Large Water Pumps

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Large Water Pumps
CONTENTS
1 SCOPE
SECTION ONE: INTEGRATION OF PUMPS INTO THE PROCESS
2 PROPERTIES OF FLUID
2.1 Cooling Water
2.2 Brine
2.3 Estuary Water
2.4 Harbor Water
2.5 Oil-field water
3 CALCULATION OF DUTY
4 CHOICE OF TYPE AND NUMBER OF PUMPS
4.1 Type of Pump
4.2 Points to Consider
4.3 Number of Pumps
5 RECOMMENDED LINE DIAGRAM
5.1 Check List for Each Pump
6 RECOMMENDED LAYOUT

SECTION TWO: CONSTRUCTION FEATURES
7 HORIZONTAL, AXIALLY SPLIT CASING PUMPS
7.1 Pressure Casing
7.2 Bolting
7.3 Flanges and Connections
7.4 Rotating Elements
7.5 Wear Rings
7.6 Running Clearances
7.7 Mechanical Seals
7.8 Packed Glands
7.9 Bearings and Bearing Housings
7.10 Lubrication
7.11 Couplings
7.12 Guards
7.13 Baseplates
7.14 Flywheels

8 VERTICAL PUMPS
8.1 General
8.2 Pressure Casing
8.3 Bolting
8.4 Flanges and Connections
8.5 Rotating Element
8.6 Packed Glands
8.7 Bearings and Bearing Housings
8.8 Pump Head
8.9 Column Pipes
8.10 Line Shaft and Couplings
8.11 Reverse Rotation
8.12 Gearboxes

9 MATERIALS
9.1 Castings
9.2 Casings
9.3 Impellers
9.4 Shafts
9.5 Shaft Sleeves
9.6 Bolts and Nuts

10 DRIVERS
10.1 Electric Motor Drives

11 BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDICES:
A COOLING WATER - EUROPEAN SITE
B TIDAL RIVER ESTUARY
C FLYWHEEL INERTIA FOR PRESSURE SURGE ABATEMENT
D RESIN COATING OF CASINGS FOR WATER PUMPS
E AREA RATIO METHOD
F NOTES ON PUMP IMPELLERS CASTINGS
G LIMIT ON SHAFT DIAMETER FOR HORIZONTAL PUMPS HAVING
ONE DOUBLE-ENTRY IMPELLER SUPPORTED BETWEEN BEARINGS
H FORCES AND BENDING MOMENTS ON RISING MAIN ASSEMBLY
I POWER COSTS
J PUTATIVE COST COMPARISON SHEET
K TECHNICAL COMPARISON SHEETS

FIGURES

2.1 VAPOR TEMPERATURE CURVES
2.2 DENSITY TEMPERATURE CURVES
3.1 TYPICAL HEAD OF PUMPS
3.2 TOTAL HEAD OF VERTICAL IMMERSED PUMP
3.3 TYPICAL TIDAL RIVER ESTUARY LEVELS
3.5 SUBMERGENCE LIMITS
4.1 TYPES OF PUMP
4.2 GUIDE TO PUMP TYPE AND SPEED
5.1 TYPICAL LINE DIAGRAM
6 GUIDE TO SUCTION PIPEWORK DESIGN
7 CASING AND IMPELLER DETAILS
8.1 DRY WELL AND WET WELL PUMP INSTALLATIONS
8.2 BELLMOUTH DIMENSIONS FOR VERTICAL INTAKES
8.3 MAXIMUM SPACING BETWEEN SHAFT GUIDE BUSHING
8.4 LINE SHAFT COUPLING
9 TYPICAL VOLUTE CASING
10 TYPICAL CASE WEAR RINGS
11 SEAL AREA

TABLES

1 LIQUID PROPERTIES SODIUM CHLORIDE (25% W/W)
2 LIQUID PROPERTIES SODIUM CHLORIDE (20% W/W)
3 LIQUID PROPERTIES SODIUM CHLORIDE (16.25% W/W)
4 LIQUID PROPERTIES SODIUM CHLORIDE (15% W/W)
5 LIQUID PROPERTIES SODIUM CHLORIDE (10% W/W)
6 LIQUID PROPERTIES SODIUM CHLORIDE (5% W/W)
7 GUIDE TO PUMP TYPE AND SPEED
8 RECOMMENDED CAST MATERIALS FOR USE IN THE PUMP INDUSTRY

