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Lubricated Air Compressors - Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions
Lubricated Air Compressors - Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions
Lubricated Air Compressors - Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions
Lubricated Air Compressors - Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions
Lubricated Air Compressors - Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions
Lubricated Air Compressors - Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions
Lubricated Air Compressors - Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions
Lubricated Air Compressors - Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions
Lubricated Air Compressors - Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions
Lubricated Air Compressors - Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions
Lubricated Air Compressors - Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions
Lubricated Air Compressors - Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions
Lubricated Air Compressors - Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions
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Lubricated Air Compressors - Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions

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Lubricated Air Compressors - Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions …

Lubricated Air Compressors - Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions
0 INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE
1 SCOPE
2 FIELD OF APPLICATION
3 DEFINITIONS
4 MODEL INSTRUCTIONS FOR OIL LUBRICATED
RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSORS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Lubricating Oil
4.3 Oil consumption
4.4 Operating Discharge Temperatures
4.5 High Discharge Temperature Trips
4.6 External Visual Inspection of Pipework
4.7 Routine Removal of Carbon Deposits

5 MODEL INSTRUCTIONS FOR OIL FLOODED ROTARY COMPRESSOR
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Lubricating Oil
5.3 Oil Consumption
5.4 Oil Change Frequency
5.5 Separator Element Change Frequency
5.6 Operating Discharge Temperatures
5.7 High Discharge Temperature Trip

