Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutd...
Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutd...
Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutd...
APPENDIX 1
ACME Stream Data for Radial Flow Design
Name GCC In Adiabatic
Inlet
Adiabatic
outlet
GCC Out WCC Out Sat Water
...
Spreadsheet to calculate optimum UA distribution through a cooled methanol synthesis reactor or calculate
performance give...
Catalyst Coolant
CO 13386.317 4904.257
CO2 10579.521 4505.781 TOTAL CATALYST INLET FLOW = 153218.066 kgmol/h
H2 111138.24 ...
CO
(% v/v)
CO2
(% v/v)
H2
(% v/v)
H2O
(% v/v)
CH3OH
(% v/v)
CH4
(% v/v)
N2
(% v/v)
Total flow
(kgmol/hr)
Heat
release
(MW)...
Spreadsheet to calculate optimum UA distribution through a cooled methanol synthesis reactor or
calculate performance give...
Catalyst Coolant
CO 8195.31
CO2 9922.81 22 TOTAL CATALYST INLET FLOW = 141518.07 kgmol/h
H2 98792.54
H2O 3049.12 114604 TO...
CO
(% v/v)
CO2
(% v/v)
H2
(% v/v)
H2O
(% v/v)
CH3OH
(% v/v)
CH4
(% v/v)
N2
(% v/v)
Total flow
(kgmol/hr)
Heat
release
(MW)...
"ACME" Methanol Company
Case Study: UA Distribution Through a
Methanol Synthesis Converter of a
9000 MTD MeOH Plant
Radial...
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Taken from HYSYS Inside Plate Flow Properties - Cool Gas
1. GAS COOLED REACTOR TO TOP OF PLATES P1 Out...
Prediction of Heat Transfer Coefficients Using Bed Heat Transfer Methods by Yagi & Kunii (1957)
RADIAL FLOW ACME REACTOR S...
Prediction of Heat Transfer Coefficients Using Bed Heat Transfer Methods by Yagi & Kunii (1957)
RADIAL FLOW ACME REACTOR S...
Prediction of Heat Transfer Coefficients Using Bed Heat Transfer Methods by Yagi & Kunii (1957)
RADIAL FLOW ACME REACTOR S...
Isothermal Methanol Converter (IMC) UA Distribution Analysis
Isothermal Methanol Converter (IMC) UA Distribution Analysis
Isothermal Methanol Converter (IMC) UA Distribution Analysis
Isothermal Methanol Converter (IMC) UA Distribution Analysis
Isothermal Methanol Converter (IMC) UA Distribution Analysis
Isothermal Methanol Converter (IMC) UA Distribution Analysis
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Isothermal Methanol Converter (IMC) UA Distribution Analysis

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Isothermal Methanol Converter (IMC) UA Distribution Analysis - Case Study: #0630416GB/H; ACME Co. 9,000 MTD MeOH

This converter uses plates instead of tubes to remove the heat from the reaction gas. The use of the plates and the orientation allow the heat transfer within the converter to be more accurately controlled to follow the maximum rate line.

This case study examines the Radial Flow – Isothermal Methanol Converter (IMC) for ACME Co. 9,000 MTD, based on the Casale Isothermal Methanol Converter (IMC) design.

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Isothermal Methanol Converter (IMC) UA Distribution Analysis

  1. 1. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com GBH Enterprises, Ltd. Isothermal Methanol Converter (IMC) UA Distribution Analysis Case Study: #0630416GB/H ACME Co. 9,000 MTD MeOH Process Information Disclaimer Information contained in this publication or as otherwise supplied to Users is believed to be accurate and correct at time of going to press, and is given in good faith, but it is for the User to satisfy itself of the suitability of the Product for its own particular purpose. GBHE gives no warranty as to the fitness of the Product for any particular purpose and any implied warranty or condition (statutory or otherwise) is excluded except to the extent that exclusion is prevented by law. GBHE accepts no liability for loss, damage or personnel injury caused or resulting from reliance on this information. Freedom under Patent, Copyright and Designs cannot be assumed.
  2. 2. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Methanol Synthesis The synthesis loop comprises a circulator, converter, feed/effluent exchanger, separator, and in some cases a heat recovery exchanger. The optimum operating pressure is typically about 80 bar for large plants, but for smaller plants (less than 600 te/day) a pressure of 50 bar may be economic due to the reduced material requirements. Synthesis gas is mixed with the recycle gas and preheated in a feed/effluent interchanger. The exact arrangement of interchanger is dependent on the type of converter used. The converter effluent is cooled by passing through the feed/effluent interchanger and dependent on the reactor type, a heat recovery exchanger. Prior to the catchpot, the gas is cooled to about 40oC to condense the product methanol. A purge is taken from the recycle gas to remove inerts (N2, CH4, Argon, and surplus hydrogen or carbon oxides) from the loop. This is used as fuel in the reformer. A purge gas expander may be used to recover power from the purge gas as it is let down to the fuel system pressure. There are a number of different types of converters offered by technology licensors; Two key types: • Multiple beds with intercooling • Single bed with continuous cooling However, this case study examines the Radial Flow – Isothermal Methanol Converter (IMC) for ACME Co. 9,000 MTD, based on the Casale Isothermal Methanol Converter (IMC) design, detailed below;
  3. 3. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com The Casale Isothermal Methanol Converter (IMC) Design This converter uses plates instead of tubes to remove the heat from the reaction gas. The use of the plates and the orientation allow the heat transfer within the converter to be more accurately controlled to follow the maximum rate line. It can be used in either feed heating or steam raising. This converter is a new design which uses less volume than previous designs. Casale Isothermal Methanol Converter (IMC)
  4. 4. APPENDIX 1 ACME Stream Data for Radial Flow Design Name GCC In Adiabatic Inlet Adiabatic outlet GCC Out WCC Out Sat Water to WCC Sat Water from WCC Temperature [C] 130 245 275.01242 272.05343 249.72058 204.1463 250.22416 Pressure [bar] 85.2 85.2 84.8 83.2 81.2 57 57 Molar Flow [kgmole/h 157896.51 157896.51 153219.89 141527.72 134007.4 115017.66 115017.66 Mass Flow [kg/h] 1475273.8 1475273.8 1475272.1 1475266.4 1475262.7 2071849.8 2071849.8 Mol % Hydrogen 74.6249% 74.6249% 72.5351% 69.8044% 67.8800% 0.0015% 0.0015% Mol % CO 8.6823% 8.6823% 8.7367% 5.7906% 3.5412% 0.0012% 0.0012% Mol % CO2 7.9769% 7.9769% 6.9048% 7.0112% 7.1714% 0.0190% 0.0190% Mol % Nitrogen 1.1029% 1.1029% 1.1365% 1.2304% 1.2995% 0.0000% 0.0000% Mol % Argon 1.0370% 1.0370% 1.0687% 1.1569% 1.2219% 0.0001% 0.0001% Mol % Methane 5.6334% 5.6334% 5.8053% 6.2849% 6.6376% 0.3372% 0.3372% Mol % H2O 0.2334% 0.2334% 1.5573% 2.1544% 2.5128% 99.6408% 99.6408% Mol % Methanol 0.7092% 0.7092% 2.2544% 6.5603% 9.7220% 0.0002% 0.0002% Mol % Ethanol 0.0000% 0.0000% 0.0003% 0.0015% 0.0030% 0.0000% 0.0000% Mol % 1-Propanol 0.0000% 0.0000% 0.0001% 0.0006% 0.0012% 0.0000% 0.0000% Mol % 1-Butanol 0.0000% 0.0000% 0.0001% 0.0004% 0.0007% 0.0000% 0.0000% Mol % diM-Ether 0.0000% 0.0000% 0.0004% 0.0017% 0.0026% 0.0000% 0.0000% Mol % M-Formate 0.0000% 0.0000% 0.0003% 0.0025% 0.0061% 0.0000% 0.0000% Mol % M-E-Ketone 0.0000% 0.0000% 0.0000% 0.0000% 0.0000% 0.0000% 0.0000% Mol % Acetone 0.0000% 0.0000% 0.0000% 0.0000% 0.0001% 0.0000% 0.0000%
  5. 5. Spreadsheet to calculate optimum UA distribution through a cooled methanol synthesis reactor or calculate performance given a matrix of UA values. Version 1.13.20 2 July 2014 – G B HAWKINS Routines imported from VULCAN Dbase_01 for thermodynamics. Data imported from VULCAN Dbase_01 (see "Data" page in spreadsheet). Routines imported from VULCAN Dbase_02 for kinetics and numerical integration, etc. Fugacity calculations can be incorporated into equilibrium and rate of reaction routines to be consistent with original Cresswell work, but activity data was not evaluated on this basis. To be consistent with what we do in MeOH Bed in VULCANFlow Equilibrium calculations include component fugacities so this has also been implemented in the rate calculations. In design mode, UA values selected such that the temperature at the outlet of each segment is equal to the temperature at which the maximum rate of reaction is achieved for that gas composition. Enthalpies are calculated using ExAPI with no RKS correction for non-ideality. The RKS correction can easily be incorporated (maybe a selection option for a future version), but it makes no obvious difference to the results and slows the calculations down by an order of magnitude. The maximum rate temperature calculation routine is new and is based on a golden section search method.
  6. 6. Catalyst Coolant CO 13386.317 4904.257 CO2 10579.521 4505.781 TOTAL CATALYST INLET FLOW = 153218.066 kgmol/h H2 111138.24 42152.167 H2O 2386.098 131.839 TOTAL COOLANT FLOW = 56485.3704 kgmol/h CH3OH 3454.185 400.572 CH4 8894.922 3182.04 N2 & Ar 3378.7827 1208.7144 Temperature in 275.0 130 Temperature out 275.0 237.2 Pressure 84.8 85.2 Cooling type Cocurrent Allowable cooling options MeOH Act 0.267 Countercurrent WGS Act 0.6141 Cocurrent Catalyst Density 1300 Boiling Cat Vol 33.04 Max Temp 275 Lowest Temp 240 Calculation options Optimum design Allowable calculation options UA Vol Optimum design 0 16.7 Performance 0 33.3 0 50.0 18993970 66.7 64964795 83.3 42685509 100.0 38690425 116.7 28061213 133.3 21912675 150.0 17669275 166.7 14828944 183.3 12644692 200.0 10974170 216.7 9611459 233.3 8562234 250.0 7664689 266.7 6911728 283.3 6280182 300.0 5707710 316.7 5274975 333.3 4846534 350.0 4488382 366.7 4189670 383.3 3900681 400.0
  7. 7. CO (% v/v) CO2 (% v/v) H2 (% v/v) H2O (% v/v) CH3OH (% v/v) CH4 (% v/v) N2 (% v/v) Total flow (kgmol/hr) Heat release (MW) MeOH rate (kgmol/hr) Catalyst temp. (°C) Tube temp. (°C) Volume (m3) Press. (bara) ML-CO2 (°C) ML-CO (°C) WGS (°C) UA (J/hr/m3/k) Tmaxrate (°C) 8.74 6.90 72.54 1.56 2.25 5.81 2.21 153218.1 0.0 73.9 275.0 130.0 0.0 84.8 367.8 339.5 299.4 0 334.1 8.71 6.88 72.47 1.59 2.32 5.81 2.21 153016.4 2.3 72.7 275.0 134.7 1.4 84.8 364.7 338.4 301.0 42224289 331.4 8.69 6.86 72.40 1.62 2.39 5.82 2.21 152817.7 4.5 71.7 275.0 139.3 2.8 84.8 361.8 337.4 302.4 42532357 329.0 8.66 6.84 72.34 1.65 2.46 5.83 2.21 152621.8 6.8 70.7 275.0 143.9 4.1 84.8 359.1 336.4 303.7 44203345 326.7 8.64 6.83 72.28 1.68 2.53 5.84 2.22 152428.5 9.1 69.8 275.0 148.6 5.5 84.8 356.6 335.5 304.8 45915122 324.5 8.61 6.81 72.22 1.70 2.59 5.84 2.22 152237.7 11.3 68.9 275.0 153.2 6.9 84.8 354.3 334.6 305.7 47698170 322.5 8.57 6.80 72.17 1.72 2.66 5.85 2.22 152049.3 13.6 68.0 275.0 157.8 8.3 84.8 352.2 333.6 306.5 49564753 320.7 8.54 6.79 72.12 1.74 2.72 5.86 2.22 151863.2 15.8 67.2 275.0 162.4 9.6 84.8 350.2 332.8 307.2 51528595 319.0 8.51 6.79 72.07 1.76 2.78 5.86 2.23 151679.4 18.1 66.4 275.0 167.0 11.0 84.8 348.3 331.9 307.7 53605179 317.3 8.47 6.78 72.02 1.78 2.85 5.87 2.23 151497.6 20.4 65.6 275.0 171.6 12.4 84.8 346.5 331.1 308.2 55811924 315.8 8.44 6.77 71.97 1.79 2.91 5.88 2.23 151318.0 22.6 64.9 275.0 176.2 13.8 84.8 344.9 330.3 308.6 58168748 314.3 8.40 6.77 71.93 1.81 2.97 5.89 2.24 151140.4 24.8 64.2 275.0 180.7 15.1 84.8 343.3 329.5 309.0 60698638 313.0 8.36 6.77 71.88 1.82 3.03 5.89 2.24 150964.7 27.1 63.5 275.0 185.3 16.5 84.8 341.8 328.7 309.3 63428125 311.6 8.33 6.76 71.84 1.84 3.10 5.90 2.24 150790.8 29.3 62.8 275.0 189.8 17.9 84.8 340.3 327.9 309.5 66388670 310.4 8.29 6.76 71.80 1.85 3.16 5.91 2.24 150618.8 31.5 62.1 275.0 194.2 19.3 84.8 338.9 327.2 309.6 69620298 309.2 8.25 6.76 71.76 1.86 3.22 5.91 2.25 150448.6 33.7 61.5 275.0 198.7 20.7 84.8 337.6 326.5 309.7 73149243 308.1 8.21 6.76 71.72 1.87 3.28 5.92 2.25 150280.2 35.9 60.9 275.0 203.1 22.0 84.8 336.4 325.8 309.8 77066575 307.1 8.17 6.76 71.68 1.88 3.34 5.93 2.25 150113.4 38.1 60.3 275.0 207.4 23.4 84.8 335.2 325.1 309.9 81407458 306.0 8.13 6.76 71.64 1.89 3.39 5.93 2.25 149948.3 40.2 59.7 275.0 211.8 24.8 84.8 334.0 324.4 309.9 86262663 305.0 8.09 6.76 71.60 1.89 3.45 5.94 2.26 149784.8 42.3 59.1 275.0 216.1 26.2 84.8 332.9 323.7 309.9 91753876 304.0 8.05 6.76 71.57 1.90 3.51 5.94 2.26 149622.9 44.5 58.5 275.0 220.4 27.5 84.8 331.8 323.1 309.8 97939414 303.1 8.01 6.76 71.53 1.91 3.57 5.95 2.26 149462.6 46.6 58.0 275.0 224.6 28.9 84.8 330.8 322.4 309.8 105649126 302.2 7.97 6.77 71.50 1.92 3.62 5.96 2.26 149303.8 48.7 57.4 275.0 228.8 30.3 84.8 329.8 321.8 309.7 114227434 301.4 7.94 6.77 71.46 1.92 3.68 5.96 2.27 149146.6 50.8 56.8 275.0 233.0 31.7 84.8 328.9 321.2 309.6 124151256 300.5 7.90 6.77 71.43 1.93 3.74 5.97 2.27 148991.0 52.9 56.3 275.0 237.2 33.0 84.8 327.9 320.6 309.4 135971899 299.7
  8. 8. Spreadsheet to calculate optimum UA distribution through a cooled methanol synthesis reactor or calculate performance given a matrix of UA values. Version 1.13.20 2 July 2014 – G B HAWKINS Routines imported from VULCAN Dbase_01 for thermodynamics. Data imported from VULCAN Dbase_01 (see "Data" page in spreadsheet). Routines imported from VULCAN Dbase_02 for kinetics and numerical integration, etc. Fugacity calculations can be incorporated into equilibrium and rate of reaction routines to be consistent with original Cresswell work, but activity data was not evaluated on this basis. To be consistent with what we do in MeOH Bed in VULCANFlow, the equilibrium calculations include component fugacities so this has also been implemented in the rate calculations. In design mode, UA values selected such that the temperature at the outlet of each segment is equal to the temperature at which the maximum rate of reaction is achieved for that gas composition. Enthalpies are calculated using ExAPI with no RKS correction for non-ideality. The RKS correction can easily be incorporated (maybe a selection option for a future version), but it makes no obvious difference to the results and slows the calculations down by an order of magnitude. The maximum rate temperature calculation routine is new and is based on a golden section search method.