GRAPHS
1 GUIDE TO ROTOR INERTIA
2 LIMITS BETWEEN BEARINGS

DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT DESIGN GUIDE

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Large Water Pumps

  1. 1. GBH Enterprises, Ltd. Engineering Design Guide: GBHE-EDG-MAC-1507 Large Water Pumps Process Disclaimer Information contained in this publication or as otherwise supplied to Users is believed to be accurate and correct at time of going to press, and is given in good faith, but it is for the User to satisfy itself of the suitability of the information for its own particular purpose. GBHE gives no warranty as to the fitness of this information for any particular purpose and any implied warranty or condition (statutory or otherwise) is excluded except to the extent that exclusion is prevented by law. GBHE accepts no liability resulting from reliance on this information. Freedom under Patent, Copyright and Designs cannot be assumed. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  2. 2. Engineering Design Guide: Large Water Pumps CONTENTS 1 SCOPE SECTION ONE: INTEGRATION OF PUMPS INTO THE PROCESS 2 PROPERTIES OF FLUID 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Cooling Water Brine Estuary Water Harbor Water Oil-field water 3 CALCULATION OF DUTY 4 CHOICE OF TYPE AND NUMBER OF PUMPS 4.1 4.2 4.3 5 RECOMMENDED LINE DIAGRAM 5.1 6 Type of Pump Points to Consider Number of Pumps Check List for Each Pump RECOMMENDED LAYOUT Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  3. 3. SECTION TWO: CONSTRUCTION FEATURES 7 HORIZONTAL, AXIALLY SPLIT CASING PUMPS 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 8 Pressure Casing Bolting Flanges and Connections Rotating Elements Wear Rings Running Clearances Mechanical Seals Packed Glands Bearings and Bearing Housings Lubrication Couplings Guards Baseplates Flywheels VERTICAL PUMPS 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 8.12 General Pressure Casing Bolting Flanges and Connections Rotating Element Packed Glands Bearings and Bearing Housings Pump Head Column Pipes Line Shaft and Couplings Reverse Rotation Gearboxes Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  4. 4. 9 MATERIALS 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 10 DRIVERS 10.1 11 Castings Casings Impellers Shafts Shaft Sleeves Bolts and Nuts Electric Motor Drives BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES: A B C D E F G H I J K COOLING WATER - EUROPEAN SITE TIDAL RIVER ESTUARY FLYWHEEL INERTIA FOR PRESSURE SURGE ABATEMENT RESIN COATING OF CASINGS FOR WATER PUMPS AREA RATIO METHOD NOTES ON PUMP IMPELLERS CASTINGS LIMIT ON SHAFT DIAMETER FOR HORIZONTAL PUMPS HAVING ONE DOUBLE-ENTRY IMPELLER SUPPORTED BETWEEN BEARINGS FORCES AND BENDING MOMENTS ON RISING MAIN ASSEMBLY POWER COSTS PUTATIVE COST COMPARISON SHEET TECHNICAL COMPARISON SHEETS Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  5. 5. FIGURES 2.1 2.2 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.5 4.1 4.2 5.1 6 7 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 9 10 11 VAPOR TEMPERATURE CURVES DENSITY TEMPERATURE CURVES TYPICAL HEAD OF PUMPS TOTAL HEAD OF VERTICAL IMMERSED PUMP TYPICAL TIDAL RIVER ESTUARY LEVELS SUBMERGENCE LIMITS TYPES OF PUMP GUIDE TO PUMP TYPE AND SPEED TYPICAL LINE DIAGRAM GUIDE TO SUCTION PIPEWORK DESIGN CASING AND IMPELLER DETAILS DRY WELL AND WET WELL PUMP INSTALLATIONS BELLMOUTH DIMENSIONS FOR VERTICAL INTAKES MAXIMUM SPACING BETWEEN SHAFT GUIDE BUSHING LINE SHAFT COUPLING TYPICAL VOLUTE CASING TYPICAL CASE WEAR RINGS SEAL AREA TABLES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 LIQUID PROPERTIES SODIUM CHLORIDE (25% W/W) LIQUID PROPERTIES SODIUM CHLORIDE (20% W/W) LIQUID PROPERTIES SODIUM CHLORIDE (16.25% W/W) LIQUID PROPERTIES SODIUM CHLORIDE (15% W/W) LIQUID PROPERTIES SODIUM CHLORIDE (10% W/W) LIQUID PROPERTIES SODIUM CHLORIDE (5% W/W) GUIDE TO PUMP TYPE AND SPEED RECOMMENDED CAST MATERIALS FOR USE IN THE PUMP INDUSTRY GRAPHS 1 2 GUIDE TO ROTOR INERTIA LIMITS BETWEEN BEARINGS DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT DESIGN GUIDE Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  6. 6. 1 SCOPE This Process Engineering Design Guide covers the following pumps and allied systems, typical of petrochemical plants: (a) Cooling water circulating pumps (b) Brine transfer pumps (c) Sea and river water extraction pumps (d) Fire-fighting water pumps (excluding pumps on fire tenders) Section One: covers the integration of pumps into the process and should be read in conjunction with GBHE-EDG-MAC-1014. Section Two: covers the construction features of large water pumps.. SECTION ONE – INTEGRATION OF PUMPS INTO THE PROCESS 2 PROPERTIES OF FLUID 2.1 Cooling Water Cooling water will vary from plant to plant affected by the quality of water treatment, process fluid ingress and local atmospheric conditions. See typical analyses, Appendix A. 2.2 Brine In general brine used will be saturated sodium chloride (NaCI) –for sample analysis of fully saturated brine see Appendix B. Freezing point for fully saturated brine is -21°C. (Reference Perry's Chemical Engineering Handbook 4th Edition). 2.3 Estuary Water Estuary water will vary mainly dependent upon the location, which in general, is in a tidal river estuary. Typical analysis – see Appendix C Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  7. 7. No account is taken of foreign bodies always present at river mouths or the ever changing conditions which in the limit can vary from sea water to river water. Freezing point varies from river water at QOC to sea water at 2.5°C (Reference Kemps Engineer's Year Book 1977). 2.4 Harbor Water Do not assume that pump construction and materials suitable for sea water are also suitable for harbor water. The latter may contain more debris and be contaminated. Look for reference installations for each individual case. 2.5 Oil-field Water Brines from oil-fields may be contaminated by hydrogen sulfide and therefore markedly more corrosive than sea water. High pressure injection water is deaerated to inhibit bacterial growth and reduce corrosion (down to the limit of measurement of about 25 ppb of oxygen). Such service is beyond the scope of this Design Guide. 3 CALCULATION OF DUTY Calculate the duty in accordance with GBHE-EDG-MAC-1014. Brine pumps usually draw from a reservoir which has varying levels. The differential head should be calculated on the maximum draw down level. A minimum start level is required for vertical pumps to cover first stage impeller - Fig 3.2. Estuary water pumps situated in tidal river estuaries will be subjected to density changes - use maximum density in the calculations. The lowest spring tide level should be used in establishing the total differential head. Fig 3.3. Section A8 of GBHE-EDG-MAC-1014 is not sufficiently accurate when applied to large capacity pump installations. Use the dimensions given in Fig 3.5 to check the proposed layout. These values are based on M J Prosser's The Hydraulic Design of Pump Sumps and Intakes, July 1977, which is considered to supersede the Hydraulic Institute Standards, 1975, pages 108 to 115, with an added margin drawn from existing proven installations on several European plants. