, Z, at the normal upstream conditions. 0°C/760 mm Compressibility Factor. For gases only, give the compressibility factor, Z, at 0 °C and 760 mm Hg (1.013 bar abs.). IS RESTRICTOR PART OF SAFETY SYSTEM? If the restrictor is not part of a safety system, answer "NO". If it is, answer "YES" or give the reference to the safety system. A restrictor which is part of a safety system requires registration. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 5. LINE SIZE For pipe lines, the nominal pipe size should normally be taken from the ELD. The units should be either mm NOMINAL or inches NOMINAL and not exact conversions. LINE REFERENCE In the case of new plants, the Line Reference provides the key to information on line specification and material of construction requirements. In the case of existing plants, the flange rating and material of construction should be specified. The data is normally taken from the ELD. CALCULATED ORIFICE DIAMETER Give the calculated orifice diameter in mm. This information, normally calculated by the process engineer, is used to check that the correct orifice is specified and installed. OTHER DESIGN INFORMATION Special Features If any special features affect the choice of the orifice restrictor, they should be recorded in the 'Other Design Information' section. The following is a list of topics which are likely to call for comment: (a) Brief description of any unusual or special factors affecting the selection of data entered on the orifice restrictor data sheet. (b) Any special reasons for the choice of restrictor. (c) Any special reasons for the choice of materials of construction. (d) Any other information considered relevant by the process engineer. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 6. Additional Data There may be occasions when information other than that specifically requested by the client is needed. The following list is intended to give examples and indicate where it is especially important for the process and control & electrical engineers to liaise closely. (a) Requirement for sterile conditions. (b) Where the restrictor is expected to operate under widely differing operating conditions, e.g. cyclic operations. (c) Conditions of pressure surge (e.g. water hammer or start up of a steam main) which could cause deflection of the orifice plate unless an adequate thickness is specified by the control electrical engineer. A computer program exists to calculate the required thickness. If the plate thickness is specified as a result of such calculation, it should be quoted. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 7. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com