  9. 9. Catalyst Coolant CO 8195.31 CO2 9922.81 22 TOTAL CATALYST INLET FLOW = 141518.07 kgmol/h H2 98792.54 H2O 3049.12 114604 TOTAL COOLANT FLOW = 115014 kgmol/h CH3OH 9284.58 CH4 8894.92 388 N2 & Ar 3378.79 Temperature in 272.1 236 Temperature out 266.0 225.2 Pressure 83.2 57 Cooling type Countercurrent Allowable cooling options MeOH Act 0.267 Countercurrent WGS Act 0.6141 Cocurrent Catalyst Density 1300 Boiling Cat Vol 33.04 Max Temp 275 Lowest Temp 240 Calculation options Optimum design Allowable calculation options UA Vol Optimum design 0 16.7 Performance 0 33.3 0 50.0 18993970 66.7 64964795 83.3 42685509 100.0 38690425 116.7 28061213 133.3 21912675 150.0 17669275 166.7 14828944 183.3 12644692 200.0 10974170 216.7 9611459 233.3 8562234 250.0 7664689 266.7 6911728 283.3 6280182 300.0 5707710 316.7 5274975 333.3 4846534 350.0 4488382 366.7 4189670 383.3 3900681 400.0
  10. 10. CO (% v/v) CO2 (% v/v) H2 (% v/v) H2O (% v/v) CH3OH (% v/v) CH4 (% v/v) N2 (% v/v) Total flow (kgmol/hr) Heat release (MW) MeOH rate (kgmol/hr) Catalyst temp. (°C) Tube temp. (°C) Volume (m3) Press. (bara) ML-CO2 (°C) ML-CO (°C) WGS (°C) UA (J/hr/m3/k) Tmaxrate (°C) 5.79 7.01 69.81 2.15 6.56 6.29 2.39 141518.1 0.0 28.4 272.1 236.0 0.0 83.2 294.5 294.2 293.7 0 271.0 5.77 7.01 69.79 2.16 6.59 6.29 2.39 141440.1 2.9 28.2 270.7 235.0 1.4 83.2 294.3 294.0 293.5 208049343 270.7 5.75 7.02 69.77 2.16 6.62 6.29 2.39 141362.8 4.2 27.9 270.5 234.6 2.8 83.2 294.1 293.8 293.3 95158783 270.5 5.72 7.02 69.75 2.16 6.65 6.30 2.39 141286.3 5.5 27.7 270.3 234.1 4.1 83.2 293.8 293.5 293.1 97400060 270.3 5.70 7.02 69.74 2.17 6.68 6.30 2.39 141210.4 6.8 27.4 270.1 233.6 5.5 83.2 293.5 293.3 292.9 96238048 270.1 5.68 7.02 69.72 2.17 6.71 6.30 2.39 141135.1 8.2 27.2 269.8 233.2 6.9 83.2 293.3 293.1 292.7 95003390 269.8 5.66 7.02 69.70 2.17 6.74 6.31 2.40 141060.5 9.4 27.0 269.6 232.7 8.3 83.2 293.0 292.8 292.5 90612931 269.6 5.64 7.03 69.68 2.18 6.77 6.31 2.40 140986.6 10.7 26.7 269.4 232.3 9.6 83.2 292.8 292.6 292.3 92139771 269.4 5.62 7.03 69.67 2.18 6.80 6.31 2.40 140913.2 12.1 26.5 269.2 231.8 11.0 83.2 292.6 292.4 292.2 91469780 269.2 5.59 7.03 69.65 2.18 6.83 6.32 2.40 140840.5 13.3 26.3 269.0 231.4 12.4 83.2 292.3 292.2 292.0 84996951 269.0 5.57 7.03 69.63 2.18 6.86 6.32 2.40 140768.4 14.5 26.1 268.8 231.0 13.8 83.2 292.1 292.0 291.8 85861492 268.8 5.55 7.03 69.61 2.19 6.89 6.32 2.40 140696.8 15.8 25.9 268.5 230.5 15.1 83.2 291.9 291.7 291.6 88140059 268.5 5.53 7.04 69.60 2.19 6.92 6.33 2.40 140625.9 17.0 25.7 268.4 230.1 16.5 83.2 291.6 291.5 291.4 81985398 268.4 5.51 7.04 69.58 2.19 6.95 6.33 2.40 140555.5 18.2 25.5 268.1 229.7 17.9 83.2 291.4 291.3 291.2 82765986 268.2 5.49 7.04 69.56 2.19 6.98 6.33 2.41 140485.6 19.4 25.3 267.9 229.2 19.3 83.2 291.2 291.1 291.0 85059440 267.9 5.47 7.04 69.55 2.20 7.00 6.33 2.41 140416.3 20.6 25.1 267.7 228.8 20.7 83.2 290.9 290.9 290.8 79063585 267.7 5.45 7.04 69.53 2.20 7.03 6.34 2.41 140347.5 21.8 24.9 267.5 228.4 22.0 83.2 290.7 290.7 290.6 79886806 267.5 5.43 7.05 69.51 2.20 7.06 6.34 2.41 140279.3 23.0 24.7 267.3 228.0 23.4 83.2 290.5 290.5 290.4 77183253 267.3 5.41 7.05 69.50 2.20 7.09 6.34 2.41 140211.6 24.1 24.5 267.1 227.6 24.8 83.2 290.3 290.3 290.3 78042066 267.1 5.39 7.05 69.48 2.21 7.12 6.35 2.41 140144.4 25.3 24.3 267.0 227.2 26.2 83.2 290.1 290.1 290.1 75400372 267.0 5.37 7.05 69.47 2.21 7.14 6.35 2.41 140077.7 26.4 24.1 266.8 226.8 27.5 83.2 289.9 289.9 289.9 76281060 266.8 5.35 7.05 69.45 2.21 7.17 6.35 2.41 140011.5 27.6 24.0 266.6 226.4 28.9 83.2 289.6 289.7 289.7 73697800 266.6 5.33 7.05 69.43 2.21 7.20 6.36 2.41 139945.8 28.7 23.8 266.4 226.0 30.3 83.2 289.4 289.5 289.5 74598566 266.4 5.31 7.06 69.42 2.22 7.22 6.36 2.42 139880.6 29.8 23.6 266.2 225.6 31.7 83.2 289.2 289.3 289.3 72070477 266.2 5.29 7.06 69.40 2.22 7.25 6.36 2.42 139815.8 30.9 23.4 266.0 225.2 33.0 83.2 289.0 289.1 289.2 68170156 266.0
  11. 11. "ACME" Methanol Company Case Study: UA Distribution Through a Methanol Synthesis Converter of a 9000 MTD MeOH Plant Radial Flow ACME Reactor Set-Up Gas Cooled vs. Water-Cooled Performance Analysis
  12. 12. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Taken from HYSYS Inside Plate Flow Properties - Cool Gas 1. GAS COOLED REACTOR TO TOP OF PLATES P1 Out P2 In P2 Out P3 In P3 Out P4 In P4 Out Averages Flow (kg/s) 146.611111 146.611111 229.138889 229.138889 311.666667 311.666667 394.444444 394.444444 270.4653 Cooled Bed Vol. Cat. Temp rho(g) mu(g) kg Cpg Density (kg/m3) 22.78 18.48 19.82 17.93 18.99 17.75 18.61 17.73 19.01125 m3 C kg/m3 Pa.s W/m.K J/kg.K Viscosity (Pa-s) 0.0000145 0.00001728 0.00001626 0.00001774 0.00001687 0.00001789 0.00001717 0.00001791 1.7E-05 0 275.0124 17.30929 1.86E-05 0.168081 3384.199 Conductivity (W/m-K) 0.1387 0.1626 0.1542 0.1663 0.1593 0.1675 0.1617 0.1676 0.159738 3.303994 273.0776 17.42149 1.85E-05 0.167258 3378.427 Heat Capacity (J/kg-K) 3335 3397 3373 3409 3387 3413 3395 3414 3390.375 6.607988 271.7302 17.51237 1.85E-05 0.166625 3373.578 9.911982 270.8886 17.58528 1.84E-05 0.166143 3369.445 13.21598 270.4893 17.64281 1.84E-05 0.165783 3365.881 16.51997 270.4818 17.68705 1.84E-05 0.165526 3362.78 19.82396 270.8234 17.71978 1.84E-05 0.165353 3360.06 23.12796 271.4782 17.7425 1.84E-05 0.165254 3357.658 26.43195 272.4143 17.75653 1.85E-05 0.165216 3355.522 29.73595 273.6027 17.76304 1.85E-05 0.165231 3353.612 33.03994 275.016 17.7631 1.85E-05 0.165291 3351.895 36.34393 274.2427 17.74991 1.85E-05 0.164863 3348.068 39.64793 273.7978 17.80656 1.85E-05 0.164538 3344.847 42.95192 273.6423 17.85306 1.85E-05 0.164285 3341.99 46.25591 273.742 17.89072 1.85E-05 0.164094 3339.44 49.55991 274.0661 17.92071 1.85E-05 0.163956 3337.153 52.8639 274.5862 17.94406 1.85E-05 0.163863 3335.091 56.1679 275.2756 17.96171 1.85E-05 0.163807 3333.225 59.47189 276.1087 17.97452 1.86E-05 0.163782 3331.528 62.77588 277.0605 17.98326 1.86E-05 0.163784 3329.981 66.07988 278.1064 17.98866 1.86E-05 0.163806 3328.565 69.38387 277.094 17.97566 1.86E-05 0.163373 3325.024 72.68787 276.3609 18.03555 1.86E-05 0.163027 3322.043 75.99186 275.8691 18.08676 1.85E-05 0.162742 3319.382 79.29585 275.5857 18.13042 1.85E-05 0.162509 3316.995 82.59985 275.4816 18.16755 1.85E-05 0.162319 3314.843 85.90384 275.5309 18.19903 1.85E-05 0.162166 3312.895 89.20784 275.71 18.22564 1.85E-05 0.162043 3311.124 92.51183 275.9976 18.24808 1.85E-05 0.161947 3309.509 95.81582 276.3741 18.26698 1.86E-05 0.161873 3308.03 99.11982 276.8214 18.28289 1.86E-05 0.161817 3306.672 102.4238 275.4367 18.27297 1.85E-05 0.161353 3303.282 105.7278 274.3422 18.33776 1.85E-05 0.160973 3300.442 109.0318 273.4951 18.39393 1.85E-05 0.160653 3297.906 112.3358 272.8598 18.44262 1.85E-05 0.160382 3295.63 115.6398 272.4059 18.48481 1.85E-05 0.160154 3293.58 118.9438 272.1075 18.52136 1.84E-05 0.159962 3291.724 122.2478 271.9419 18.55302 1.84E-05 0.159801 3290.038 125.5518 271.889 18.58045 1.84E-05 0.159666 3288.501 128.8558 271.9314 18.60422 1.84E-05 0.159553 3287.093 132.1598 272.0534 18.62486 1.84E-05 0.15946 3285.8 AVERAGE 274.0227 18.03441 1.85E-05 0.163227 3328.377 2. WATER COOLED REACTOR Inside Plate Flow Properties - Cool Water Cooled Bed Vol. Cat. Temp rho(g) mu(g) kg Cpg m3 C kg/m3 Pa.s W/m.K J/kg.K WCC-QW4-In WCC-QW4ouWCC-QW3-InWCC-QW3-OuWCC-QW2-In Water2Out WCC-QW S-120 Averages 0 272.0534 18.51633 1.84E-05 0.159439 3285.546 Flow (kg/s) 101.8889 101.888889 291.388889 291.388889 433.333333 433.333333 575.555556 575.5556 350.5417 5.847353 272.5263 18.54301 1.85E-05 0.159328 3283.578 Density (kg/m3) 742.3 646.2 716.4 650.2 688.6 623.9 665.3 597.4 666.2875 11.69471 272.6949 18.57817 1.85E-05 0.15916 3281.4 Viscosity (Pa-s) 0.000131 0.000111 0.000123 0.000111 0.000117 0.000109 0.000113 0.000107 0.000115 17.54206 272.5927 18.62081 1.85E-05 0.158943 3279.04 Conductivity (W/m-K) 0.662 0.627 0.651 0.628 0.64 0.621 0.632 0.616 0.634625 23.38941 272.2515 18.67009 1.85E-05 0.158683 3276.52 Heat Capacity (J/kg-K) 4510 4765 4587 4756 4664 4809 4722 4854 4708.375 29.23676 271.7038 18.72517 1.84E-05 0.158386 3273.858 35.08412 270.9763 18.78539 1.84E-05 0.158057 3271.072 40.93147 270.0942 18.85013 1.84E-05 0.157701 3268.175 46.77882 269.0768 18.91896 1.84E-05 0.15732 3265.179 52.62618 267.9408 18.99145 1.83E-05 0.156917 3262.096 58.47353 266.6989 19.0673 1.83E-05 0.156496 3258.934 58.47353 266.6989 18.95566 1.83E-05 0.156474 3258.655 64.32088 266.6251 18.99033 1.83E-05 0.1563 3256.78 70.16823 266.3487 19.03112 1.83E-05 0.156088 3254.743 76.01559 265.8898 19.07748 1.83E-05 0.155841 3252.559 81.86294 265.2646 19.12901 1.83E-05 0.155563 3250.236 87.71029 264.4894 19.18532 1.83E-05 0.155257 3247.787 93.55764 263.5762 19.24613 1.82E-05 0.154925 3245.218 99.405 262.5365 19.31115 1.82E-05 0.154568 3242.538 105.2524 261.3782 19.38023 1.82E-05 0.154189 3239.752 111.0997 260.1085 19.45318 1.82E-05 0.153789 3236.869 116.9471 258.7323 19.5299 1.81E-05 0.153368 3233.892 116.9471 258.7323 19.41474 1.81E-05 0.153346 3233.593 122.7944 258.688 19.44284 1.81E-05 0.153208 3232.106 128.6418 258.4559 19.47718 1.81E-05 0.153032 3230.443 134.4891 258.0439 19.51756 1.81E-05 0.152821 3228.612 140.3365 257.4574 19.56386 1.81E-05 0.152576 3226.614 146.1838 256.7028 19.61597 1.81E-05 0.152297 3224.455 152.0312 255.7841 19.67384 1.81E-05 0.151986 3222.137 157.8785 254.7052 19.73742 1.80E-05 0.151643 3219.663 163.7259 253.4675 19.80676 1.80E-05 0.151269 3217.034 169.5732 252.0722 19.88189 1.80E-05 0.150864 3214.254 175.4206 250.5184 19.96293 1.79E-05 0.150428 3211.324 175.4206 250.5184 19.84438 1.79E-05 0.150405 3211.004 181.2679 251.3334 19.83552 1.79E-05 0.150478 3210.784 187.1153 251.9884 19.83244 1.80E-05 0.150516 3210.398 192.9626 252.4703 19.83553 1.80E-05 0.150518 3209.835 198.81 252.7663 19.84523 1.80E-05 0.150482 3209.081 204.6573 252.8607 19.86211 1.80E-05 0.150403 3208.118 210.5047 252.7393 19.88671 1.80E-05 0.150281 3206.93 216.3521 252.3854 19.91974 1.80E-05 0.150111 3205.495 222.1994 251.7805 19.962 1.80E-05 0.149889 3203.789 228.0468 250.9012 20.0145 1.79E-05 0.14961 3201.784 233.8941 249.7206 20.07843 1.79E-05 0.149268 3199.448 AVERAGE 260.5534 19.37654 1.82E-05 0.153914 3237.757