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  8. 8. If reduced submergence is required then model testing is essential. For vertical bell mouths the intake should be more closely matched to the normal flow lines to cater for the flow coming from behind the bellmouth. Systems subject to pressure surge effects may be alleviated by fitting a flywheel to increase the inertia/rundown time see; Appendix D. Special motor starting arrangements will be required. 4 CHOICE OF TYPE AND NUMBER OF PUMPS 4. 1 Type of Pump Section B of GBHE-EDG-MAC-1014 is supplemented by the table and chart as a 'Guide to Pump Type and Speed'. (a) For line booster pumps for duties less than 100 l/s choose BS 4082 inline pump within the limits of GBHE-EDG-MAC-1014. (b) Choose a double-entry impeller, horizontal split casing pump up to flows of 550 l/s. larger flows up to 4000 l/s can be achieved at the expense of greater submergence and NPSH, necessitating a pit. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  9. 9. FIG 2.1 VAPOR TEMPERATURE CURVES Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  10. 10. FIGURE 2.2 - DENSITY TEMPERATURE CURVE Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  11. 11. SOOIUM CHLORIDE ( 25 % W/W ) Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  12. 12. SODIUM CHLORIDE ( 20 % W/W ) Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  13. 13. SODIUM CHLORIDE (16.25 % W/W) Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  14. 14. SODIUM CHLORIDE ( 15 % W/W ) Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  15. 15. SODIUM CHLORIOE (10 % W/W) Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  16. 16. SODIUM CHLORIDE (5 % W/W) Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  17. 17. FIGURE 3.1 TYPICAL HEAD OF PUMP Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  18. 18. FIGURE 3.2 TOTAL HEAD OF VERTICAL IMMERSED PUMP Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  19. 19. FIGURE 3.3 TYPICAL TIDAL RIVER ESTUARY LEVELS Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  20. 20. FIGURE 3.5 SUBMERGENCE LIMITS Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  21. 21. (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) 4.2 Use single entry impeller, volute casing pump, vertical mounted in dry wells for flows of 4000 to 6000 l/s. Vertical column pump, wet sump line shaft may be chosen for flows up to l5, 000 l/s. Vertical pumps with a concrete volute become economical for flows above 6000 l/s. Jet eductors are used in conjunction with a centrifugal pump to provide suction lift to the centrifugal pump by diverting circa 50% of the pumped rate around through an eductor located at the low water level. This in turn induces 50% additional flow with the energy to lift and provide the centrifugal pump with sufficient NPSH. The circuit requires a foot valve and an initial priming system. The peak efficiency of the combination is roughly that of the eductor. Standard commercial units are limited to low flows (8 l/s), though pumps with 72 inch discharge nozzles have been used in the USA (Reference Stepanoff - Centrifugal and Axial Flow Pumps, 2nd Edition). Two-stage pumps covered by Zone Y will more commonly be used in fire fighting services where higher heads are required. Points to Consider When choosing the pump type the following points should be considered: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Vertical immersed pumps should be used on essential or auto start duties. Pump wells/pits may be used for horizontal pump installations where economically justifiable and should be provided with a reliable drainage system with non-return facilities. To eliminate the possibility of flooding, avoid using a well/pit, or at least, arrange any equipment liable to water damage to be l50 mm above the finished ground level. Pits of 1 m depth and greater are not permitted on plants handling flammable or toxic gas as the area is liable to become the subject of a Chemical Works Regulation 7 entry certificate; also the Area Classification will be Zone 2 if not Zone l. Pumps operating in series from the main cooling water main to boost pressure for localized high pressure systems. Power recovery from high pressure source let down to cooling water return line pressure. This would take the form of a centrifugal pump operating as a hydraulic turbine in accordance with GBHE-EDG-MAC1014, providing power via a double ended motor to the cooling water pump. Jet educt or/centrifugal pump combination should be used when the suction lift is too great for an ordinary horizontal centrifugal pump or a selfpriming unit. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  22. 22. FIGURE 4.1 TYPES OF PUMP Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  23. 23. Dry Well 4.3 Number of Pumps (a) The reliability classification will in general be Class 4 as per GBHE-EDGMAC-1014, Appendix A. An analysis carried out on cooling water pumps gave: Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  24. 24. Consequently the first choice is one 100% duty main pump plus one identical 100% standby. (b) Main cooling water pumps are normally high powered; consequently the power supply of the electric motors may have a step change in cost corresponding to 415 Volts, 660 Volts, 3.3 kV and II kV steps in electricity supply voltage. (c) Account should be taken of existing pumps in use on the same Works/Site with the view of using common spares. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  25. 25. TABLE 7: GUIDE TO PUMP TYPE AND SPEED Note that the inlet NPSH often determines pump speed. The chart should then be re-entered after converting the duty into the equivalent duty at the speed given in the table, see GBHE-EDG-MAC-1014, Fig. B.2.3.2. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  26. 26. FIGURE 4.2: GUIDE TO PUMP TYPE AND SPEED Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  27. 27. 5 RECOMMENDED LINE DIAGRAM (FIG 5.1) 5.1 Check List for Each Pump: (a) Permanent inlet strainer made from perforated plate BS 1669 Class A 12.5 mm. dia. holes: 3 mm. thick plate: the fine 20 mesh used for start up on pumps with less than 6" inlets will be removed as soon as possible. (b) Suction isolation valve for horizontal pumps with flooded suction: the valve should be anchored. (c) Pump casing drain valve if pump is not self-draining through pipework (d) Pump casing vent: this should be automatic on vertical pumps or pumps on auto standby (e) Discharge pressure gauge (f) Non-return valve should be damped action with a short stroke, slam free (i.e. Mannesmann, Demag or similar): the valve should be anchored to withstand transient pressure load (g) Bypass for control or proving (h) Discharge isolation valve (j) Suction lines generally of 20" diameter or greater should be provided with two Viking Johnson couplings for flexibility (k) initial coarse straining of sea/river water and open sumps require double suction screens made from galvanized mild steel floor grating or mesh to BS 4483, 049. (l) Sea and river estuaries water require a full width band screen or rotary drum screen. (m) Any baffles in the sump should be made of stainless steel plate. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  28. 28. 