6 LOG SHEETS

APPENDICES

A EXPLANATORY NOTES FOR RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

B EXPLANATORY NOTES FOR OIL FLOODED ROTARY COMPRESSORS

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  • 1. GBH Enterprises, Ltd. Engineering Design Guide: GBHE-EDG-MAC-2234 Lubricated Air Compressors Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions Information contained in this publication or as otherwise supplied to Users is believed to be accurate and correct at time of going to press, and is given in good faith, but it is for the User to satisfy itself of the suitability of the information for its own particular purpose. GBHE gives no warranty as to the fitness of this information for any particular purpose and any implied warranty or condition (statutory or otherwise) is excluded except to the extent that exclusion is prevented by law. GBHE accepts no liability resulting from reliance on this information. Freedom under Patent, Copyright and Designs cannot be assumed. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 2. Engineering Design Guide: Lubricated Air Compressors Operating and Maintenance Procedures Required to Avoid Fires and Explosions CONTENTS SECTION 0 INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE 2 1 SCOPE 2 2 FIELD OF APPLICATION 2 3 DEFINITIONS 2 4 MODEL INSTRUCTIONS FOR OIL LUBRICATED RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSORS 3 4.1 Introduction 3 4.2 Lubricating Oil 3 4.3 Oil consumption 3 4.4 Operating Discharge Temperatures 3 4.5 High Discharge Temperature Trips 3 4.6 External Visual Inspection of Pipework 3 4.7 Routine Removal of Carbon Deposits 3 Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 3. 5 4 5.1 Introduction 4 5.2 Lubricating Oil 4 5.3 Oil Consumption 4 5.4 Oil Change Frequency 4 5.5 Separator Element Change Frequency 4 5.6 Operating Discharge Temperatures 4 5.7 6 MODEL INSTRUCTIONS FOR OIL FLOODED ROTARY COMPRESSOR High Discharge Temperature Trip 4 LOG SHEETS 5 APPENDICES A EXPLANATORY NOTES FOR RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS B EXPLANATORY NOTES FOR OIL FLOODED ROTARY COMPRESSORS DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 4. 0 INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE In the industry there have been a significant number of fires and explosions in reciprocating air compressors with cylinder lubrication and oil flooded rotary air compressors. The cause of these fires and explosions has been, either the spontaneous ignition of a solid carbonaceous material deposited on the internal surfaces of the discharge system, or the ignition of a flammable air/oil mixture. Suitable operating and maintenance procedures would have contributed to the elimination of these hazards. The carbonaceous deposit results from the thermal decomposition of the cylinder lubricating oil at elevated temperatures. As a result of such incidents, all such compressors will be registered as 'critical machines systems' (see GBHE-EDP-MAC-6601) and the design and operation verified. A key part of verification will be to check that the maintenance and operating instructions provide the information necessary to ensure that fires and explosions can be prevented. This design guide includes model instructions which, when completed for the particular installation, will meet this objective. 1 SCOPE This GBHE Engineering Guide gives advice on the operating and maintenance procedures required to avoid fires and explosions in lubricated reciprocating air compressors and oil flooded rotary compressors. Model instructions are provided for each machine type. Other safety-related issues, such as pressure relief and guarding, are not covered by this document.. 2 FIELD OF APPLICATION This Engineering Guide applies to all lubricated air compressors. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 5. 3 DEFINITIONS For the purposes of this Guide, the following definitions apply: Critical Machines System Any machines system so designated in the machines classification review (see GBHEEDP-MAC-6601). Lubricated (Reciprocating) Air Compressor A reciprocating air compressor in which oil is injected to lubricate the cylinders and valves. Oil Flooded Rotary Air Compressor A rotary air compressor in which oil is used to cool the air and/or lubricate the Compression mechanism. Examples are screw and sliding vane compressors. With the exception of terms used as proper nouns or titles, those terms with initial capital letters which appear in this document and are not defined above are defined in the Glossary of Engineering Terms. 4 MODEL INSTRUCTIONS FOR OIL LUBRICATED RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSORS 4.1 Introduction This compressor has oil lubricated cylinders. Use of the incorrect oil, or operation with excessively high discharge temperatures, can cause the oil to decompose to form a carbon-like deposit which builds up on the internal surfaces of the discharge system. This can ignite if it becomes more than (specify - see Appendix A Note 1) mm thick and cause a fire or explosion. 4.2 Lubricating Oil The lubricating oil for the cylinders and crank case shall be (specify code number - see Appendix A Note 2). Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 6. 4.3 Oil consumption The normal oil consumption of the compressor is (specify - see Appendix A Note 3). The actual amount of oil used shall be recorded on the log sheet. If the consumption increases to (specify) or more, the (specify) should be informed. 4.4 Operating Discharge Temperatures The normal maximum discharge temperatures are (specify for each stage - see Appendix A Note 4). The actual discharge temperatures will be affected by operating conditions and will generally be less than this. The actual temperatures are displayed (specify where) and should be recorded on the log sheet every (specify - see Appendix A Note 5). If the normal maximum temperature(s) are exceeded, inform (specify). Some of the possible causes of high discharge temperatures are: (a) Inadequate intercooler performance - fouling - low water flow rate - high inlet water temperature; (b) Inadequate cylinder cooling - fouling - low water flow rate - high inlet water temperature; (c) Discharge valves passing ; (d) High air inlet filter pressure drop. 4.5 High Discharge Temperature Trips High discharge temperatures trips are fitted to each stage and are set at (specify – see Appendix A Note 2). 