  13. 13. Prediction of Heat Transfer Coefficients Using Bed Heat Transfer Methods by Yagi & Kunii (1957) RADIAL FLOW ACME REACTOR SET-UP - Gas-Cooled - ADIABATIC BED LOCATED FROM OUTSIDE WALL INWARDS ENTER CATALYST CONTAINING DIAMETER OF REACTOR (Di) = 6 m ENTER CENTRAL DUCT OUTER DIAMETER (Dduct) = 1.5 m ENTER OUTER ANNULUS OUTER DIAMETER (Do) = 8 m OUTER ANNULUS INNER DIAMETER (Di) = 6 m ENTER MOLAR FLOW OF REACTOR FEED GAS = 153220 kmol/h ENTER MASS FLOW OF REACTOR FEED GAS = 409.797 kg/s ENTER REACTOR FEED TEMPERATURE = 245 DEG C AND PRESSURE = 86.2 bar(a) APPROXIMATE (IDEALITY) VOLUMETRIC FEED FLOW AT 245 DEG C AND 86.2 bar(a) = 76550.4 m3/h X-SECTIONAL AREA OF ANNULUS = 21.9911 m2 AVERAGE AXIAL (VERTICAL) VELOCITY OF GAS THROUGH ANNULUS = 0.96693 m/s INTERNALS ENTER TOTAL CATALYST ACTIVE BULK VOLUME = 180.5 m3 ENTER VOLUME OF ADIABATIC BED = 48.29 m3 (If no adiabatic bed present set as very small value > 0 e.g. 0.001 m3) Active Volume of Cooled Bed = 132.21 m3 ENTER AVERAGE EMBOSSED PLATE WIDTH = 0.012 m ENTER PLATE MATERIAL THICKNESS = 0.0015 m ENTER CATALYST PELLET LENGTH = 5.2 mm ENTER CATALYST PELLET DIAMETER = 5.4 mm ENTER VOIDAGE OF CATALYST BED = 0.36 ENTER THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF CATALYST PELLET = 0.32 W/m.K ENTER THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF PLATE = 17 W/m.K TO ESTIMATE THE NUMBER OF PLATES INSTALLED ASSUMING ONE SINGLE PLATE LAYER (USE 'SOLVER' ROUTINE IN TOOLS MENU OR PRESS BUTTON BELOW WITH STARTING GUESSES) Plate Width = 0.012 m Guess Angle Subtended by Chord of Circle (inner duct) equal to Plate Width = 0.91674 Degrees Using Sine Rule: LHS = 1.33329 RHS = 1.33329 Difference = 0 (Should be 0) ENTER MINIMUM PLATE SPACING AT INNER RADII = 0.055 m Guess Angle Subtended by Arc Forming Plate Spacing = 4.20263 Degrees Chord Gap = 0.055 m ( should equal minimum plate spacing) NUMBER OF PLATES = 70 (Single Layer) PRESS TO COMPUTE ------------> (N.B. Requires 'Good' Initial Guess Values for Iterated Cells) CALCULATION OF CATALYST BED HEIGHT FOR SINGLE PLATE LAYER Guess Diameter of Cooled Bed = 5.24466 m CATALYST BED HEIGHT = 7.23899 m Assumed Plate Height = 7.23899 m Single Plate Breadth = 1.87233 m Cooled Bed Volume = 132.21 m3 Actual Volume = 132.21 m3 DIFFERENCE = -9.5E-07 (Should be 0) Overall Cooled A/V = 14.3524 m2/m3Cat (Single Plate Layer) CONSIDER MULTIPLE PLATE LAYERS NUMBER OF PLATE LAYERS = 3 CALCULATION OF CATALYST BED HEIGHT Guess Diameter of Cooled Bed = 5.28863 m CATALYST BED HEIGHT = 7.65648 m Assumed Plate Height = 7.65648 m Equivelant Single Plate Breadth = 1.89431 m Breadth of Each Plate Bank = 0.63144 m First Plate Layer (Counting from Central Duct Outwards) Number of Plates = 70 Second Plate Layer Plate Width = 0.012 m Guess Angle Subtended by Chord of Circle (inner duct) equal to Plate Width = 0.49771 Degrees Using Sine Rule: LHS = 0.72388 RHS = 0.72388 Difference = 6.6E-12 (Should be 0) ENTER MINIMUM PLATE SPACING AT INNER RADII = 0.055 m Guess Angle Subtended by Arc Forming Plate Spacing = 2.2813 Degrees Chord Gap = 0.055 m ( should equal minimum plate spacing) NUMBER OF PLATES IN SECOND PLATE LAYER = 129 Third Plate Layer Plate Width = 0.012 m Guess Angle Subtended by Chord of Circle (inner duct) equal to Plate Width = 0.34158 Degrees Using Sine Rule: LHS = 0.4968 RHS = 0.4968 Difference = 8.5E-12 (Should be 0) ENTER MINIMUM PLATE SPACING AT INNER RADII = 0.055 m Guess Angle Subtended by Arc Forming Plate Spacing = 1.5656 Degrees Chord Gap = 0.055 m ( should equal minimum plate spacing) NUMBER OF PLATES IN THIRD PLATE BANK = 188 TOTAL NUMBER OF PLATES IN REACTOR = 387 Cooled Bed Volume = 132.21 m3 Actual Volume = 132.21 m3 DIFFERENCE = -1.8E-07 (Should be 0) Overall Cooled A/V = 28.3033 m2/m3Cat Area Basis Vol. Basis Catalyst Particle Equivelant/Effective Diameter = 0.0053 m 0.00757 m 0.00769 m Dp (Volume)/Dp (Area) = 1.01653 TO CALCULATE OVERALL BEDSIDE HTC (Bed and Plate Outside Wall HTCs) Correlation Constants: Phi1 coeff -1.00234 Phi2 coeff -1.13595 -0.49574 -0.72885 0.04692 0.05113 -0.00194 -0.00131 ks/kg 1.96046 Phi1 0.26837 0.2891698 Phi2 0.20113 0.2112543 phi 0.23226 0.2473263 Gamma 1 Beta 1 Alpha 0.13301 0.1079846 Emmis. 0.6 Hrv 26.929 Hrs 13.7049 ke0/kg 1.56282 Equivelant 'Outer' Diameter of Plate = 0.024 m HTC PROFILES FOR GAS-COOLED PART OF BED (Out - In) INSIDE PLATE - Based on Dittus-Boelter Correlation: i) 3 Plate Layers Plate Mass Flux = 122.978 kg/m2.s Plate Equivelant 'Inner' Diameter = 0.018 m Radial Distance From Outside to Inside Of 'Cooled' Bed = 1.89431 For Plate Outer Wall HTC For Plate Inside Wall Radial Bed Approx. Mass Dp/Gap AB (1) AB (2) Re Pr ke/kg (1) ke/kg (2) ke (1) ke (2) hbed (1) hbed (2) Re Pr Nu h(outerwall) h(overall) bedside Re Pr Nu h(inside plate) h (Plate Solid Wall) OVERALL U OVERALL VOLUMETRIC UA Distance Volume Plate Flux 1 2 1 2 1 2 Specific 1 2 1 2 Carman Ergun (m) (m3) Spacing (m(kg/m2.s) (W/m.K) (W/m.K) W/m2.K MJ/hr.m2.K kcal/h.m2.K W/m2.K MJ/hr.m2.K kcal/h.m2.K W/m2.K W/m2.K W/m2.K W/m2.K w/m2.K w/m2.K w/m2.K MJ/hr.m2.K MJ/hr.m2.K A (m2/m3) w/m3.K w/m3.K MJ/hr.m3.K MJ/hr.m3.K bar bar Outside 0 0 0.07225 3.72756 0.07333 0.13301 0.10798 1067.53 0.37723 55.1284 45.0486 8.99846 7.35315 996.321 3.58676 856.682 814.151 2.93094 700.044 4835.8 0.37723032 129.999 4005.08 797.846 676.61 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 516.184 462.562 1.85826 1.66522 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wall 0.09021 9.7212141 0.06979 3.88074 0.07592 0.13134 0.10759 1111.4 0.37723 56.6292 46.6719 9.24343 7.61812 1059.59 3.81452 911.084 873.279 3.1438 750.885 5034.53 0.37723032 134.256 4136.22 843.506 721.045 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 534.918 482.906 1.9257 1.73846 26.7134 14289.5 12900.1 51.4421 46.4403 0.00275 0.00344 0.18041 19.05098 0.06732 4.04705 0.0787 0.12955 0.10716 1159.03 0.37723 58.2051 48.4167 9.50066 7.90292 1128.95 4.06422 970.722 939.092 3.38073 807.474 5250.29 0.37723032 138.839 4277.43 893.204 770.035 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 554.483 504.398 1.99614 1.81583 27.8342 15433.6 14039.5 55.561 50.5423 0.00572 0.00718 0.27062 27.989297 0.06486 4.22826 0.08169 0.12762 0.10669 1210.92 0.37723 59.8599 50.2967 9.77077 8.2098 1205.17 4.33861 1036.26 1012.63 3.64547 870.706 5485.37 0.37723032 143.79 4429.97 947.423 824.225 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 574.907 527.098 2.06966 1.89755 29.0532 16702.9 15313.9 60.1304 55.13 0.00894 0.01124 0.36082 36.536166 0.06239 4.42645 0.08491 0.12554 0.10616 1267.68 0.37723 61.597 52.3279 10.0543 8.54133 1289.13 4.64087 1108.45 1095.14 3.94251 941.652 5742.49 0.37723032 149.158 4595.33 1006.72 884.38 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 596.215 551.069 2.14637 1.98385 30.3839 18115.3 16743.6 65.2151 60.277 0.01243 0.01567 0.45103 44.691586 0.05993 4.64414 0.08841 0.12329 0.10557 1330.03 0.37723 63.4189 54.5285 10.3517 8.90053 1381.85 4.97465 1188.18 1188.13 4.27728 1021.61 6024.9 0.37723032 154.998 4775.25 1071.72 951.411 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 618.429 576.373 2.22635 2.07494 31.8422 19692.2 18353 70.8918 66.0708 0.01623 0.02053 0.54123 52.455558 0.05746 4.88435 0.0922 0.12084 0.10491 1398.82 0.37723 65.3274 56.9199 10.6632 9.29088 1484.49 5.34415 1276.43 1293.44 4.65637 1112.16 6336.52 0.37723032 161.379 4971.84 1143.16 1026.41 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 641.566 603.069 2.30964 2.17105 33.4477 21458.9 20171.3 77.2521 72.6165 0.0204 0.02588 0.63144 59.828081 0.055 5.15076 0.09633 0.1182 0.10417 1475.11 0.37723 67.3381 59.5274 10.9914 9.71649 1598.75 5.7555 1374.68 1413.31 5.08791 1215.23 6682.14 0.37723032 168.383 5187.63 1222.11 1110.71 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 665.702 631.216 2.39653 2.27238 35.2236 23448.4 22233.7 84.4144 80.0413 0.02499 0.0318 0.72164 67.298141 0.07655 5.08169 0.06921 0.13567 0.10858 1455.34 0.37723 76.0448 61.1743 12.4126 9.9853 1297.23 4.67002 1115.41 1043.55 3.7568 897.295 6592.54 0.37723032 166.574 5131.91 1035.48 867.21 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 606.188 544.354 2.18228 1.95967 23.8538 14459.9 12984.9 52.0556 46.7457 0.02974 0.03796 0.81185 74.376752 0.07296 5.3707 0.07262 0.13347 0.10809 1538.1 0.37723 79.0054 64.2783 12.8958 10.492 1414.07 5.09067 1215.89 1150.48 4.14174 989.237 6967.48 0.37723032 174.111 5364.1 1119.07 947.306 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 633.907 574.864 2.28206 2.06951 25.1729 15957.3 14471 57.4462 52.0956 0.03469 0.04437 0.90205 81.063915 0.06937 5.69457 0.07638 0.13105 0.10752 1630.86 0.37723 82.183 67.7119 13.4145 11.0524 1547.11 5.56959 1330.27 1274.69 4.58887 1096.03 7387.63 0.37723032 182.461 5621.35 1213.21 1039.07 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 663.051 607.416 2.38699 2.1867 26.6465 17668 16185.5 63.6047 58.2678 0.04018 0.05155 0.99226 87.359629 0.06577 6.06 0.08055 0.12835 0.10687 1735.51 0.37723 85.5951 71.5286 13.9714 11.6754 1699.32 6.11756 1461.15 1420.06 5.11222 1221.03 7861.71 0.37723032 191.769 5908.13 1319.73 1144.88 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 693.651 642.107 2.49715 2.31159 28.3033 19632.6 18173.7 70.6774 65.4255 0.04633 0.05963 1.08247 93.263895 0.06218 6.47555 0.0852 0.12535 0.10611 1854.52 0.37723 89.2576 75.7944 14.5693 12.3717 1874.38 6.74777 1611.68 1591.66 5.72996 1368.58 8400.81 0.37723032 202.219 6230.07 1440.88 1267.77 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 725.721 679.022 2.6126 2.44448 30.1798 21902.1 20492.7 78.8475 73.7738 0.05325 0.06881 1.17267 98.776712 0.05859 6.95228 0.09042 0.12198 0.10522 1991.05 0.37723 93.1831 80.5905 15.21 13.1546 2076.76 7.47633 1785.69 1796.11 6.46599 1544.38 9019.28 0.37723032 214.044 6594.38 1579.37 1411.62 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 759.254 718.225 2.73331 2.58561 32.3227 24541.2 23215 88.3482 83.574 0.06113 0.07932 1.26288 103.89808 0.055 7.50479 0.09633 0.1182 0.10417 2149.28 0.37723 97.3992 86.0188 15.8982 14.0406 2312.47 8.32488 1988.36 2042.27 7.35217 1756.04 9736.06 0.37723032 227.547 7010.4 1738.88 1581.54 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 794.28 759.755 2.85941 2.73512 34.7933 27635.6 26434.4 99.4882 95.1638 0.07016 0.09147 1.35308 109.11699 0.09469 7.35907 0.05595 0.14 0.11031 2107.55 0.37723 112.867 89.2638 18.423 14.5703 1556.48 5.60334 1338.33 1230.98 4.43154 1058.45 9547.01 0.37723032 224.006 6901.29 1270.04 1044.65 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 679.674 609.319 2.44683 2.19355 18.5272 12592.5 11289 45.333 40.6404 0.07967 0.10431 1.44329 113.94444 0.08808 7.98102 0.06015 0.14 0.1098 2285.67 0.37723 122.274 96.2327 19.9584 15.7078 1812.85 6.52627 1558.77 1426.76 5.13634 1226.79 10353.9 0.37723032 239.027 7364.08 1454.73 1195.2 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 729.219 657.635 2.62519 2.36748 20.0296 14606 13172.1 52.5814 47.4197 0.08975 0.11798 1.53349 118.38045 0.08146 8.7178 0.06504 0.13836 0.10916 2496.67 0.37723 131.875 104.372 21.5255 17.0363 2113.97 7.61028 1817.69 1673.09 6.02314 1438.6 11309.7 0.37723032 256.523 7903.1 1667.84 1380.78 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 779.123 710.154 2.80484 2.55655 21.7971 16982.6 15479.3 61.1373 55.7253 0.10157 0.13414 Adiabatic DP 1.6237 122.42501 0.07485 9.60445 0.07079 0.13465 0.10836 2750.6 0.37723 141.28 113.995 23.0608 18.6071 2464.9 8.87365 2119.43 1988.86 7.15989 1710.11 12460 0.37723032 277.191 8539.84 1912.8 1613.17 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 828.698 766.979 2.98331 2.76112 23.9067 19811.4 18335.9 71.321 66.0092 0.11562 0.15356 3-Point Average Mass Flux = 3.02644 kg/m2.s 1.7139 126.07812 0.06823 10.6919 0.07765 0.13023 0.10733 3062.02 0.37723 151.985 125.534 24.808 20.4906 2908.75 10.4715 2501.07 2402.53 8.64912 2065.81 13870.7 0.37723032 302.025 9304.97 2216.02 1909.5 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 880.919 828.078 3.17131 2.98108 26.4684 23316.5 21917.9 83.9393 78.9044 0.13263 0.17734 Carman