6 RECOMMENDED LAYOUT For the rights and wrongs of suction pipework for horizontal pumps see Fig 6. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  29. 29. FIGURE 5.1 TYPICAL LINE DIAGRAM Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  30. 30. FIGURE 6 GUIDE TO SUCTION PIPEWORK DESIGN Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  31. 31. SECTION TWO: CONSTRUCTION FEATURES 7 HORIZONTAL, AXIALLY SPLIT CASING PUMPS 7.1 Pressure Casing The casing should have the inlet and discharge nozzles in the lower half to ensure maintenance can be carried out without disturbing the pipework. The casing joint should only be allowed to overlap on the casing half opposite to the direction of flow, see Fig 7.la. Mis-matching of the two halves of the casing and failure to remove excess metal from the slit joint can result in "spreading" of the volute and loss of efficiency. The casing joint should be metal to metal sealed with a jointing compound. To reduce recirculation and axial hydraulic shuffling the casing walls should be close to 25 mm and follow the line of the impeller shroud, see Fig 7.lb. When jacking screws are used to part joints one of the faces should be relieved to prevent marring. The casing surface finish should be in accordance with Appendix E. 7.2 Bolting Tapped holes in the pressure parts are permitted providing that sufficient metal in addition to the metal allowance for corrosion is left around and below the bottom of the tapped holes to enable hole to be redrilled and tapped to the next larger standard size. Fastenings materials should have low galling and seizing tendency with the mating material. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  32. 32. 7.3 Flanges and Connections All flanges should be to BS 1560. Cast iron flanges should be flat faced for full face gaskets. Flange sealing surfaces should be machined by a tool rotating about the axis of the branch, the final cut being in the form of a single spiral groove. Surface texture is defined in relation to roughness comparison specimens in accordance with BS 2634 Part 1. Flanges should be spot faced on the back and should be designed for through bolting. All pumps should be provided with a vent connection. Pumps on auto start should be fitted with an automatic air release valve. Drain connections to completely empty the pump should be provided unless the pump is self draining through the inlet or discharge piping. Pressure gauge connections are not required on the pump casing. 7.4 Rotating Elements The impeller diameter fitted for the rated duty should be capable of being changed to give a 5% increase or a 20% reduction in head. Impellers should be single piece castings. Impellers should be positively located on the shaft. Keyed to prevent circumferential movement. Lateral movement will be checked by a shoulder on the shaft or lock nuts threaded to tighten by the liquid drag on the impeller and mechanically locked. If a double volute casing is used then there should be an odd number of vanes on the impeller. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  33. 33. For large capacity, double entry impellers, the vanes should preferably be on a staggered pitch on opposite sides of the centre line. Check the Area Ratio see Appendix F. Dimension checks on the impellers can be carried out in accordance with Appendix G. Reducing the generated head is permitted by machining impeller outside diameter of Centrifugal/Francis Vane impellers, Fig 7.4a. Mixed flow shrouded impellers head reduction is achieved by reducing the average diameter of the outer and inner shrouds, cutting both diameters in the same ratio. See Fig 7.4b. Mixed flow open impellers/propellers head can be reduced by cutting the trailing edge of the vane only, tapering from zero at the hub to maximum at the outside diameter. The calculated reduction in head is based on the reduction of tip lengths ratio not diameters. See Fig 7.4c. Axial flow impellers generated head can be reduced by cutting down the outside diameter but is rarely done in practice as it requires a new casing on a liner. Varying the speed is the better solution. Adjustment of the Q/H curve shape of a Centrifugal/Francis Vane impeller is permitted by: (a) Underfiling the trailing edge of the vane. This can give a 3% increase in head at BEP, the higher the speed the more pronounced the effect. Fig 7.4d. (b) Overfiling the leading edge can give improved efficiency by reducing the disturbance in the volute. Fig 7.4e. Axial displacement greater than 2 mm and angular displacement greater than 1° to the volute centre line will reduce pump efficiency. Two stage pumps should have the impellers mounted back to back to give balanced hydraulic thrust loadings. The impellers should be dynamically balanced. The maximum total residual out of balance should be to BS 5265 Part 1 G6.3. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  34. 34. Balance should be achieved firstly by reducing the vane thickness and secondly by reducing the thickness of the shrouds. In neither case should the thickness be reduced below the required minimum. The shaft diameter and distance between shaft ends should be limited to Zone B of Appendix H. Shafts should be properly finished at the bearing surfaces and adequately radiused at changes in diameter, corners of keyways etc. Vendor should declare radius less than 5% of local radius of curvature. Adequate provisions should be made for sleeve removal Shafts should be provided with sleeves locked or clamped to the shaft. The sleeve surface in contact with a moving seal component, or over which such a component has to pass during assembly, should have a surface finish of 0.2 to 0.4 µm Ra. Shaft sleeves should be sealed at one end, and the shaft-sleeve assembly (or nut) should extend beyond the outer face of the packing gland or the seal end plate. Leakage between the shaft and the sleeve thus cannot be confused with leakage through the stuffing box packing or the mechanical seal faces. Shafts should be machined and properly finished throughout their length so that there is no more than 25 micron total indicated runout when rotating element bearings are used. On the shaft sleeve assembled on the shaft, complete with bearings, there should be no more than 51 micron total indicated runout. The diameter of shaft or shaft sleeve in contact with mechanical seals should be a preferred metric diameter from the range: 24, 28, 33, 38, 43, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 180, 200. A mechanical seal having direct contact with the shaft (i.e. no sleeve) should be stationary relative to the shaft at the point of contact (e.g. a bellows type seal). Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  35. 