4.6 External Visual Inspection of Pipework Any signs of overheating of discharge pipework - e.g. blistered paint, shall be reported to (specify). Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 7. 4.7 Routine Removal of Carbon Deposits Internally inspect the machine discharge ports, discharge pipework and any vessels up to and including the aftercooler every (specify - see Appendix A Note 6). Remove any carbon deposits by mechanical means. 5 MODEL INSTRUCTIONS FOR OIL FLOODED ROTARY COMPRESSOR 5.1 Introduction This compressor is of the oil flooded rotary design. Oil lubricates and cools the rotating parts and the discharge air. If the oil flow is reduced, or the oil cooler does not operate correctly, a fire or explosion can occur in the discharge system. 5.2 Lubricating Oil The oil used in the compressor is (specify - code number - see Appendix B Note 1). 5.3 Oil Consumption The normal oil consumption of the compressor is (specify - see Appendix B Note 2). The actual amount of oil used shall be recorded on the log sheet. If the oil consumption increases to (specify) the (specify) should be informed. 5.4 Oil Change Frequency The compressor oil shall be changed every (specify - see Appendix B Note 3). 5.5 Separator Element Change Frequency The separator element shall be changed every (specify - see Appendix B Note 4). The resistance to earth of the element shall be checked at this time. Maximum resistance shall be 100 ohms. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 8. 5.6 Operating Discharge Temperatures The normal maximum discharge temperature is (specify - see Appendix B Note 5). The actual discharge temperature will be affected by operating conditions and will generally be less than this. The temperature should be recorded on the log sheet every (specify - see Appendix B Note 6). If the normal, maximum temperature is exceeded, inform (specify). Some of the possible causes of high discharge temperatures are: (a) Low oil level; (b) High inlet filter pressure drop; (c) Loss of cooling air; (d) Fouling of oil cooler; (e) High pressure ratio; (f) Increased rotor clearance. 5.7 High Discharge Temperature Trip The high discharge temperature trip is set at (specify - see Appendix B Note 7). This is tested as part of the routine trip and alarm tests (see Appendix B - Note 7). 6 LOG SHEETS Log sheets should be designed to both inform and guide the operator as well as to record operating conditions. The maximum and/or minimum allowable values for each of the readings should be indicated where appropriate. As a minimum for both reciprocating and rotary compressors these would include: (a) Maximum operating discharge temperatures; (b) Maximum oil consumption. In such cases the log sheet should indicate the appropriate action; e.g. inform supervisor. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 9. APPENDIX A EXPLANATORY NOTES FOR RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS Note 1 Spontaneous combustion can occur under the following conditions: Compressor Discharge Pressure (barg) Guidance on maximum allowable Carbon Deposit Thickness to avoid spontaneous combustion (mm) P < 10 10 P < 30 30 P 3 2 1 Note 2 The crankcase and cylinder oils shall be to the same specification. The following oils are commonly used in compressors. The maximum, normal operating and trip temperatures for each stage are the same and are as listed. Maximum Temperatures Discharge Pressure Oil P (barg) Operating T o (°C) Trip T t (°C) Straight mineral oil to BS 4475 P 30 T o 140 T t 150 DIN 51 506 VD-L (e.g. Shell Corena P) P 30 T o 160 T t 170 30 < P 100 T o 140 T t 150 Others Consult Machines Section Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 10. Note 3 The anticipated normal oil consumption can be either obtained from the manufacturer or from experience. If consumption increases to 150% of the normal, an appropriate supervisor/manager should be informed. Note 4 The normal maximum discharge temperatures for each stage can either be obtained from the manufacturer or from experience. Note 5 Discharge temperatures should be recorded at least once per shift. Note 6 Initially, examine the discharge pipework after six months operation and then adjust, based on experience. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 11. APPENDIX B EXPLANATORY NOTES FOR OIL FLOODED ROTARY COMPRESSORS Note 1 Use special air compressor oil, e.g. Shell Corena 27 or equivalent, or a turbine oil to BS 489 : STO32. Note 2 The anticipated, normal oil consumption can either be obtained from the manufacturer or from experience. If consumption increases to 150% of the normal, an appropriate supervisor/manager should be informed. Note 3 The oil change frequency shall be as recommended by the compressor manufacturer. This will typically be every 1000 or 2000 h. Note 4 The separator element change frequency shall be as recommended by the manufacturer for the conditions in which the compressor is operating. Dusty environments will increase the frequency. Typically, a separator life of 4000 h might be expected. A low resistance electrical path is required between the element and the housing to avoid static build up. Note 5 The normal maximum discharge temperature can either be obtained from the manufacturer or from experience. Note 6 Discharge temperature should be recorded at least once per shift. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 12. Note 7 The high discharge temperature trip setting should be as recommended by the manufacturer. However, this should not exceed 140°C. The testing procedure for the trip shall include a time to trip. This time should be established during commissioning and if any significant change occurs during routine testing the reasons should be investigated. DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS ENGINEERING GUIDE This Engineering Guide makes reference to the following documents: BRITISH STANDARDS BS 489 Turbine Oils (referred to in Appendix B Note 1) BS 4475 Straight Mineral Lubricating Oils (referred to in Appendix A Note 2) GBHE ENGINEERING PROCEDURES GBHE-EDP-MAC-6601 Registration of Machines : Critical Machine Systems GBHE ENGINEERING GUIDES Glossary of Engineering Terms (referred to in Clause 3). Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 13. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com

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