Ergun Inner 1.80411 129.33979 0.06162 12.057 0.08599 0.12485 0.10598 3452.97 0.37723 164.184 139.605 26.7993 22.7873 3479.58 12.5265 2991.9 2958.67 10.6512 2544 15641.7 0.37723032 332.5 10243.8 2597.33 2295.64 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 935.516 893.234 3.36786 3.21564 29.645 27733.3 26479.9 99.84 95.3276 0.1537 0.20715 0.00715 0.0087 bar Wall 1.89431 132.21 0.055 13.8217 0.09633 0.1182 0.10417 3958.36 0.37723 178.066 157.107 29.0652 25.6441 4227.67 15.2196 3635.14 3730.05 13.4282 3207.26 17931 0.37723032 370.893 11426.7 3085.93 2812.09 130577 0.35981 189.169 1678.75 11333.3 992.094 961.977 3.57154 3.46312 33.688 33421.7 32407.1 120.318 116.666 0.18054 0.24566 Carman Ergun INSIDE PLATE - Based on Dittus-Boelter Correlation: COOLED DP 0.18054 0.24566 bar TOTAL RADIAL DP = 0.18768 0.25436 bar i) Single Plate Layer Plate Mass Flux = 229.292 kg/m2.s Radial Distance From Outside to Inside Of 'Cooled' Bed = 1.87233 Plate Equivelant 'Inner' Diameter = 0.018 m Radial Bed Approx. Mass Dp/Gap AB (1) AB (2) Re Pr ke/kg (1) ke/kg (2) ke (1) ke (2) hbed (1) hbed (2) Re Pr Nu h(outerwall) h(overall) bedside Re Pr Nu h(inside plate) h (Plate Solid Wall) OVERALL U Specific OVERALL VOLUMETRIC UA Distance Volume Plate Flux 1 2 1 2 1 2 A (m2/m3) 1 2 1 2 Carman Ergun (m) (m3) Spacing (m(kg/m2.s) (W/m.K) (W/m.K) W/m2.K MJ/hr.m2.K kcal/h.m2.K W/m2.K MJ/hr.m2.K kcal/h.m2.K W/m2.K W/m2.K W/m2.K W/m2.K w/m2.K w/m2.K w/m2.K MJ/hr.m2.K MJ/hr.m2.K w/m3.K w/m3.K MJ/hr.m3.K MJ/hr.m3.K bar bar Outside 0 0 0.1923 3.62034 0.02755 0.14 0.11288 1036.82 0.37723 56.3197 45.7123 9.19291 7.46149 382.432 1.37676 328.832 310.404 1.11745 266.899 4696.71 0.37723032 126.999 3912.66 348.381 287.589 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 301.156 254.627 1.08416 0.91666 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wall 0.08916 9.91134 0.18577 3.75486 0.02852 0.14 0.11282 1075.35 0.37723 58.3543 47.3284 9.52502 7.72528 410.194 1.4767 352.704 332.689 1.19768 286.061 4871.23 0.37723032 130.76 4028.54 372.287 307.31 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 318.856 269.967 1.14788 0.97188 9.11667 2906.9 2461.2 10.4649 8.86032 0.00257 0.0032 0.17832 19.461117 0.17923 3.89977 0.02956 0.14 0.11275 1116.85 0.37723 60.546 49.0664 9.88276 8.00897 441.127 1.58806 379.301 357.488 1.28696 307.384 5059.22 0.37723032 134.782 4152.44 398.765 329.151 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 338.082 286.678 1.2171 1.03204 9.46184 3198.88 2712.5 11.516 9.765 0.00532 0.00665 0.26748 28.649332 0.17269 4.05631 0.03068 0.14 0.11268 1161.68 0.37723 62.9136 50.9405 10.2692 8.31488 475.731 1.71263 409.055 385.195 1.3867 331.208 5262.3 0.37723032 139.093 4285.26 428.195 353.426 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 359.002 304.919 1.29241 1.09771 9.83417 3530.48 2998.62 12.7097 10.795 0.00828 0.01037 0.35663 37.475984 0.16615 4.22594 0.03189 0.14 0.11259 1210.26 0.37723 65.4793 52.9674 10.688 8.64572 514.616 1.85262 442.49 416.283 1.49862 357.939 5482.36 0.37723032 143.727 4428.03 461.036 380.511 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 381.804 324.869 1.37449 1.16953 10.237 3908.52 3325.68 14.0707 11.9725 0.01146 0.01438 0.44579 45.941074 0.15961 4.41038 0.03319 0.14 0.1125 1263.08 0.37723 68.2688 55.1663 11.1433 9.00464 558.519 2.01067 480.24 451.325 1.62477 388.069 5721.64 0.37723032 148.724 4581.97 497.835 410.855 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 406.7 346.733 1.46412 1.24824 10.6742 4341.22 3701.11 15.6284 13.324 0.0149 0.01875 0.53495 54.044601 0.15307 4.61165 0.03461 0.14 0.1124 1320.72 0.37723 71.313 57.5599 11.6402 9.39534 608.344 2.19004 523.081 491.021 1.76768 422.202 5982.75 0.37723032 154.129 4748.51 539.258 445.005 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 433.93 370.744 1.56215 1.33468 11.1505 4838.54 4133.98 17.4188 14.8823 0.01862 0.0235 0.62411 61.786566 0.14654 4.83217 0.03616 0.14 0.11228 1383.87 0.37723 74.6484 60.175 12.1846 9.82219 665.209 2.39475 571.977 536.233 1.93044 461.078 6268.84 0.37723032 159.998 4929.31 586.113 483.623 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 463.764 397.165 1.66955 1.42979 11.6713 5412.7 4635.41 19.4857 16.6875 0.02267 0.0287 0.71327 69.166968 0.14 5.07484 0.03784 0.14 0.11214 1453.37 0.37723 78.3187 63.0434 12.7837 10.2904 730.511 2.62984 628.126 588.032 2.11692 505.617 6583.65 0.37723032 166.394 5126.37 639.397 527.522 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 496.502 426.299 1.78741 1.53468 12.243 6078.68 5219.19 21.8833 18.7891 0.0271 0.0344 0.80243 76.185807 0.13346 5.34317 0.0397 0.14 0.11198 1530.22 0.37723 82.3772 66.2036 13.4462 10.8062 806.009 2.90163 693.043 647.761 2.33194 556.974 6931.76 0.37723032 173.396 5342.09 700.342 577.71 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 532.484 458.487 1.91694 1.65055 12.8737 6855.04 5902.42 24.6782 21.2487 0.03196 0.04071 0.89159 82.843084 0.12692 5.64147 0.04174 0.14 0.1118 1615.65 0.37723 86.8888 69.7018 14.1826 11.3772 893.948 3.21821 768.657 717.121 2.58163 616.613 7318.74 0.37723032 181.098 5579.37 770.496 635.446 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 572.088 494.117 2.05952 1.77882 13.5729 7764.89 6706.59 27.9536 24.1437 0.03731 0.0477 0.98074 89.138798 0.12038 5.97503 0.04401 0.14 0.11159 1711.18 0.37723 91.9339 73.5945 15.0061 12.0126 997.226 3.59001 857.46 798.295 2.87386 686.41 7751.49 0.37723032 189.615 5841.77 851.815 702.32 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 615.733 533.627 2.21664 1.92106 14.3524 8837.23 7658.81 31.814 27.5717 0.04326 0.0555 1.0699 95.07295 0.11384 6.35053 0.04654 0.14 0.11134 1818.71 0.37723 97.6132 77.9516 15.9331 12.7238 1119.64 4.0307 962.717 894.118 3.21883 768.803 8238.62 0.37723032 199.089 6133.66 946.809 780.363 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 663.88 577.51 2.38997 2.07904 15.2268 10108.8 8793.66 36.3917 31.6572 0.04989 0.06428 1.15906 100.64554 0.10731 6.77638 0.04937 0.14 0.11105 1940.67 0.37723 104.054 82.86 16.9845 13.525 1266.24 4.55847 1088.77 1008.33 3.62998 867.006 8791.08 0.37723032 209.7 6460.56 1058.73 872.2 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 717.03 626.314 2.58131 2.25473 16.2148 11626.5 10155.6 41.8554 36.56 0.05735 0.07421 1.24822 105.85657 0.10077 7.26345 0.05258 0.14 0.1107 2080.16 0.37723 111.421 88.4294 18.1869 14.4341 1443.86 5.19791 1241.5 1145.93 4.12533 985.319 9422.96 0.37723032 221.674 6829.46 1191.88 981.276 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 775.719 680.644 2.79259 2.45032 17.3399 13450.9 11802.3 48.4231 42.4881 0.0658 0.08555 1.33738 110.70603 0.09423 7.82596 0.05623 0.14 0.11028 2241.26 0.37723 119.929 94.8005 19.5756 15.474 1661.95 5.98302 1429.02 1313.73 4.72942 1129.6 10152.7 0.37723032 235.305 7249.4 1352 1112.18 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 840.504 741.151 3.02582 2.66814 18.6327 15660.8 13809.6 56.379 49.7146 0.07547 0.09862 1.42654 115.19393 0.08769 8.48291 0.06042 0.14 0.10976 2429.4 0.37723 129.865 102.156 21.1975 16.6746 1933.83 6.96178 1662.79 1521.2 5.47633 1308 11005 0.37723032 250.979 7732.29 1546.94 1271.13 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 911.948 808.526 3.28301 2.91069 20.1338 18361 16278.7 66.0995 58.6033 0.08664 0.11387 1.5157 119.32027 0.08115 9.26027 0.06529 0.1382 0.10913 2652.03 0.37723 139.825 110.736 22.8232 18.0751 2249.89 8.0996 1934.56 1781.83 6.41459 1532.1 12013.5 0.37723032 269.215 8294.13 1769.81 1466.73 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 985.076 883.467 3.54627 3.18048 21.898 21571.2 19346.1 77.6562 69.6461 0.09972 0.13188 Adiabatic DP 1.60485 123.08505 0.07461 10.1945 0.07101 0.13451 0.10833 2919.57 0.37723 149.708 120.867 24.4364 19.7288 2620 9.43202 2252.8 2115.27 7.61495 1818.8 13225.4 0.37723032 290.732 8957.02 2027.07 1711.16 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 1059.95 966.637 3.81583 3.47989 24.001 25439.9 23200.3 91.5837 83.5209 0.11526 0.15349 3-Point Average Mass Flux = 3.21466 kg/m2.s 1.69401 126.48826 0.06808 11.3383 0.07783 0.13011 0.1073 3247.15 0.37723 160.941 132.996 26.2699 21.7086 3087.1 11.1136 2654.43 2551.08 9.1839 2193.54 14709.3 0.37723032 316.548 9752.38 2344.84 2022.12 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 1140.79 1058.6 4.10685 3.81095 26.5509 30289.1 28106.7 109.041 101.184 0.13405 0.17992 Carman Ergun Inner 1.78317 129.52991 0.06154 12.7713 0.08609 0.12478 0.10596 3657.54 0.37723 173.723 147.758 28.3563 24.1182 3686.33 13.2708 3169.67 3135.37 11.2873 2695.93 16568.3 0.37723032 348.167 10726.5 2743.49 2426.19 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 1227.57 1159.71 4.41926 4.17495 29.707 36467.5 34451.5 131.283 124.026 0.15727 0.21299 0.00847 0.01039 bar Wall 1.87233 132.21 0.055 14.6188 0.09633 0.1182 0.10417 4186.65 0.37723 188.246 166.077 30.7268 27.1083 4469.35 16.0897 3842.95 3943.03 14.1949 3390.4 18965.2 0.37723032 387.91 11950.9 3252.86 2964.83 243460 0.35981 311.386 2763.34 11333.3 1320.07 1270 4.75224 4.57199 33.7147 44505.7 42817.6 160.22 154.143 0.18678 0.25559 Carman Ergun COOLED DP 0.18678 0.25559 bar TOTAL RADIAL DP = 0.19525 0.26598 bar PRESSURE DROP PRESSURE DROP ESTIMATED CATALYST ESTIMATED CATALYST COOLED BED COOLED BED Do Di Dduct FEED GAS VOLUME FOR CATALYST AND PLATES Reacted Gas Collected 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 UA(W/m3.K) Cooled Catalyst Bed Volume (m3) RADIAL FLOW ACME VOLUMETRIC UA PROFILE GCC - Outside-to-Inside Flow Design UA - 3 Plate Layers Estimated Optimum UA Single Plate Layer 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 UA(MJ/h.m3.K) Cooled Catalyst Bed Volume (m3) RADIAL FLOW ACME VOLUMETRIC UA PROFILE GCC - Outside-to-Inside Flow Design UA - 3 Plate Layers Estimated Optimum UA Single Plate Layer