35. Joints between impeller and shaft sleeve and impeller and nut should be sealed by a gasket, trapped to prevent extrusion, or by lot rings to avoid corrosion or the build-up of corrosion or decomposition products which might complicate dismantling. If screwed sleeves are unavoidable, the thread length should be not more than 10 mm to reduce the chances of binding during maintenance. Sleeve bore should be relieved for the major portion of its length but not under the seal clamping position. Any sleeves that directly clamp the impeller should be the same diameter as the impeller hub at the intersection to ensure smooth entry flow. 7.5 Wear Rings Renewable wear rings should be provided for the casing. Tack welding is not permitted for the retention of wear rings. Locking devices should not protrude into the wear allowance and should remain effective when worn. Casing wear rings which direct the leakage radially are preferred for pumps with a suction specific speed greater than 0.4, to reduce the unfavorable disturbance of the inlet flow into the eye of the impeller, see Fig 7.5a. The axial thrust balance arrangement should ensure that residual thrust direction is unilateral over the operating capacity range. For this purpose the nominal wear ring diameters may be different on opposite sides of a double entry impeller. 7.6 Running Clearances Clearances should be sufficient to assure dependable operation and freedom from seizure. Design should be such as to avoid change of running clearances due to uneven gasket compression. For standard materials of rubbing pairs the clearances should not be less than the values given in the following table. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  36. 36. 7.7 Mechanical Seals Select a rubber bellows type, e.g. Crane 502 and 521, Sized from the range given in Clause 7.4. Inch sizes, type 4 and 5 are acceptable. The use of seals with split carbon seats should be considered for large seals where down time is critical and replacement of conventional seats would involve a major strip down of the bearings housing and lube oil system. The seal face materials have traditionally been ni-resist and carbon 387A (formerly BR171) but silicon carbide has proved successful on contaminated water duties. For brine and seawater use 379A (formerly BRMCM). The seal should be backed up with a throttle bush or auxiliary packed gland with a permanent clean water quench to prevent crystallization of brine or seawater. The gland plate should be designed to make metal to metal contact to ensure accurate alignment of the seal faces. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  37. 37. The seal chamber should be provided with a vent (internal or external) to permit complete venting of the chamber. 7.8 Packed Glands Soft packed glands should be used for essential non-continuous duties: (a) Fire water pumps (b) Storm water pumps (c) Sump pump-out pumps A minimum of 3 turns of square packing will be used. Preferred sizes are 6, 8, 10, 12.5 and 15 mm square section. Die formed rings are preferred to reduce maintenance effort. A lantern ring with a clean water flush is preferred for brine and sea water duties. The clean water flush pressure will be 1 bar above stuffing box pressure. The sleeve under the gland packing should be hard coated by fusion welded surface deposits of nickel cobalt or nickel-boron-tungsten alloys e.g. Stellite or Colomonoy. Hard chromium electroplating is not acceptable. The gland surface finish should be better than 0.4 micron Ra. The packings should be replaceable without dismantling any other part of the pump. The lantern ring may be the split design. 7.9 Bearings and Bearing Housings Bearings and lubrication should follow GBHE-EDS-MAC-1806 within its limits, typically 500 kW. Outside these limits, bearings and lubrication should follow the intent of GBHE-EDS-MAC-1806 simple, robust, self contained design with an LID life in excess of 40,000 hrs (ISO R 281, Part 1). Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  38. 38. Bearing housings should be axially split for the ease of maintenance and equipped with a labyrinth type end seal/deflector where the shaft passes through the housing. On oil lubricated bearing systems, lip seals may be used for shaft sizes less than 60 mm. Cooper Split bearings should not be used. Bearing housings and components should be designed to minimize contamination by moisture, dust and other foreign matter during running and standby periods. If water cooling is required it should be designed to cool the oil not the bearing housing. The cooling system should be self draining to protect against frost damage. 7.10 Lubrication Lubrication shall be in accordance with GBHE-EDS-MAC-1806. If a separate lube oil system is required it shall be in accordance with GBHEEDS-MAC-1806 7.11 Couplings Couplings should be in accordance with GBHE-EDG-MAC-1101 "Engineering of Shaft Couplings". A spacer of sufficient length will be provided to allow replacement of all seal parts, sleeves and bearings without disturbing the pump or driver. The pump coupling hub should be designed to be removed in situ. 7 .12 Guards Should conform to BS S304 and withstand a force of 1000 N without deforming to within 12 mm of moving parts. Provisions for adequate ventilation to cool is required but split expanded metal mesh should not be used. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  39. 39. The guard should be bolted in position and should be removable without dismantling of other parts. 7.13 Baseplates The baseplate should extend under the pump and driver. All mounting pads should be fully machined flat and parallel to receive the equipment. Corresponding surfaces should be in the same plane within 0.17 mm per meter of distance between pads, as machined to allow for installation of shims 1.5 mm minimum thickness under the driver train. When the pump vendor provides the driver, a set of stainless steel shim packs 3.0 mm minimum thickness should be included. When the pump vendor does not mount the driver, the pads for the driver should be machined but not drilled, and shim packs should not be provided. All shims should straddle hold-down bolts. Baseplate and pump supports should be constructed and the pumping unit mounted to minimize misalignment. The underside of fabricated baseplates beneath the pump and driver supports should be welded in order to reinforce cross-members and should have members shaped to lock positively into the grout to resist upward movement of the baseplate. All baseplates should be provided with at least one grouting opening having a clear area of no less than 0.01 square meter and no dimension less than 75 mm in each bulkhead section. These holes should be located to permit filling the entire cavity under the baseplate without creating air pockets. Vent holes 12.5 mm minimum size should be provided for each bulkhead compartment. For dropped centre-trough baseplates, the holes should be in the high section adjacent to the trough. Where practical, holes should be accessible for grouting with the pump and driver installed. Grout holes in the drip-pan area should have 12.5 mm raised-lip edges, and if located in an area where liquids could impinge metallic grout hole covers (16 gauge minimum thickness) should be provided. Baseplates should be sufficiently stiff to maintain alignment without the use of grout. Baseplates intended to be bolted down may be designed to be adequate in the bolted down condition if their adequacy has been demonstrated. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  40. 