  14. 14. Prediction of Heat Transfer Coefficients Using Bed Heat Transfer Methods by Yagi & Kunii (1957) RADIAL FLOW ACME REACTOR SET-UP - Gas-Cooled - ADIABATIC BED LOCATED FROM INSIDE WALL OUTWARDS ENTER CATALYST CONTAINING DIAMETER OF REACTOR (Di) = 6 m ENTER CENTRAL DUCT OUTER DIAMETER (Doduct) = 1.5 m ENTER CENTRAL DUCT INNER DIAMETER (Diduct) = 1.39 m ENTER OUTER ANNULUS OUTER DIAMETER (Do) = 8 m OUTER ANNULUS INNER DIAMETER (Di) = 6 m ENTER MOLAR FLOW OF REACTOR FEED GAS = 153219 9 kmol/h ENTER MASS FLOW OF REACTOR FEED GAS = 409 7973 kg/s ENTER REACTOR FEED TEMPERATURE = 245 DEG C AND PRESSURE = 86 2 bar(a) APPROXIMATE (IDEALITY) VOLUMETRIC FEED FLOW AT 245 DEG C AND 86 2 bar(a) = 76550 43 m3/h X-SECTIONAL AREA OF INNER DUCT = 1 517468 m2 AVERAGE AXIAL (VERTICAL) VELOCITY OF GAS THROUGH CENTRAL DUCT = 14 01282 m/s INTERNALS ENTER TOTAL CATALYST ACTIVE BULK VOLUME = 180 5 m3 ENTER VOLUME OF ADIABATIC BED = 48 29 m3 (If no adiabatic bed present set as very small value > 0 e g 0 001 m3) Active Volume of Cooled Bed = 132 21 m3 ENTER AVERAGE EMBOSSED PLATE WIDTH = 0 012 m ENTER PLATE MATERIAL THICKNESS = 0 0015 m ENTER CATALYST PELLET LENGTH = 5 2 mm ENTER CATALYST PELLET DIAMETER = 5 4 mm ENTER VOIDAGE OF CATALYST BED = 0 36 ENTER THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF CATALYST PELLET = 0 32 W/m K ENTER THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF PLATE = 17 W/m K TO ESTIMATE THE NUMBER OF PLATES INSTALLED ASSUMING ONE SINGLE PLATE LAYER (USE 'SOLVER' ROUTINE IN TOOLS MENU OR PRESS BUTTON BELOW WITH STARTING GUESSES) Guess Diameter of Adiabatic Bed = 3 228622 m (If no adiabatic bed present this value should equal a fraction greater than the outer diameter of central duct due to calculation method employed) TO ESTIMATE THE NUMBER OF PLATES INSTALLED ASSUMING ONE SINGLE PLATE BANK Plate Width = 0 012 m Guess Angle Subtended by Chord of Circle (inner duct or adi bed) equal to Plate Width = 0 42591 Degrees Using Sine Rule: PRESS TO COMPUTE --------> (N B Requires 'Good' Initial Guess Values for Iterated Cells) LHS = 0 619455 RHS = 0 619455 Difference = 1 28E-09 (Should be 0) ENTER MINIMUM PLATE SPACING AT INNER RADII = 0 055 m Enter Angle Subtended by Arc Forming Plate Spacing = 1 952176 Degrees Chord Gap = 0 055 m ( should equal minimum plate spacing) NUMBER OF PLATES = 151 (Single Layer) CALCULATION OF CATALYST BED HEIGHT FOR SINGLE PLATE LAYER CATALYST BED HEIGHT = 7 521987 m Assumed Plate Height = 7 521987 m Assumed Plate Breadth = 1 385689 m Cooled A/V = 23 808987 m2/m3Cat Cooled Bed Volume = 132 21 m3 Actual Volume = 132 21 m3 DIFFERENCE = -1 5E-07 (Should be 0) CONSIDER MULTIPLE PLATE LAYERS NUMBER OF PLATE LAYERS = 3 Guess Diameter of Adiabatic Bed = 3 189126 m Breadth of Each Plate Bank = 0 468479 m First Plate Layer (Counting from Adiabtic Bed/Central Duct Outwards) Plate Width = 0 012 m Guess Angle Subtended by Chord of Circle (inner duct or adi bed) equal to Plate Width = 0 431185 Degrees Using Sine Rule: LHS = 0 627127 RHS = 0 627127 Difference = -1 3E-10 (Should be 0) ENTER MINIMUM PLATE SPACING AT INNER RADII = 0 055 m Enter Angle Subtended by Arc Forming Plate Spacing = 1 976363 Degrees Chord Gap = 0 055 m ( should equal minimum plate spacing) NUMBER OF PLATES IN FIRST PLATE LAYER = 149 Second Plate Layer Plate Width = 0 012 m Guess Angle Subtended by Chord of Circle (inner duct or adi bed) equal to Plate Width = 0 33327 Degrees Using Sine Rule: LHS = 0 484719 RHS = 0 484719 Difference = -2 8E-11 (Should be 0) ENTER MINIMUM PLATE SPACING AT INNER RADII = 0 055 m Enter Angle Subtended by Arc Forming Plate Spacing = 1 527531 Degrees Chord Gap = 0 055 m ( should equal minimum plate spacing) NUMBER OF PLATES IN SECOND PLATE LAYER = 193 Third Plate Layer Plate Width = 0 012 m Guess Angle Subtended by Chord of Circle (inner duct or adi bed) equal to Plate Width = 0 271596 Degrees Using Sine Rule: LHS = 0 395018 RHS = 0 395018 Difference = -3 7E-12 (Should be 0) ENTER MINIMUM PLATE SPACING AT INNER RADII = 0 055 m Enter Angle Subtended by Arc Forming Plate Spacing = 1 244837 Degrees Chord Gap = 0 055 m ( should equal minimum plate spacing) NUMBER OF PLATES IN THIRD PLATE LAYER = 237 TOTAL NUMBER OF PLATES IN REACTOR = 579 Cooled Bed Volume = 132 21 m3 Actual Volume = 132 21 m3 DIFFERENCE = 1 73E-08 (Should be 0) CATALYST BED HEIGHT = 7 762708 m Assumed Plate Height = 7 762708 m Assumed Plate Breadth = 0 468479 m Overall Cooled A/V = 31 85279 m2/m3Cat Area Basis Vol Basis Catalyst Particle Equivelant/Effective Diameter = 0 005298 m 0 007566 m 0 007691 m Dp (Volume)/Dp (Area) = 1 016532 TO CALCULATE OVERALL BEDSIDE HTC (Bed and Plate Outside Wall HTCs) Correlation Constants: Phi1 coeff -1 00234 Phi2 coeff -1 13595 -0 49574 -0 72885 0 046918 0 05113 -0 00194 -0 00131 ks/kg 1 960457 Phi1 0 26837 0 2891698 Phi2 0 201126 0 2112543 phi 0 232257 0 2473263 Gamma 1 Beta 1 Alpha 0 122988 0 1041672 Emmis 0 6 Hrv 26 92895 Hrs 13 70491 ke0/kg 1 562824 Equivelant 'Outer' Diameter of Plate = 0 024 m HTC PROFILES FOR GAS-COOLED PART OF BED (In - Out) INSIDE PLATE - Based on Dittus-Boelter Correlation: i) 3 Plate Layers Plate Mass Flux = 110 79 kg/m2 s Plate Equivelant 'Inner' Diameter = 0 018 m Radial Distance from Inside to Outside of Cooled Catalyst Bed = 1 405437 m For Plate Outer Wall HTC For Plate Inside Wall Radial Bed Approx Mass Dp/Gap AB (1) AB (2) Re Pr ke/kg (1) ke/kg (2) ke (1) ke (2) hbed (1) hbed (2) Re Pr Nu h(outerwall) h(overall) bedside Re Pr Nu h(inside plate) h (Plate Solid Wall) OVERALL U OVERALL VOLUMETRIC UA Distance Volume Plate Flux 1 2 1 2 1 2 Specific 1 2 1 2 Carman Ergun (m) (m3) Spacing (m(kg/m2 s) (W/m K) (W/m K) W/m2 K MJ/hr m2 K kcal/h m2 K W/m2.K MJ/hr m2 K kcal/h.m2.K W/m2.K W/m2.K W/m2.K W/m2.K w/m2 K w/m2 K w/m2 K MJ/hr m2 K MJ/hr.m2.K A (m2/m3) w/m3 K w/m3 K MJ/hr m3 K MJ/hr.m3.K bar bar Inner 0 0 0 055 6 41367 0 096329 0 118204 0 104167 1836 797 0 37723 83 46573 73 73979 13 62388 12 03634 1981 648 7 133933 1703 911 1750 734 6 302643 1505 36 8320 535 0 37723032 200 6716 6182 402 1500 645 1364 371 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 713 1802 680 861 2 567449 2 451099 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wall 0 066926 4 3853965 0 057309 6 101932 0 092449 0 120678 0 104863 1747 519 0 37723 81 11597 70 6903 13 24033 11 53858 1848 285 6 653827 1589 239 1610 729 5 798624 1384 978 7916 113 0 37723032 192 8299 5940 812 1409 703 1267 164 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 691 9652 655 7573 2 491075 2 360726 56 15323 38856 08 36822 89 139 8819 132 5624 0 005124 0 006786 0 133851 8 9892557 0 059617 5 819094 0 088869 0 122988 0 105487 1666 518 0 37723 78 88037 67 8786 12 87542 11 07964 1727 751 6 219903 1485 598 1486 774 5 352388 1278 396 7549 183 0 37723032 185 6457 5719 475 1326 914 1180 027 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 671 4029 631 6208 2 417051 2 273835 53 48864 35912 43 33784 54 129 2847 121 6243 0 009805 0 012952 0 200777 13 811577 0 061925 5 561314 0 085556 0 125125 0 106049 1592 693 0 37723 76 7394 65 27863 12 52596 10 65525 1618 198 5 825514 1391 4 1376 526 4 955493 1183 599 7214 762 0 37723032 179 0369 5515 868 1251 147 1101 611 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 651 4418 608 4383 2 34519 2 190378 51 06548 33266 19 31070 19 119 7583 111 8527 0 014099 0 018579 0 267702 18 852362 0 064234 5 325404 0 082482 0 127109 0 106557 1525 131 0 37723 74 69168 62 86793 12 19172 10 26176 1518 416 5 466297 1305 603 1278 049 4 600978 1098 925 6908 713 0 37723032 172 9349 5327 874 1181 651 1030 785 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 632 0859 586 1923 2 275509 2 110292 48 85235 30878 88 28636 87 111 164 103 0927 0 018055 0 023737 0 334628 24 111609 0 066542 5 108694 0 07962 0 128955 0 107017 1463 068 0 37723 72 73467 60 62707 11 87228 9 895988 1427 336 5 13841 1227 288 1189 738 4 283057 1022 991 6627 573 0 37723032 167 2817 5153 708 1117 767 966 5981 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 613 3347 564 8612 2 208005 2 0335 46 82308 28718 22 26448 54 103 3856 95 21476 0 021712 0 028481 0 401553 29 589319 0 068851 4 908932 0 076951 0 130677 0 107435 1405 859 0 37723 70 86505 58 53915 11 5671 9 555182 1344 021 4 838477 1155 65 1110 249 3 996898 954 6426 6368 419 0 37723032 162 028 4991 85 1058 916 908 2445 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 595 1841 544 4205 2 142663 1 959914 44 95568 26756 91 24474 8 96 32486 88 10927 0 025104 0 032861 0 468479 35 285491 0 055 4 958496 0 096329 0 118204 0 104167 1420 053 0 37723 64 88296 57 36379 10 59067 9 363332 1540 46 5 545658 1324 558 1361 939 4 902981 1171 057 6432 719 0 37723032 163 3355 5032 131 1179 413 1071 846 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 631 4448 599 2472 2 273201 2 15729 35 20541 22230 27 21096 74 80 02898 75 94828 0 028402 0 037113 0 535404 40 925817 0 056784 4 770091 0 093303 0 120127 0 104712 1366 096 0 37723 63 46841 55 52412 10 35977 9 063048 1459 528 5 254302 1254 969 1276 84 4 596626 1097 885 6188 299 0 37723032 158 3514 4878 578 1123 431 1011 981 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 615 0361 580 0628 2 21413 2 088226 35 55399 21866 99 20623 55 78 72115 74 24477 0 031615 0 041248 0 60233 46 784606 0 058568 4 595479 0 09046 0 121961 0 105212 1316 089 0 37723 62 11273 53 79728 10 13849 8 78118 1384 84 4 985424 1190 748 1199 442 4 317992 1031 335 5961 773 0 37723032 153 6969 4735 181 1071 478 957 0238 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 599 1323 561 5781 2 156876 2 021681 34 22825 20507 25 19221 83 73 8261 69 1986 0 03461 0 045086 0 669256 52 861858 0 060353 4 4332 0 087786 0 123686 0 105673 1269 615 0 37723 60 80087 52 17346 9 924357 8 516129 1315 516 4 735857 1131 14 1128 849 4 063858 970 6357 5751 245 0 37723032 149 3394 4600 931 1023 012 906 4497 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 583 6704 543 7752 2 101214 1 957591 32 99783 19259 86 17943 4 69 33548 64 59623 0 03741 0 048658 0 736181 59 157572 0 062137 4 28199 0 085265 0 125313 0 106098 1226 31 0 37723 59 53266 50 64396 9 717351 8 266473 1251 09 4 503925 1075 744 1064 293 3 831453 915 1268 5555 079 0 37723032 145 2503 4474 953 977 738 859 8028 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 568 6474 526 6352 2 04713 1 895887 31 85279 18113 01 16774 8 65 20683 60 38929 0 040033 0 051991 0 803107 65 671749 0 063921 4 140756 0 082885 0 126848 0 106491 1185 862 0 37723 58 30751 49 201 9 517372 8 030942 1191 141 4 288106 1024 197 1005 107 3 618387 864 2369 5371 854 0 37723032 141 4048 4356 479 935 3884 816 6854 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 554 0581 510 1385 1 994609 1 836499 30 78456 17056 44 15704 39 61 40317 56 53581 0 042496 0 055109 0 870032 72 404389 0 065705 4 00854 0 080635 0 1283 0 106856 1147 997 0 37723 57 12447 47 83762 9 324269 7 808402 1135 284 4 087022 976 1685 950 7184 3 422586 817 4707 5200 329 0 37723032 137 7811 4244 836 895 7225 776 7494 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 539 8963 494 2649 1 943627 1 779353 29 78566 16081 17 14722 57 8922 52 99921 0 044814 0 058032 0 936958 79 355491 0 055 4 041529 0 096329 0 118204 0 104167 1157 445 0 37723 53 17326 47 0446 8 679323 7 678959 1262 447 4 544809 1085 509 1116 939 4 020982 960 395 5243 125 0 37723032 138 6874 4272 759 974 5133 885 4694 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 567 5551 536 1543 2 043198 1 930155 22 27244 12640 84 11941 47 45 50702 42 98928 0 04708 0 060885 1 003883 86 250747 0 056454 3 915478 0 093848 0 119779 0 104614 1121 345 0 37723 52 22993 45 81522 8 525347 7 47829 1208 112 4 349202 1038 789 1059 735 3 815047 911 2082 5079 598 0 37723032 135 2161 4165 812 936 5162 844 8221 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 554 4536 520 9768 1 996033 1 875516 22 45283 12449 05 11697 4 44 81659 42 11065 0 049299 0 063675 1 070809 93 364466 0 057908 3 797052 0 091492 0 121296 0 105032 1087 429 0 37723 51 31966 44 64797 8 376765 7 287763 1157 25 4 166101 995 0561 1006 805 3 624497 865 6962 4925 962 0 37723032 131 9343 4064 706 900 7893 806 9322 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 541 733 506 3158 1 950239 1 822737 21 7633 11789 9 11019 1 42 44364 39 66878 0 051394 0 0663 1 137735 100 69665 0 059362 3 685579 0 089251 0 122741 0 105422 1055 505 0 37723 50 43459 43 53838 8 232298 7 106649 1109 435 3 993966 953 9425 957 7357 3 447849 823 5045 4781 347 0 37723032 128 8265 3968 958 867 0659 771 5545 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 529 3511 492 1563 1 905664 1 771763 21 11486 11177 18 10391 81 40 23784 37 41053 0 053375 0 068774 Adiabatic DP 1 20466 108 24729 0 060816 3 580465 0 087117 0 124118 0 105787 1025 402 0 37723 49 57327 42 48241 8 091707 6 934285 1064 416 3 831898 915 2331 912 1641 3 283791 784 32 4644 982 0 37723032 125 8787 3878 14 835 1862 738 4709 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 517 2963 478 4827 1 862267 1 722538 20 50395 10606 62 9810 784 38 18382 35 31882 0 055253 0 07111 3-Point Average Mass Flux = 7 879559 kg/m2 s 1 271586 116 0164 0 06227 3 48118 0 085083 0 125431 0 106129 996 9677 0 37723 48 73554 41 47635 7 954966 6 770069 1021 994 3 679179 878 7568 869 7675 3 131163 747 8654 4516 178 0 37723032 123 0784 3791 867 805 0224 707 4863 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 505 5633 465 2796 1 820028 1 675007 19 92739 10074 56 9271 809 36 2684 33 37851 0 057035 0 07332 Carman Ergun 1 338511 124 00397 0 063724 3 387253 0 083141 0 126683 0 106449 970 0682 0 37723 47 92109 40 51684 7 822026 6 613451 981 9854 3 535148 844 3555 830 2596 2 988935 713 8947 4394 326 0 37723032 120 4145 3709 796 776 4568 678 4264 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 494 1464 452 5318 1 778927 1 629115 19 38237 9577 727 8771 139 34 47982 31 5761 0 058729 0 075413 0 099291 0 134944 bar Outside 1 405437 132 21 0 065178 3 298262 0 081287 0 12788 0 106751 944 5821 0 37723 47 12953 39 60081 7 692822 6 46393 944 2202 3 399193 811 8832 793 3855 2 856188 682 1887 4278 876 0 37723032 117 8769 3631 617 749 3811 651 1346 117635 7 0 359811 174 0159 1544 27 11333 33 483 0393 440 2239 1 738942 1 584806 18 86637 9113 198 8305 427 32 80751 29 89954 0 060342 0 0774 Wall Carman Ergun COOLED DP 0 060342 0 0774 bar TOTAL RADIAL DP = 0 159632 0 212344 bar ii) Single Plate Layer Plate Mass Flux = 143 6238 kg/m2 s Plate Equivelant 'Inner' Diameter = 0 018 m Radial Distance from Inside to Outside of Cooled Catalyst Bed = 1 385689 m For Plate Outer Wall HTC For Plate Inside Wall Radial Bed Approx Mass Dp/Gap AB (1) AB (2) Re Pr ke/kg (1) ke/kg (2) ke (1) ke (2) hbed (1) hbed (2) Re Pr Nu h(outerwall) h(overall) bedside Re Pr Nu h(inside plate) h (Plate Solid Wall) OVERALL U OVERALL VOLUMETRIC UA Distance Volume Plate Flux 1 2 1 2 1 2 Specific 1 2 1 2 Carman Ergun (m) (m3) Spacing (m(kg/m2 s) (W/m K) (W/m K) W/m2 K MJ/hr m2 K kcal/h m2 K W/m2.K MJ/hr m2 K kcal/h.m2.K W/m2.K W/m2.K W/m2.K W/m2.K w/m2 K w/m2 K w/m2 K MJ/hr m2 K MJ/hr.m2.K A (m2/m3) w/m3 K w/m3 K MJ/hr m3 K MJ/hr.m3.K bar bar Inner 0 0 0 055 6 53941 0 096329 0 118204 0 104167 1872 807 0 37723 85 07127 75 15477 13 88595 12 2673 2019 774 7 271187 1736 693 1784 335 6 423606 1534 252 8483 658 0 37723032 203 8128 6279 177 1528 208 1389 488 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 788 1897 749 5926 2 837483 2 698533 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wall 0 065985 4 2379043 0 057248 6 2294 0 092546 0 120615 0 104846 1784 025 0 37723 82 73541 72 12274 13 50467 11 77239 1887 177 6 793837 1622 68 1645 104 5 922375 1414 535 8081 479 0 37723032 196 0458 6039 888 1437 901 1292 942 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 763 4598 720 5655 2 748455 2 594036 35 36998 27003 56 25486 39 97 2128 91 75099 0 005243 0 00696 0 13197 8 6815896 0 059496 5 947454 0 08905 0 122871 0 105456 1703 278 0 37723 80 5111 69 32148 13 1416 11 31515 1767 049 6 361377 1519 389 1521 46 5 477258 1308 22 7715 706 0 37723032 188 9146 5820 185 1355 507 1206 158 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 739 5904 692 7857 2 662525 2 494029 33 73204 24947 89 23369 08 89 81242 84 12868 0 010044 0 013299 0 197956 13 331056 0 061744 5 689924 0 085807 0 124963 0 106007 1629 525 0 37723 78 37843 66 72628 12 79349 10 89154 1657 607 5 967385 1425 285 1411 178 5 080242 1213 395 7381 609 0 37723032 182 3416 5617 681 1279 937 1127 857 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 716 5082 666 22 2 57943 2 398392 32 23909 23099 58 21478 33 83 15847 77 32198 0 014457 0 019096 0 263941 18 186303 0 063993 5 453771 0 082793 0 126908 0 106506 1561 894 0 37723 76 33619 64 31577 12 46014 10 49808 1557 7 5 607719 1339 381 1312 414 4 72469 1128 473 7075 245 0 37723032 176 2618 5430 37 1210 475 1056 966 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 694 208 640 8313 2 499149 2 306993 30 8727 21432 07 19784 19 77 15546 71 22309 0 01853 0 02442 0 329926 23 247332 0 066241 5 23644 0 079983 0 128721 0 10696 1499 653 0 37723 74 38203 62 07142 12 14117 10 13174 1466 31 5 278718 1260 8 1223 628 4 405062 1052 131 6793 298 0 37723032 170 6198 5256 55 1146 496 992 5752 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 672 6798 616 5802 2 421647 2 219689 29 61742 19923 04 18261 51 71 72294 65 74144 0 022301 0 029326 0 395911 28 514141 0 068489 5 035766 0 077357 0 130415 0 107372 1442 182 0 37723 72 5129 59 97702 11 83608 9 789881 1382 542 4 977151 1188 772 1143 531 4 116711 983 2596 6532 961 0 37723032 165 3686 5094 767 1087 447 933 9123 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 651 9101 593 425 2 346876 2 13633 28 46023 18553 51 16889 01 66 79263 60 80043 0 025804 0 033862 0 461896 33 986731 0 070737 4 849904 0 074899 0 132001 0 107749 1388 954 0 37723 70 72534 58 01838 11 5443 9 470179 1305 604 4 700174 1122 617 1071 031 3 855711 920 9208 6291 842 0 37723032 160 4675 4943 772 1032 84 880 3169 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 631 8826 571 323 2 274777 2 056763 27 39006 17307 3 15648 57 62 30629 56 33486 0 029067 0 03807 0 527881 39 665102 0 072985 4 677275 0 072592 0 133489 0 108093 1339 515 0 37723 69 01565 56 18303 11 26523 9 170599 1234 799 4 445276 1061 736 1005 203 3 61873 864 3189 6067 887 0 37723032 155 8816 4802 487 982 2469 831 221 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 612 5789 550 2311 2 205284 1 980832 26 39746 16170 53 14524 7 58 2139 52 28893 0 032115 0 041983 0 593867 45 549255 0 075233 4 516512 0 070423 0 134889 0 10841 1293 474 0 37723 67 38009 54 45993 10 99826 8 889343 1169 512 4 210243 1005 599 945 2576 3 402927 812 7752 5859 327 0 37723032 151 5804 4669 974 935 2861 786 1347 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 593 9793 530 1059 2 138326 1 908381 25 47429 15131 2 13504 07 54 47232 48 61465 0 034969 0 045632 0 659852 51 639188 0 077481 4 366433 0 068379 0 136207 0 1087 1250 493 0 37723 65 81491 52 83932 10 74278 8 624815 1109 2 3 99312 953 7402 890 5181 3 205865 765 7077 5664 628 0 37723032 147 5374 4545 413 891 621 744 6328 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 576 0629 510 9046 2 073827 1 839257 24 6135 14178 93 12575 15 51 04413 45 27054 0 037647 0 049043 0 725837 57 934902 0 079729 4 226007 0 066451 0 137451 0 108968 1210 277 0 37723 64 31646 51 31251 10 4982 8 375598 1053 382 3 792175 905 7455 840 4019 3 025447 722 6155 5482 452 0 37723032 143 7291 4428 086 850 952 706 3453 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 558 8081 492 5849 2 011709 1 773306 23 80899 13304 66 11727 95 47 89676 42 22061 0 040166 0 05224 0 791822 64 436398 0 081978 4 094332 0 064629 0 138627 0 109215 1172 567 0 37723 62 88122 49 87175 10 26393 8 140427 1001 632 3 605877 861 2488 794 4051 2 859858 683 0654 5311 628 0 37723032 140 1351 4317 361 813 0126 670 9489 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 542 1929 475 1056 1 951895 1 71038 23 0554 12500 48 10953 75 45 00171 39 4335 0 042541 0 055241 0 857807 71 143674 0 084226 3 970615 0 062904 0 13974 0 109444 1137 136 0 37723 61 50578 48 51011 10 03942 7 91817 953 5727 3 432862 819 9249 752 0904 2 707526 646 6814 5151 128 0 37723032 136 7372 4212 677 777 5647 638 1596 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 526 1953 458 4265 1 894303 1 650335 22 34805 11759 44 10244 94 42 33399 36 88179 0 044783 0 058065 0 923793 78 056731 0 086474 3 854155 0 061268 0 14 0 109656 1103 783 0 37723 59 85609 47 22137 9 770143 7 707812 903 8702 3 253933 777 1885 713 0768 2 567076 613 1357 5000 043 0 37723032 133 5193 4113 535 741 0408 607 7279 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 509 2111 442 5088 1 83316 1 593032 21 68282 11041 13 9594 839 39 74808 34 54142 0 046904 0 060726 0 989778 85 175569 0 088722 3 744332 0 059716 0 14 0 109853 1072 331 0 37723 58 19504 45 99993 9 499014 7 508441 856 5195 3 08347 736 4742 677 0309 2 437311 582 1418 4857 568 0 37723032 130 4668 4019 494 706 0635 579 433 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 492 4478 427 3151 1 772812 1 538334 21 05604 10369 8997 565 37 32841 32 39123 0 048914 0 06324 1 055763 92 500189 0 09097 3 640594 0 05824 0 14 0 110036 1042 622 0 37723 56 62603 44 84076 9 242909 7 319232 812 8304 2 926189 698 9083 643 6604 2 317177 553 4483 4722 988 0 37723032 127 567 3930 156 673 5314 553 0798 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 476 3991 412 8093 1 715037 1 486114 20 46449 9749 263 8447 931 35 09735 30 41255 0 050821 0 065618 1 121748 100 03059 0 093218 3 54245 0 056836 0 14 0 110206 1014 515 0 37723 55 14162 43 73929 9 000612 7 139443 772 4335 2 780761 664 1733 612 7077 2 205748 526 8338 4595 664 0 37723032 124 8083 3845 164 643 2205 528 4947 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 461 0323 398 9571 1 659716 1 436246 19 90526 9176 968 7941 345 33 03708 28 58884 0 052634 0 06787 Adiabatic DP 1 187733 107 76677 0 095466 3 449458 0 055497 0 14 0 110365 987 8829 0 37723 53 73514 42 69139 8 771037 6 968397 735 0053 2 646019 631 9908 583 9456 2 102204 502 1029 4475 025 0 37723032 122 1803 3764 199 614 9323 505 5231 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 446 3162 385 7254 1 606738 1 388612 19 37578 8647 727 7473 733 31 13182 26 90544 0 05436 0 070007 3-Point Average Mass Flux = 8 088957 kg/m2 s 1 253718 115 70873 0 097715 3 361224 0 05422 0 14 0 110514 962 6136 0 37723 52 40061 41 69331 8 553205 6 805483 700 2608 2 520939 602 1159 557 1728 2 005822 479 0824 4360 557 0 37723032 119 6736 3686 972 588 4899 484 027 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 432 2206 373 0829 1 555994 1 343098 18 87375 8157 622 7041 472 29 36744 25 3493 0 056004 0 072038 Carman Ergun 1 319704 123 85648 0 099963 3 277391 0 053001 0 14 0 110653 938 6048 0 37723 51 13265 40 74164 8 34624 6 650144 667 9487 2 404615 574 3325 532 2104 1 915957 457 6185 4251 8 0 37723032 117 2798 3613 221 563 7353 463 8826 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 418 7165 360 9996 1 507379 1 299598 18 39707 7703 155 6641 333 27 73136 23 9088 0 057574 0 07397 0 106708 0 145448 bar Outside 1 385689 132 21 0 102211 3 197638 0 051835 0 14 0 110783 915 7645 0 37723 49 9264 39 83326 8 149348 6 501872 637 8465 2 296247 548 4492 508 8991 1 832037 437 5745 4148 335 0 37723032 114 991 3542 708 540 5273 444 9792 152498 3 0 359811 214 1755 1900 659 11333 33 405 776 349 4469 1 460793 1 258009 17 94387 7281 192 6270 432 26 21229 22 57355 0 059073 0 07581 Wall Carman Ergun COOLED DP 0 059073 0 07581 bar TOTAL RADIAL DP = 0 165781 0 221258 bar ESTIMATED CATALYST PRESSURE DROP ESTIMATED CATALYST PRESSURE DROP COOLED BED COOLED BED Do Di Doduct FEED GAS VOLUME FOR CATALYST AND PLATES Reacted Gas Collected 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 UA(W/m3.K) Cooled Catalyst Bed Volume (m3) RADIAL FLOW ACME VOLUMETRIC UA PROFILE GCC - Inside-to-Outside Flow Design UA - 3 Plate Layers Estimated Optimum UA Single Plate Layer Diduct 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 UA(MJ/h.m3.K) RADIAL FLOW ACME VOLUMETRIC UA PROFILE GCC - Inside-to-Outside Flow