40. For electric motors over 75 kilowatts, alignment positioning screws should be provided for each drive element to facilitate longitudinal and transverse horizontal adjustments. The lugs holding these positioning screws should be attached to the baseplate so that they do not interfere with the installation or removal of the drive element. Vertical leveling screwing spaced for stability should be provided on the outside perimeter of the baseplate. These should be numerous enough to carry the weight of the baseplate, pump, and driver without excessive deflection, but in no case should fewer than six screws be provided. Position as close as possible to HD bolts. The height of the pump shaft centerline above the baseplate should be minimized. Adequate clearance should be provided between the case drain connection and the baseplate for installation of drain piping the same size as the connection. All pumps and drivers should be fully assembled and aligned within 50 micron total indicator reading in accordance with the cold alignment diagram on their baseplate at the vendor's works. The baseplate should be left free standing for this. Motor dowelling may be left until site installation. Support areas should be parallel within 0.05 mm when the base-plate is in an unbolted condition. 7.14 Flywheels From Appendix D it can be determined if a flywheel may be required to prevent down surge. Checks should be made against the actual inertia of the pump set before ordering. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  41. 41. 8 VERTICAL PUMPS 8.1 General Additional features required for vertical pumps are covered in the following clauses. Vertical shaft centrifugal pumps are either:(a) (b) 8.2 Wet sump: suspended column type where the impeller and pump bowl is immersed in the water and any major overhaul requires the whole unit to be withdrawn, see Fig 8.la. Dry sump: where all the parts of the pump are accessible in a dry chamber, which allows maintenance to be carried out or impellers changed to alter the duty. They can either be the suspended column type see Fig 8.lb or the volute casing mixed flow, driven by a remote driver, Fig 8.lc. Pressure Casing The bell mouth intakes should closely match the normal flow lines. Elliptical cross-sectional dimensions are shown in Fig 8.2. Concrete volute casing patterns are to be supplied by the pump vendor. 8.3 Bolting To facilitate dismantling, internal bolting for vertical pumps should be of a material fully resistant to corrosive attack by the fluid. 8.4 Flanges and Connections The pumps will have a vent connection fitted with an automatic air release valve which will also act as a vacuum breaker. 8.5 Rotating Element Collet fitting of the impellers to the shaft should not be used. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  42. 42. 8.6 Packed Glands Soft packing is preferred to mechanical seals. 8.7 Bearings and Bearing Housings The pump should have its own thrust bearing designed for an LIO life greater than 40,000 hrs with a self-contain lubrication system. This precludes the use of NEMA hollow shaft motors. The design should permit replacement of the thrust bearing in situ without moving the driver. The line shaft bearings should be stainless steel shelled nitrite lined (cutless rubber) lubricated by the pumped liquid, supported by spigoted spiders, clamped between the flanges of the column pipes. The maximum spacing between bearings is given in graph Fig 8.7. Axial positioning of the shaft/impeller should be adjustable local to the pump thrust bearing. 8.8 Pump Head The pump will have a separate base mounting flange (sole plate) and this should be grouted with epoxy grout. A minimum of four alignment positioning screws should be provided to align each element horizontally. The head gear/support frame is to be designed to ensure that the pump set is free from harmful torsional or lateral free or forced, steady or transient vibrations. The natural frequency should be greater than 125% of the motor speed. 8.9 Column Pipes The column pipes should have cast integral flanges or fabricated with machined faces and spigots to accurately align/position the bearing spider. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  43. 43. Reversed bending moments due to the disturbing force at the impeller should be taken into account, see Appendix J. 8.10 Line Shaft and Couplings Cone couplings should be used and sealed against liquid ingress, see Fig 8.10a. 8.11 Reverse Rotation If the system cannot be provided with a non return valve in the discharge then a reverse rotation clutch should be used: Borg Warner, Morse, Stuber Cluteh type RS/BF. A time delay should be built into the motor started circuit to ensure that the pump is not started against reverse flow. 8.12 Gearboxes For concrete volute pumps where the speed is generally less than 8 rps epicyclic gearbox in accordance with GBHE-EDS-MAC-1806 should be used. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  44. 44. 9 MATERIALS 9.1 Castings Castings material should be in accordance with Table 1, taken from BS DD 38. 9.2 Casings Cooling water pump casings should be grey cast iron. Casings with 6" branch sizes and greater should be coated in accordance with Appendix E. The objective of the coating is to avoid the reduction in pump performance caused by corrosion roughening the volute surface. Such corrosion occurs faster in stationary or standby pumps. The falloff in efficiency is more marked for pumps where the rated flow is small and the stage specific speed is low. For a pump where Q = 450 l/s and Ns = 0.08 the long-term efficiency reduction was 8%. For the same pump the hydraulic effect of applying the coating was to raise the new pump efficiency by 2% over the untreated casing. The same improvement was measured on Project A.2S68 Harland 6"/S" Uniglide Q = 104 l/s, Ns = 0.063. The on-site tests carried out on a European Olefins Plant, cooling water pumps indicated a 1% increase after coating. These are SPP pumps type BR24A with a flow of IS60 l/s, Ns = 0.076. These rises reflect the effect both of the treatment of the cast surfaces in preparation for the coating and the smoothness of the coating itself. For small pumps in essential but intermittent duty applications exemplified by fire-fighting water supplies, the pump casing should be specified in an inherently corrosion resistant material. The coating technique is restricted to pumps with access to every wetted surface. Brine and sea water casings should be flake graphite austenitic cast iron (ni-resist) or 'grey cast iron, coated in accordance with Appendix E. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  45. 45. Fire fighting water pumps should have casings of leaded gun metal. If branch size greater than 6" then grey cast iron, coated in accordance with Appendix E can be used. 9.3 Impellers Cooling water impellers should be grey cast iron for acid free systems with a suction specific speed of less than 0.4 and austenitic corrosion resisting steel above this limit or if there is a possibility of acid contamination. Brine and sea water impellers should have flake graphite austenitic cast iron impellers for suction specific speeds of less than 0.4 and austenitic corrosion resisting steel for greater suction specific speeds. Fire fighting pump impellers should be leaded gun metal. 