  15. 15. Prediction of Heat Transfer Coefficients Using Bed Heat Transfer Methods by Yagi & Kunii (1957) RADIAL FLOW ACME REACTOR SET-UP - Water-Cooled - ADIABATIC BED LOCATED FROM OUTSIDE WALL INWARDS ENTER CATALYST CONTAINING DIAMETER OF REACTOR (Di) = 6 m ENTER CENTRAL DUCT OUTER DIAMETER (Dduct) = 1.5 m ENTER OUTER ANNULUS OUTER DIAMETER (Do) = 8 m OUTER ANNULUS INNER DIAMETER (Di) = 6 m ENTER MOLAR FLOW OF REACTOR FEED GAS = 153220 kmol/h ENTER MASS FLOW OF REACTOR FEED GAS = 409.797 kg/s ENTER REACTOR FEED TEMPERATURE = 245 DEG C AND PRESSURE = 86.2 bar(a) APPROXIMATE (IDEALITY) VOLUMETRIC FEED FLOW AT 245 DEG C AND 86.2 bar(a) = 76550.4 m3/h X-SECTIONAL AREA OF ANNULUS = 21.9911 m2 AVERAGE AXIAL (VERTICAL) VELOCITY OF GAS THROUGH ANNULUS = 0.96693 m/s INTERNALS ENTER TOTAL CATALYST ACTIVE BULK VOLUME = 233.9 m3 ENTER VOLUME OF ADIABATIC BED = 0.001 m3 (If no adiabatic bed present set as very small value > 0 e.g. 0.001 m3) Active Volume of Cooled Bed = 233.899 m3 ENTER AVERAGE EMBOSSED PLATE WIDTH = 0.012 m ENTER PLATE MATERIAL THICKNESS = 0.0015 m ENTER CATALYST PELLET LENGTH = 5.2 mm ENTER CATALYST PELLET DIAMETER = 5.4 mm ENTER VOIDAGE OF CATALYST BED = 0.36 ENTER THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF CATALYST PELLET = 0.32 W/m.K ENTER THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF PLATE = 17 W/m.K TO ESTIMATE THE NUMBER OF PLATES INSTALLED ASSUMING ONE SINGLE PLATE LAYER (USE 'SOLVER' ROUTINE IN TOOLS MENU OR PRESS BUTTON BELOW WITH STARTING GUESSES) Plate Width = 0.012 m Guess Angle Subtended by Chord of Circle (inner duct) equal to Plate Width = 0.91674 Degrees Using Sine Rule: LHS = 1.33329 RHS = 1.33329 Difference = 2.2E-12 (Should be 0) ENTER MINIMUM PLATE SPACING AT INNER RADII = 0.055 m Guess Angle Subtended by Arc Forming Plate Spacing = 4.20263 Degrees Chord Gap = 0.055 m ( should equal minimum plate spacing) NUMBER OF PLATES = 70 (Single Layer) PRESS TO COMPUTE ------------> (N.B. Requires 'Good' Initial Guess Values for Iterated Cells) CALCULATION OF CATALYST BED HEIGHT FOR SINGLE PLATE LAYER Guess Diameter of Cooled Bed = 5.99999 m CATALYST BED HEIGHT = 9.50149 m Assumed Plate Height = 9.50149 m Single Plate Breadth = 2.24999 m Cooled Bed Volume = 233.899 m3 Actual Volume = 233.899 m3 DIFFERENCE = -4E-07 (Should be 0) Overall Cooled A/V = 12.796 m2/m3Cat (Single Plate Layer) CONSIDER MULTIPLE PLATE LAYERS NUMBER OF PLATE LAYERS = 3 CALCULATION OF CATALYST BED HEIGHT Guess Diameter of Cooled Bed = 5.99999 m CATALYST BED HEIGHT = 10.2916 m Assumed Plate Height = 10.2916 m Equivelant Single Plate Breadth = 2.24999 m Breadth of Each Plate Bank = 0.75 m First Plate Layer (Counting from Central Duct Outwards) Number of Plates = 70 Second Plate Layer Plate Width = 0.012 m Guess Angle Subtended by Chord of Circle (inner duct) equal to Plate Width = 0.45837 Degrees Using Sine Rule: LHS = 0.66666 RHS = 0.66666 Difference = 0 (Should be 0) ENTER MINIMUM PLATE SPACING AT INNER RADII = 0.055 m Guess Angle Subtended by Arc Forming Plate Spacing = 2.10097 Degrees Chord Gap = 0.055 m ( should equal minimum plate spacing) NUMBER OF PLATES IN SECOND PLATE LAYER = 140 Third Plate Layer Plate Width = 0.012 m Guess Angle Subtended by Chord of Circle (inner duct) equal to Plate Width = 0.30558 Degrees Using Sine Rule: LHS = 0.44444 RHS = 0.44444 Difference = 0 (Should be 0) ENTER MINIMUM PLATE SPACING AT INNER RADII = 0.055 m Guess Angle Subtended by Arc Forming Plate Spacing = 1.4006 Degrees Chord Gap = 0.055 m ( should equal minimum plate spacing) NUMBER OF PLATES IN THIRD PLATE BANK = 210 TOTAL NUMBER OF PLATES IN REACTOR = 420 Cooled Bed Volume = 233.899 m3 Actual Volume = 233.899 m3 DIFFERENCE = -1.2E-08 (Should be 0) Overall Cooled A/V = 27.7201 m2/m3Cat Area Basis Vol. Basis Catalyst Particle Equivelant/Effective Diameter = 0.0053 m 0.00757 m 0.00769 m Dp (Volume)/Dp (Area) = 1.01653 TO CALCULATE OVERALL BEDSIDE HTC (Bed and Plate Outside Wall HTCs) Correlation Constants: Phi1 coeff -1.00234 Phi2 coeff -1.13595 -0.49574 -0.72885 0.04692 0.05113 -0.00194 -0.00131 ks/kg 2.07908 Phi1 0.26163 0.2826695 Phi2 0.19349 0.2025676 phi 0.22504 0.2396518 Gamma 1 Beta 1 Alpha 0.13371 0.1081442 Emmis. 0.6 Hrv 24.9888 Hrs 12.7175 ke0/kg 1.60283 Equivelant 'Outer' Diameter of Plate = 0.024 m HTC PROFILES FOR WATER-COOLED PART OF BED (Out - In) INSIDE PLATE - Based on Dittus-Boelter Correlation: i) 3 Plate Layers Plate Mass Flux = 123.648 kg/m2.s Plate Equivelant 'Inner' Diameter = 0.018 m Radial Distance From Outside to Inside Of 'Cooled' Bed = 2.24999 For Plate Outer Wall HTC For Plate Inside Wall Radial Bed Approx. Mass Dp/Gap AB (1) AB (2) Re Pr ke/kg (1) ke/kg (2) ke (1) ke (2) hbed (1) hbed (2) Re Pr Nu h(outerwall) h(overall) bedside Re Pr Nu h(inside plate) h (Plate Solid Wall) OVERALL U OVERALL VOLUMETRIC UA Distance Volume Plate Flux 1 2 1 2 1 2 Specific 1 2 1 2 Carman Ergun (m) (m3) Spacing (m(kg/m2.s) (W/m.K) (W/m.K) W/m2.K MJ/hr.m2.K kcal/h.m2.K W/m2.K MJ/hr.m2.K kcal/h.m2.K W/m2.K W/m2.K W/m2.K W/m2.K w/m2.K w/m2.K w/m2.K MJ/hr.m2.K MJ/hr.m2.K A (m2/m3) w/m3.K w/m3.K MJ/hr.m3.K MJ/hr.m3.K bar bar Outside 0 0 0.07333 2.43844 0.07225 0.13371 0.10814 711.028 0.38222 37.9414 30.993 5.83971 4.77025 637.06 2.29341 547.773 520.391 1.87341 447.456 3220.9 0.38221833 94.3296 2740.34 516.895 437.34 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 398.063 349.152 1.43303 1.25695 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wall 0.10714 17.63496 0.07071 2.54328 0.07492 0.13199 0.10775 741.601 0.38222 39.0145 32.1436 6.00489 4.94735 679.341 2.44563 584.128 559.7 2.01492 481.256 3359.39 0.38221833 97.5607 2834.21 547.991 467.398 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 416.254 368.048 1.49851 1.32497 26.2616 10931.5 9665.54 39.3534 34.7959 0.0014 0.00167 0.21429 34.527605 0.0681 2.65755 0.0778 0.13013 0.1073 774.922 0.38222 40.1448 33.3847 6.17885 5.13838 725.907 2.61327 624.168 603.67 2.17321 519.063 3510.33 0.38221833 101.052 2935.63 581.995 500.707 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 435.585 388.393 1.56811 1.39822 27.4156 11941.8 10648 42.9906 38.333 0.00292 0.00349 0.32143 50.677933 0.06548 2.78258 0.08092 0.12812 0.10681 811.377 0.38222 41.3353 34.7272 6.36208 5.345 777.331 2.79839 668.384 653.062 2.35102 561.533 3675.47 0.38221833 104.838 3045.61 619.274 537.753 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 456.136 410.32 1.64209 1.47715 28.6757 13080 11766.2 47.0881 42.3584 0.00456 0.00547 0.42857 66.085946 0.06286 2.91994 0.08429 0.12594 0.10626 851.432 0.38222 42.5889 36.1835 6.55503 5.56915 834.276 3.00339 717.348 708.801 2.55168 609.459 3856.91 0.38221833 108.958 3165.31 660.254 579.12 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 477.988 433.973 1.72076 1.5623 30.0572 14367 13044 51.7212 46.9585 0.00636 0.00764 0.53571 80.751643 0.06024 3.07158 0.08795 0.12358 0.10564 895.647 0.38222 43.9079 37.7683 6.75804 5.81308 897.511 3.23104 771.72 772.014 2.77925 663.812 4057.2 0.38221833 113.461 3296.14 705.428 625.509 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 501.225 459.51 1.80441 1.65423 31.5786 15828 14510.7 56.9808 52.2384 0.00832 0.01003 0.64286 94.675025 0.05762 3.23982 0.09195 0.121 0.10495 944.706 0.38222 45.2938 39.4989 6.97135 6.07943 967.923 3.48452 832.264 844.087 3.03871 725.784 4279.44 0.38221833 118.407 3439.8 755.37 677.77 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 525.931 487.101 1.89335 1.75356 33.2622 17493.6 16202.1 62.9771 58.3274 0.01047 0.01268 0.75 107.85609 0.055 3.42756 0.09633 0.1182 0.10417 999.45 0.38222 46.7576 41.3955 7.19665 6.37135 1046.78 3.76843 900.073 926.742 3.33627 796.855 4527.42 0.38221833 123.865 3598.36 810.892 736.945 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 552.259 516.933 1.98813 1.86096 35.1354 19403.9 18162.7 69.8539 65.3856 0.01286 0.01562 0.85714 121.22109 0.07857 3.37904 0.06743 0.13682 0.10883 985.303 0.38222 53.129 42.5893 8.17729 6.5551 832.598 2.99735 715.905 667.428 2.40274 573.885 4463.34 0.38221833 122.46 3557.55 674.694 561.993 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 485.511 424.283 1.74784 1.52742 23.1013 11215.9 9801.49 40.3773 35.2853 0.01533 0.01868 0.96428 133.84376 0.07464 3.58378 0.07098 0.13453 0.10833 1045 0.38222 55.3364 44.8715 8.51705 6.90636 912.832 3.2862 784.894 740.203 2.66473 636.46 4733.77 0.38221833 128.361 3728.97 733.32 617.608 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 515.146 455.231 1.85453 1.63883 24.4598 12600.4 11134.9 45.3614 40.0855 0.01791 0.02188 1.07143 145.72413 0.07071 3.81492 0.07492 0.13199 0.10775 1112.4 0.38222 57.7204 47.4139 8.88398 7.29767 1005.06 3.6182 864.193 825.596 2.97214 709.884 5039.09 0.38221833 134.942 3920.17 799.962 681.971 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 547.167 489.267 1.9698 1.76136 25.9881 14219.9 12715.1 51.1915 45.7745 0.02079 0.02548 1.17857 156.86218 0.06679 4.07794 0.07933 0.12914 0.10706 1189.1 0.38222 60.2971 50.2624 9.28057 7.73609 1111.68 4.00206 955.875 926.676 3.33604 796.798 5386.5 0.38221833 142.335 4134.94 876.134 757.021 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 581.763 526.731 2.09435 1.89623 27.7201 16126.6 14601.1 58.0556 52.5639 0.02404 0.02957 1.28571 167.25791 0.06286 4.37991 0.08429 0.12594 0.10626 1277.15 0.38222 63.0819 53.4738 9.70919 8.23038 1235.71 4.44857 1062.52 1047.5 3.77101 900.69 5785.37 0.38221833 150.706 4378.13 963.71 845.266 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 619.122 567.99 2.22884 2.04476 29.6995 18387.6 16869 66.1955 60.7285 0.02773 0.03425 1.39285 176.91132 0.05893 4.73018 0.08991 0.12232 0.10531 1379.28 0.38222 66.0872 57.1199 10.1718 8.79155 1380.89 4.97121 1187.35 1193.52 4.29667 1026.24 6248.03 0.38221833 160.273 4656.06 1065.03 950 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 659.423 613.434 2.37392 2.20836 31.9833 21090.5 19619.7 75.9259 70.6308 0.03196 0.03966 1.5 185.82242 0.055 5.14134 0.09633 0.1182 0.10417 1499.17 0.38222 69.3349 61.2918 10.6716 9.43367 1552.23 5.58805 1334.68 1372.17 4.93981 1179.85 6791.13 0.38221833 171.325 4977.11 1183.22 1075.62 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 702.896 663.47 2.53042 2.38849 34.6476 24353.7 22987.7 87.6731 82.7556 0.03686 0.046 1.60714 194.91745 0.10214 5.03294 0.05187 0.14 0.11078 1467.57 0.38222 80.1331 63.7423 12.3336 9.81083 965.992 3.47757 830.603 768.402 2.76625 660.707 6647.95 0.38221833 168.429 4892.98 806.725 664.11 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 550.323 480.005 1.98116 1.72802 16.9735 9340.89 8147.35 33.6272 29.3305 0.04205 0.05272 1.71428 203.27017 0.09429 5.50103 0.05619 0.14 0.11028 1604.06 0.38222 87.4368 69.2172 13.4577 10.6535 1141.87 4.11074 981.833 903.935 3.25417 777.245 7266.24 0.38221833 180.848 5253.77 938.003 771.24 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 608.41 533.576 2.19028 1.92087 18.4819 11244.6 9861.51 40.4805 35.5014 0.04758 0.05992 1.82142 210.88057 0.08643 6.06511 0.0613 0.14 0.10965 1768.54 0.38222 96.2382 75.7238 14.8124 11.655 1371.07 4.93585 1178.91 1078.81 3.88371 927.608 8011.32 0.38221833 195.537 5680.5 1104.49 906.627 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 674.339 595.052 2.42762 2.14219 20.2846 13678.7 12070.4 49.2434 43.4535 0.05416 0.06857 1.92857 217.74865 0.07857 6.75808 0.06743 0.13682 0.10883 1970.6 0.38222 104.655 83.5757 16.1079 12.8635 1640.08 5.90428 1410.21 1309.74 4.71506 1126.17 8926.66 0.38221833 213.215 6194.05 1296.73 1081.13 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 741.451 665.562 2.66922 2.39602 22.477 16665.6 14959.9 59.9962 53.8555 0.06212 0.07917 2.03571 223.87441 0.07071 7.62984 0.07492 0.13199 0.10775 2224.8 0.38222 113.838 93.225 17.5212 14.3486 1982.2 7.13593 1704.39 1623.28 5.84382 1395.77 10078.2 0.38221833 234.948 6825.41 1536.1 1311.39 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 813.978 746.223 2.93032 2.6864 25.2008 20512.9 18805.4 73.8464 67.6995 0.07199 0.09248 Inner 2.14285 229.25786 0.06286 8.75981 0.08429 0.12594 0.10626 2554.29 0.38222 124.561 105.345 19.1716 16.214 2440.03 8.78411 2098.05 2063.61 7.42899 1774.38 11570.7 0.38221833 262.395 7622.76 1848.37 1623.97 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 894.014 838.006 3.21845 3.01682 28.6757 25636.5 24030.4 92.2912 86.5095 0.08458 0.10969 Wall 2.24999 233.899 0.055 10.2827 0.09633 0.1182 0.10417 2998.34 0.38222 137.067 120.981 21.0965 18.6206 3068.58 11.0469 2638.51 2708.46 9.75044 2328.85 13582.2 0.38221833 298.293 8665.64 2266.13 2063.51 19311.6 0.85506 57.967 2043.74 11333.3 981.532 941.49 3.53351 3.38936 33.2622 32647.9 31316 117.532 112.738 0.10123 0.13285 INSIDE PLATE - Based on Dittus-Boelter Correlation: COOLED DP 0.10123 0.13285 bar i) Single Plate Layer Plate Mass Flux = 247.296 kg/m2.s Radial Distance From Outside to Inside Of 'Cooled' Bed = 2.24999 Plate Equivelant 'Inner' Diameter = 0.018 m Radial Bed Approx. Mass Dp/Gap AB (1) AB (2) Re Pr ke/kg (1) ke/kg (2) ke (1) ke (2) hbed (1) hbed (2) Re Pr Nu h(outerwall) h(overall) bedside Re Pr Nu h(inside plate) h (Plate Solid Wall) OVERALL U Specific OVERALL VOLUMETRIC UA Distance Volume Plate Flux 1 2 1 2 1 2 A (m2/m3) 1 2 1 2 Carman Ergun (m) (m3) Spacing (m(kg/m2.s) (W/m.K) (W/m.K) W/m2.K MJ/hr.m2.K kcal/h.m2.K W/m2.K MJ/hr.m2.K kcal/h.m2.K W/m2.K W/m2.K W/m2.K W/m2.K w/m2.K w/m2.K w/m2.K MJ/hr.m2.K MJ/hr.m2.K w/m3.K w/m3.K MJ/hr.m3.K MJ/hr.m3.K bar bar Outside 0 0 0.22 2.39483 0.02408 0.14 0.11308 698.314 0.38222 38.97 31.7844 5.99804 4.89206 218.111 0.7852 187.542 177.894 0.64042 152.961 3163.3 0.38221833 92.9778 2701.07 201.815 166.902 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 187.818 157.212 0.67614 0.56596 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wall 0.10714 17.991286 0.21214 2.48783 0.02497 0.14 0.11303 725.431 0.38222 40.4211 32.9429 6.22137 5.07037 234.611 0.8446 201.729 191.207 0.68834 164.408 3286.14 0.38221833 95.8551 2784.66 216.381 178.921 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 200.371 167.833 0.72134 0.6042 7.92172 1587.28 1329.52 5.71422 4.78628 0.00135 0.00161 0.21429 35.297249 0.20429 2.58834 0.02593 0.14 0.11298 754.739 0.38222 41.9893 34.1934 6.46275 5.26284 253.087 0.91111 217.616 206.098 0.74195 177.212 3418.9 0.38221833 98.9409 2874.31 232.606 192.309 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 214.207 179.558 0.77115 0.64641 8.23543 1764.09 1478.74 6.35071 5.32345 0.0028 0.00334 0.32143 51.917887 0.19643 2.69731 0.02697 0.14 0.11291 786.514 0.38222 43.6896 35.5472 6.72445 5.47121 273.869 0.98593 235.485 222.828 0.80218 191.598 3562.84 0.38221833 102.26 2970.71 250.753 207.28 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 229.502 192.543 0.82621 0.69315 8.575 1967.98 1651.06 7.08473 5.9438 0.00436 0.00522 0.42857 67.853202 0.18857 2.81586 0.0281 0.14 0.11285 821.083 0.38222 45.5394 37.0176 7.00916 5.69752 297.359 1.07049 255.683 241.714 0.87017 207.837 3719.43 0.38221833 105.84 3074.72 271.137 224.097 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 246.461 206.97 0.88726 0.74509 8.94378 2204.3 1851.09 7.93546 6.66394 0.00605 0.00725 0.53571 83.103193 0.18071 2.94531 0.02932 0.14 0.11277 858.83 0.38222 47.5593 38.6202 7.32005 5.94419 324.05 1.16658 278.633 263.143 0.94731 226.262 3890.43 0.38221833 109.715 3187.29 294.145 243.075 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 265.326 223.054 0.95517 0.80299 9.34571 2479.66 2084.59 8.92677 7.50454 0.00788 0.00946 0.64286 97.66786 0.17286 3.08724 0.03065 0.14 0.11268 900.215 0.38222 49.7738 40.3736 7.66089 6.21406 354.555 1.2764 304.862 287.594 1.03534 247.286 4077.9 0.38221833 113.924 3309.58 320.247 264.601 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 286.381 241.048 1.03097 0.86777 9.78546 2802.37 2358.77 10.0885 8.49157 0.00986 0.01189 0.75 111.5472 0.165 3.24354 0.03211 0.14 0.11258 945.79 0.38222 52.2126 42.2999 8.03625 6.51055 389.638 1.4027 335.028 315.664 1.13639 271.422 4284.35 0.38221833 118.515 3442.96 350.025 289.153 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 309.962 261.258 1.11586 0.94053 10.2686 3182.89 2682.76 11.4584 9.65794 0.01203 0.01455 0.85714 124.74122 0.15714 3.41651 0.03372 0.14 0.11246 996.226 0.38222 54.9115 44.4258 8.45165 6.83776 430.267 1.54896 369.963 348.105 1.25318 299.317 4512.82 0.38221833 123.545 3589.07 384.207 317.328 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 336.471 284.044 1.21129 1.02256 10.802 3634.56 3068.25 13.0844 11.0457 0.01441 0.01748 0.96428 137.24992 0.14929 3.60896 0.03549 0.14 0.11233 1052.34 0.38222 57.9144 46.7838 8.91384 7.20069 477.681 1.71965 410.731 385.875 1.38915 331.793 4767.03 0.38221833 129.082 3749.92 423.707 349.873 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 366.383 309.843 1.31898 1.11543 11.3938 4174.51 3530.29 15.0282 12.7091 0.01703 0.02074 1.07143 149.07329 0.14143 3.82439 0.03746 0.14 0.11217 1115.16 0.38222 61.2758 49.4137 9.43121 7.60546 533.484 1.92054 458.714 430.209 1.54875 369.913 5051.59 0.38221833 135.21 3927.95 469.692 387.742 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 400.269 339.178 1.44097 1.22104 12.0543 4824.95 4088.54 17.3698 14.7188 0.01994 0.02437 1.17857 160.21134 0.13357 4.06718 0.03967 0.14 0.11198 1185.96 0.38222 65.064 52.3647 10.0143 8.05966 599.787 2.15923 515.724 482.719 1.73779 415.064 5372.28 0.38221833 142.034 4126.2 523.666 432.161 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 438.813 372.687 1.57973 1.34167 12.796 5615.03 4768.89 20.2141 17.168 0.02318 0.02846 1.28571 170.66406 0.12571 4.34288 0.04214 0.14 0.11176 1266.35 0.38222 69.3658 55.6988 10.6764 8.57283 679.408 2.44587 584.185 545.545 1.96396 469.084 5736.45 0.38221833 149.686 4348.49 587.601 484.732 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 482.835 411.141 1.73821 1.48011 13.6349 6583.42 5605.87 23.7003 20.1811 0.02683 0.03309 1.39285 180.43146 0.11786 4.65867 0.04495 0.14 0.1115 1358.43 0.38222 74.2933 59.4947 11.4348 9.15708 776.181 2.79425 667.395 621.573 2.23766 534.456 6153.58 0.38221833 158.332 4599.66 664.113 547.576 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 533.325 455.479 1.91997 1.63972 14.5916 7782.06 6646.16 28.0154 23.9262 0.03097 0.03838 1.5 189.51354 0.11 5.02399 0.04816 0.14 0.11118 1464.96 0.38222 79.9935 63.854 12.3121 9.82803 895.429 3.22354 769.93 714.768 2.57316 614.589 6636.13 0.38221833 168.189 4886.02 756.745 623.55 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 591.467 506.846 2.12928 1.82465 15.6927 9281.69 7953.77 33.4141 28.6336 0.0357 0.04448 1.60714 197.91029 0.10214 5.45148 0.05187 0.14 0.11078 1589.61 0.38222 86.6637 68.9098 13.3388 10.6062 1044.72 3.76098 898.295 830.696 2.99051 714.27 7200.8 0.38221833 179.544 5215.88 870.383 716.573 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 658.682 566.638 2.37126 2.0399 16.9735 11180.1 9617.81 40.2484 34.6241 0.04118 0.0516 1.71428 205.62172 0.09429 5.95849 0.05619 0.14 0.11028 1737.45 0.38222 94.5747 74.84 14.5564 11.5189 1235.09 4.44632 1061.99 977.366 3.51852 840.384 7870.5 0.38221833 192.783 5600.48 1011.93 832.145 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 736.66 636.546 2.65198 2.29157 18.4819 13614.9 11764.6 49.0136 42.3525 0.04759 0.06002 1.82142 212.64782 0.08643 6.56948 0.0613 0.14 0.10965 1915.61 0.38222 104.108 81.8877 16.0237 12.6037 1483.19 5.33948 1275.31 1166.62 4.19984 1003.12 8677.54 0.38221833 208.441 6055.37 1191.38 978.17 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 827.384 718.607 2.97858 2.58698 20.2846 16783.2 14576.7 60.4194 52.4761 0.05522 0.07015 1.92857 218.9886 0.07857 7.32009 0.06743 0.13682 0.10883 2134.48 0.38222 113.225 90.3926 17.4269 13.9127 1774.38 6.38776 1525.69 1416.57 5.09964 1218.03 9669.01 0.38221833 227.286 6602.82 1398.55 1166.34 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 922.261 815.231 3.32014 2.93483 22.477 20729.7 18324 74.6269 65.9664 0.06446 0.08256 2.03571 224.64406 0.07071 8.26434 0.07492 0.13199 0.10775 2409.82 0.38222 123.171 100.844 18.9578 15.5214 2144.72 7.721 1844.13 1755.95 6.32143 1509.85 10916.3 0.38221833 250.453 7275.83 1656.45 1414.56 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 1027.79 929.199 3.70003 3.34512 25.2008 25901 23416.5 93.2436 84.2996 0.07592 0.09814 Inner 2.14285 229.61419 0.06286 9.48828 0.08429 0.12594 0.10626 2766.71 0.38222 134.786 113.972 20.7454 17.5419 2640.33 9.5052 2270.28 2232.61 8.03738 1919.7 12532.9 0.38221833 279.711 8125.8 1992.81 1751.4 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 1148.02 1063.56 4.13285 3.82883 28.6757 32920.1 30498.4 118.512 109.794 0.09053 0.11829 Wall 2.24999 233.899 0.055 11.1378 0.09633 0.1182 0.10417 3247.69 0.38222 148.332 130.908 22.8304 20.1486 3320.78 11.9548 2855.36 2930.71 10.5505 2519.96 14711.7 0.38221833 317.979 9237.51 2442.67 2224.85 38623.3 0.85506 100.926 3558.36 11333.3 1284.27 1221.4 4.62338 4.39704 33.2622 42717.6 40626.4 153.783 146.255 0.10987 0.14543 COOLED DP 0.10987 0.14543 bar ESTIMATED CATALYST PRESSURE DROP ESTIMATED CATALYST PRESSURE DROP COOLED BED COOLED BED Do Di Dduct FEED GAS VOLUME FOR CATALYST AND PLATES Reacted Gas Collected 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 0 50 100 150 200 250 UA(W/m3.K) Cooled Catalyst Bed Volume (m3) RADIAL FLOW ACME VOLUMETRIC UA PROFILE WCC - Outside-to-Inside Flow Design UA - 3 Plate Layers Estimated Optimum UA Single Plate Layer 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 50 100 150 200 250 UA(MJ/h.m3.K) Cooled Catalyst Bed Volume (m3) RADIAL FLOW ACME VOLUMETRIC UA PROFILE WCC - Outside-to-Inside Flow Design UA - 3 Plate Layers Estimated Optimum UA Single Plate Layer

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