9.4 Shafts Shafts for cooling water pumps should be to BS 970 - Part I, 080 M 40 or better. Brine and sea water pump shafts should be to BS 970 - Part 4, 416 S21 or Monel. The limit of a maximum of 1.5% chromium in steel shafts should not be exceeded for pumps with white metal bearings with journal peripheral speed 11 m/s. 9.5 Shaft Sleeves Shaft sleeves material should be FV 520B stainless steel or BS 970 Part 4, 415 S21. 9.6 Bolts and Nuts Brine and sea water pumps should have stainless steel studs/bolts to BS 970 Part 4 304 SIS or 321 S12 used with free machinery nuts material 303 S21 or 325 S21 with the alternative of bronze. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  46. 46. NB Aluminium bronze will not be used for any pump components. 10 DRIVERS 10.1 Electric Motor Drives The pump should be direct driven. The motor should be sized to cover end of curve conditions for pump sets operating in parallel. If the pump has a pressurized lube oil system then the motor bearings should be supplied from the same system. If the motor does not have its own thrust bearing then a limited end float coupling should be used. When a flywheel is provided the motor should be designed to cater for the higher starting torque. To achieve balance of the motor rotor, facilities should be provided at both the drive and non drive ends. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  47. 47. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  48. 48. TABLE 8 RECOMMENDED CAST MATERIALS FOR USE IN THE PUMP INDUSTRY Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  49. 49. FIGURE 7 CASING AND IMPELLER DETAILS Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  50. 50. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  51. 51. FIGURE 8.I DRY WELL AND WET WELL PUMP INSTALLATION Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  52. 52. FIGURE 8.3 MAXIMUM SPACING BETWEEN SHAFT GUIDE BUSHING Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  53. 53. FIGURE 8.2 BELLMOUTH DIMENSIONS FOR VERTICAL INTAKES Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  54. 54. APPENDIX A COOLING WATER - EUROPEAN SITE A. 1 European Site A.1.1 Chromate Doped Systems These include the large open evaporative systems and some smaller open systems. A.1.1 Nitrite Doped Systems These include some coolers on Sulfuric Acid Plants and coolers on some Methanol plants. Note: * Present in all corrosion inhibitors. ** Only present when microbiological control of system lost and NO2 oxidized to NO3 Not desired. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  55. 55. A. 1.3 Undoped Systems This includes 'once-through' and recirculating systems. The recirculating ones are so called 'Stability Index' controlled systems. No external chemicals are added to prevent corrosion or scaling but a 'neutral' balance is attempted by controlling make-up and blowdown. Such systems include some of the smaller open systems, e.g. concentrated nitric acid, and the coolers on Sulfuric Acid Plants. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  56. 56. COOLING WATER - EUROPEAN SITE A.3 CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM On isolated Works, Plants and even items of equipment, self contained closed loop systems are used. They require a head tank, fin fan cooler and circulating pumps. To prevent the system from freezing the water is treated with antifreeze (ethylene glycol with corrosion inhibitors). Avoid using copper and copper alloys. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  57. 57. APPENDIX C FLYWHEEL INERTIA FOR PRESSURE SURGE ABATEMENT Pressure surges in long pipe lines are usually initiated from two sources:1 Rapid closure of valve in the delivery line, as covered in GBHE-EDGMAC-1014 Clause D3. 2 Loss of power from the driver causing down surge. The effects can be limited by introducing a flywheel into the pumpset to increase the stored kinetic energy available to maintain pumping for a short period. The scope of this appendix is to guide the user in deciding:a whether a flywheel is required b what order of size is required The inertia of a modern pump and motor is relatively small and causes the pumpset to reduce speed and head, rapidly. The addition of a flywheel of sufficient inertia will extend the rundown time beyond the pipe line period of the first reflection, preventing void formation in the delivery line by continuing to generate pressure. Whilst a flywheel will prevent water hammer and valve slam it has very little effect in reducing the peak pressures. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  58. 58. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  59. 59. The initial indication of the pump set inertia available can be obtained from the graph, which covers all types of shrouded impeller pumps with CACA or TEFC electric motor drives. The difference between 6 and 5 gives the approximate value of the moment of inertia of the flywheel. If the difference is less than 20% of the total then do NOT specify a flywheel but check further at the ordering stage with a detailed investigation, involving the selected Vendor/ Vendors. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  60. 60. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  61. 61. GRAPH I GUIDE TO ROTOR INERTIA Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  62. 62. APPENDIX D D.1 RESIN COATING OF CASINGS FOR WATER PUMPS SCOPE This Appendix covers the requirements and the method of resin coating pump casing internal surfaces of cast iron, axially split, single stage pumps with branch sizes 6" nb and greater. D.2 COATING SAKAPHEN HD 60 EXTRA T is to be used. D.3 PREPARATION OF CASTING The casting should be prepared before shipping to the Suppliers Works. Casings of pumps whose rated head is less than 40 m should have all sharp edges and internal corners ground to a minimum radius of 3 rom. This includes all the termination points such as the split joint, wear ring, and flange bores, etc. For pumps with greater heads the minimum radius at the split joint and flange bore should be 5 rom. See Figures 9 to 11. All casting defects, protuberances, inclusions, etc, are to be removed so that deviation from the desired profile gradient does not exceed 1 : 50. This also applies to the horizontal split joint within the volute zone. See Figure 9. The volute cut water point and any vane trailing edges should have a minimum radius of 5 mm. All surfaces to be coated should be degreased, freed from plumbago or foundry coatings by using the method laid down in BS 5493, Clause 14.2, or by the use of vapor degreasing equipment. Any machined surfaces that need protecting against grit blasting should be clearly identified to the Supplier. The pump manufacturer should ensure that a representative of the Supplier inspects the casing before dispatch to the Supplier's works and any preparation work that is not satisfactory should be remedied. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  63. 63. D.4 PREPARATION BY THE VENDOR BEFORE COATING All identified machined surfaces are to be effectively masked against blasting. All surfaces to be coated shall be abrasive (grit) blasted clean to "Second Quality" standard as laid down in BS 4232. (Swedish Standard SIS 05 09 00 Sa 2 1/t). The surface finish shall be better than 38 µ mRa. After blasting the surfaces shall be cleaned from dust and abrasive residue by dry air blast or vacuum. Any cavities or fissures that remain shall be filled after blasting with epoxy mortar (Devcon or Resocon) providing a margin to be finally ground back to restore the correct profile. D.5 COATING The coating shall be applied in a dry, clean workshop. It is mandatory that the first coat be applied within 4 hours of blasting - if not, the preparations detailed in Clause D.4 should be repeated. The coating should be applied in several coats with brush or spray to give a minimum total thickness of 350 µm. The coating work should be scheduled so that following coats are applied before a previous coat is fully cured. (The coating is fully cured when the test piece is unaffected by a solvent swab -use methyl isobutyl ketone or acetone). If it is shown that full curing has occurred then the gloss should be removed before applying the next coat. D.6 INSPECTION Inspection should be carried out jointly by the pump manufacturer's representative and the Inspection Department, or their appointed agent, at the Supplier's workshop before dispatch. Coating should not start until the Inspectors have approved all preparatory work including mortar filling and a surface finish check against a comparator tablet (for ground finish textures). Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  64. 64. The Inspectors should witness the conductivity test carried out by the Supplier over the whole coating using 9 Volt DC wet sponge method set to signal when the resistance is less than 1 meg ohm This is a 'go' or 'no go' test. Spark test devices are forbidden. Capacitance or similar measurement instruments, e.g. Elcometre, should be used to obtain the thickness of the coating at random points chosen by the Inspectors and at the edges of minimum radius. D.7 RECTIFICATION OF FAULTS The Supplier is responsible for the rectification of faults identified by the Inspecting authority. Patching of fault is permitted. The patch should extend the fault by 25 mm. The gloss should be removed before the patch (in the same material as originally used for the coating) is applied. The repair should be subjected to inspection and a conductivity test. FIGURE 9 TYPICAL VOLUTE CASING FIGURE 10 TYPICAL CASE WEAR RINGS FIGURE II SEAL AREA Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  65. 65. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  66. 66. APPENDIX E E.1 AREA RATIO METHOD Anderson conceived the parameter of the area ratio Y to relate the flow conditions at the pump impeller outlet to those at the casing volute throat, where: Worster showed that the Q-H-E performance characteristics of a centrifugal pump are chiefly determined by Y and not by the impeller blade angle. E.2 Following Thorne, the impeller outlet area is defined as: The throat area ~ is the sum of the two corresponding areas for a double volute or the Sum of the outlet areas between diffuser vanes defined as for the impeller. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  67. 67. E.3 Intrinsic assumptions are that: (a) (b) Impellers have the optimum number of vanes, given approximately by 15. β where β' is the vane angle to the tangent, in radians. (c) E.4 High efficiency pumps are being sought for clean liquids of low viscosity, so that vane incidence angles and shapes are properly matched to the flow conditions. Impeller inlet dimensions are not distorted to obtain the exceptionally low NPSH capability corresponding to pump operation at suction specific speed (Sn) values above 0.4. Commercial and manufacturing considerations result in low specific speed pumps having large area ratios, where However, when pumps having a stable Q-H characteristic or a nonoverloading E-Q characteristic are required, then smaller values of Yare needed where: The efficiency does not vary strongly with Y but there is an advantage for values of Y near unity. REFERENCES Centrifugal Pumps - An alternative theory, H H Anderson. Proc.I.Mech.E 1947 vol 157 The interaction performance of R C Worster. of impeller and volute a centrifugal pump. BHRA Report RR.679. Design by the Area Ratio Method in determining the 1960 E W Thorne. BPMA Sixth Tech Conf. Paper C2 1979 Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  68. 68. APPENDIX F NOTES ON PUMP IMPELLERS CASTINGS In order to obtain the quality of castings required the following should be agreed with the pump vendor and drafted into the sub-order on the casting manufacturer. (a) Material Specification as agreed, taken from Table 8 of this Design Guide. Typical mechanical and chemical material test certificates to DIN 50049 2.1 is the minimum requirement. (b) Dimensional tolerances for machining should be oversized by 2 to 4 mm any final machining should have a surface finish better than 3.2 micron Ra on wetted surfaces. The width of the impeller vanes, at exist, should be within + 3% of the design width or 3 mm whichever is the greater. The thickness of the vane over its full length should be within + 12% of the design thickness or 1 mm whichever is the greater. (c) Surfaces left as cast should have a surface finish better than 25 micron Ra and the waviness better than 1 mm in 50 mm. (d) Any lumps caused by core shift should be removed and the correct inlet angle retained. The vane tip should be rounded not knife edged, see sketch. (e) The eye of the impeller should be fully machined. Any steps between the cast and machined surfaces should be blended by grinding. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  69. 69. APPENDIX G LIMIT ON SHAFT DIAMETER FOR HORIZONTAL PUMPS HAVING ONE DOUBLE-ENTRY IMPELLER SUPPORTED BETWEEN BEARINGS G. 1 FOREWORD For a given Q-H duty, manufacturers offer pumps of different speed, impeller size, shaft diameter and bearing span. The speed is often fixed by NPSH considerations. This Appendix considers the relation between shaft diameter and bearing span which ensures long term reliable pumps operation when the flow varies over the range 30-120% of the flow at the pump best efficiency point. Critical speed phenomena are not considered. G.2 PERTURBING FORCES At the design point (BEP) the flows in the volute are fairly uniform and the pressure distribution is uniform: consequently the steady-state radial load applied to the shaft is very low. At flows away from BEP the approximate radial load balance is disturbed, with two effects: (a) The steady-state radial force increases (b) Low frequency cyclic radial forces become significant. Frequencies corresponding to 10% running speed have been reported. There are grounds for assuming that these perturbing forces relate to the function: All the pumps considered have had either single volutes or double-volute casings, dependent upon size. The magnitude of the cyclic forces appears to be roughly the same for both casing configurations, despite the reduction in steadystate force in double-volutes. This analysis does not apply to diffuser pumps. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com

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