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Integration of Reciprocating Metering Pumps Into A Process

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Integration of Reciprocating Metering Pumps into a Process …

Integration of Reciprocating Metering Pumps into a Process
Engineering Design Guide
1 SCOPE
2 PRELIMINARY CHOICE OF PUMP
SECTION A - TYPE/FLOW/PRESSURE/SPEED RATING
Al Pumping Pressure
A2 Pump Flowrate and Capacity
A3 Guide to Pump Speed & Type
A4 Metering Criteria
A5 Pressure Pulsation
A6 Over Delivery
SECTION B - INLET CONDITIONS
B1 Calculation of Basic NPSH
B2 Correction for Frictional Head
B3 Correction for Acceleration Head
B4 Calculation of Available NPSH
B5 Corrections to NPSH for Fluid Properties
B6 Estimation of NPSH Required
B7 Priming
SECTION C - POWER RATING
C1 Pump Efficiency
C2 Calculation of Absorbed Power
C3 Determination of Driver Power Rating


SECTION D - CASING PRESSURE RATING
Dl Calculation of Maximum Discharge Pressure
D2 Discharge Pressure Relief Rating
D3 Calculation of Pump Head Outlet Losses
D4 Casing Hydrostatic Test Pressure
APPENDICES
A RELIABILITY CLASSIFICATION
FIGURES
A3.1 ESTIMATE OF CRANK SPEED
A3.3 SELECTION OF PUMPING HEAD TYPE
B5.1 ESTIMATE OF VISCOSITY OF FINE SUSPENSIONS
B6 ESTIMATE OF NPSH REQUIRED
C1.1 GRAPH - VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY VS MEAN DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE

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  • 1. GBH Enterprises, Ltd. Engineering Design Guide: GBHE-EDG-MAC-1013 Integration of Reciprocating Metering Pumps into a Process Information contained in this publication or as otherwise supplied to Users is believed to be accurate and correct at time of going to press, and is given in good faith, but it is for the User to satisfy itself of the suitability of the information for its own particular purpose. GBHE gives no warranty as to the fitness of this information for any particular purpose and any implied warranty or condition (statutory or otherwise) is excluded except to the extent that exclusion is prevented by law. GBHE accepts no liability resulting from reliance on this information. Freedom under Patent, Copyright and Designs cannot be assumed. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 2. Engineering Design Guide: Integration of Reciprocating Metering Pumps into a Process CONTENTS 1 SCOPE 2 PRELIMINARY CHOICE OF PUMP SECTION A - TYPE/FLOW/PRESSURE/SPEED RATING Al Pumping Pressure A2 Pump Flowrate and Capacity A3 Guide to Pump Speed & Type A4 Metering Criteria A5 Pressure Pulsation A6 Over Delivery SECTION B - INLET CONDITIONS B1 Calculation of Basic NPSH B2 Correction for Frictional Head B3 Correction for Acceleration Head B4 Calculation of Available NPSH B5 Corrections to NPSH for Fluid Properties B6 Estimation of NPSH Required Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 3. B7 Priming SECTION C - POWER RATING C1 Pump Efficiency C2 Calculation of Absorbed Power C3 Determination of Driver Power Rating SECTION D - CASING PRESSURE RATING Dl Calculation of Maximum Discharge Pressure D2 Discharge Pressure Relief Rating D3 Calculation of Pump Head Outlet Losses D4 Casing Hydrostatic Test Pressure APPENDICES A RELIABILITY CLASSIFICATION FIGURES A3.1 A3.3 B5.1 B6 C1.1 ESTIMATE OF CRANK SPEED SELECTION OF PUMPING HEAD TYPE ESTIMATE OF VISCOSITY OF FINE SUSPENSIONS ESTIMATE OF NPSH REQUIRED GRAPH - VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY VS MEAN DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 4. 1 SCOPE This Engineering Design Guide deals with: (a) The specification of the pump duty for enquiries to be sent to pump vendors, (b) The estimation of the characteristics and requirements of the pumps in order to provide preliminary information for design work by others. It applies to pumps in Group 3 as defined in GBHE-EDP-MAC-33 Series but may be used for general purpose pumps in Group 4. It applies to metering duties where metering accuracy is important. Metering pumps are often used where metering accuracy is unimportant but where this type of pump is readily available for low flows and high heads. This Engineering Design Guide may be used for such duties with the special metering requirements discounted. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 5. PRELIMINARY CHOICE OF PUMP Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 6. 2 PRELIMINARY CHOICE OF PUMP 2.1 Preliminary Choice of Number of Pumps Reciprocating metering pumps fall into reliability classes 4, 5 and 6 as defined in Appendix A. The standard arrangement is one running pump rated at 100% duty, with one identical pump as the spare either installed or available as a replacement. Other considerations are: (a) Systems that cannot tolerate an interval of no-flow upon changeover to a standby pump require two running pumps each rated at 50% duty together with a third identical pump as standby. Check whether the average flow obtained from an integration of the flow over a time period including the Change over should be kept constant. (b) Systems requiring approximately constant pressure should include an accumulator, but then accurate short-term metering is impossible. 2.2 Estimate of Pump Flow Normal flow is taken as the largest process flow required for operation at the rated plant daily output. Metering duties are seldom known accurately. Unless the process duty specifically limits the maximum flow, take 110% of this normal flow through one pump or divided between pumps as considered in Clause 2.1, to obtain the pump flow rate Qo in 1/s. 2.3 Estimate of Pump Mean Differential Pressure Estimate the maximum mean differential pressure Po as Section a Clause A1 for the normal flow. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 7. 2.4 Consideration of Flow Metering Requirements 2.4.1 Small Flows (a) Qo x ρ Po < 0.8 and Q0 < 0.8 Where If ρ = liquid density kg/l Accurate flow metering Use a reciprocating variable stroke metering pump. Take the flowrange as 0 - 100% pump flow, unless otherwise specified by process considerations. (b) Rough flow metering If metering accuracy worse than + 20% pump flowrate is acceptable: (1) Use a reciprocating variable stroke metering pump Or (2) A rotary pump with variable speed drive if Ѵ > 16 Po Qo Where Ѵ = kinematic viscosity of liquid, cSt See GBHE-EDG-MAC-1012. or Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 8. (3) A variable capacity sliding vane pump if liquid is clean and Po < 8 See GBHE-EDG-MAC-1012 (c) Batch metering Use a reciprocating metering pump with stroke counting or time controlling device. 2.4.2 Large Flows (a) If Q o x ρ > 0.8 Po Use a centrifugal pump with a standard flowmetering system. See GBHE-EDG-MAC-1014. (b) If Q o x ρ < 0.8 and Q0 > 0.8 l/s Po Use a multiplex plunger reciprocating pump or use a rotodynamic pump with a flowmetering system. 2.5 Multiple Stream Applications The combination of variable stroke metering pump heads for different streams on to a common drive unit should be considered for all multiple stream applications. Proportioning should be effected by stroke adjustment of individual heads with total flow controlled by a variable speed drive. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 9. SECTION A TYPE/FLOW/PRESSURE/SPEED RATING Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 10. A1 Pumping Pressure The pulsating flow from each stroke of a metering pump results in pulsating pressures at pump inlet and discharge which fluctuate with plunger position. Consequently the differential head and pressure have not the same significance as for centrifugal pumps. A1.1 Calculation of Static Pressures All systems can be reduced to a transfer of liquid between two reservoirs or to circulation to and from one reservoir. The inlet static pressure (Psi) is given by:- Psi = PI + ρ x hsi bar g 10.2 The discharge static pressure (Psd ) is given by: Psd = PD + ρ x hsd bar g 10.2 The differential static pressure (P s ) is given by: Ps = Psd - Psi bar Where hsd = static liquid head from pump centre to delivery vessel free liquid surface or constant pressure point hsd = m static liquid head from pump centre to inlet vessel Free liquid surface m (Note that h sd and h si are negative when the appropriate liquid surface lies below the pump centre) Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 11. PD = gas pressure at free surface of the liquid in the delivery Vessel, or the pressure at the constant pressure point in the delivery system bar g PI = gas pressure at the free surface of the liquid in the inlet Vessel bar g (Note that PD and PI are negative for vessels under vacuum) Ρ = liquid density kg/l Check the proposed layout to see if the piping system rises above the delivery vessel to form a syphon. If it does then calculate the maximum discharge static pressure Psd with the static head hsd taken to the point of highest elevation of the piping system. There should be no syphons on the inlet piping system. A1.2 Calculation of Duty Pressures The duty pressures should be taken as: PI = Psi - ρ x hri bar g 10.2 Pd = Psd - ρ x hrd bar g 10.2 Po = Pd - Pi bar Where: PI Pd hri hrd Po = = = = = mean inlet pressure mean discharge pressure frictional head loss in inlet piping system at mean flow frictional head loss in delivery piping system at mean flow mean differential pressure bar g bar g m m bar Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 12. Check the maximum and minimum values of PI, Pd and Po which the pump should still operate. Self consistent conditions are given on the Process Data Sheet. A.2 Pump Flowrate and Capacity Take the pump flow, Q o from Clause 2.2. Note that as metering pumps are manufactured in a limited number of plunger diameters, stroke lengths and speeds, the actual pump capacity, Qp is likely to exceed the pump flow, Q o. A3 Guide to Pump Speed and Type A3.l Rotational speed The rotational speed of metering pumps is limited by the following Considerations: (a) Suppression of gas release and NPSH availability (b) Unidirectional loading of motion work (c) Avoidance of pressure wave enhancement (d) Viscous losses affecting volumetric efficiency As a first estimate take crank rotational speed, N, as 1 rev/s for low viscosity liquids and the lower speeds shown in Fig.A3.l for pumps handling viscous liquids. Enter section A3.3 with Q e where: Qe = Qo N Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 13. FIGURE A3. 1 ESTIMATE OF CRANK SPEED Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 14. A.3.2 Pump Arrangement The preliminary choice is a simplex pump without pulsation dampers. A.3.3 Pumping Head Type Pump heads of the plunger type should be used for all duties except where: (a) Slight gland leakage cannot be tolerated - sterility, toxicity, corrosion, expense of loss. (b) Process fluid contains abrasive particles or precipitates in gland and an alternative flushing medium compatible with the pumped fluid and acceptable to the process is not available. Note that the gland flush reduces metering accuracy. (c) Q e > 0.25 l/s and a lubricating medium compatible with the pumped fluid and acceptable to the process is not available. (d) For high pressure and low flows where loss of metering accuracy due to gland leakage and hold-up is unacceptable. As a guide take loss of flowrate repeatability due to glands as: N.Z 10 x Q o Where 2/3 log Pd % Z = number of plungers (take as 1 for first estimate) Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 15. A3.3.2 Diaphragm Pump Diaphragm pump heads should be used for other duties. (a) Mechanically actuated metal diaphragm Use if Q e < 0.02 l/s And Pd < 5 bar g And leakage on diaphragm failure is acceptable. Note: PTFE or elastomer diaphragms and bellows are available for flows to 0.8 l/s but are only suitable where short diaphragm lives (typically 1000 hours) and low accuracy ( + 10%) are acceptable. (b) Double diaphragm Use if cross contamination of process and hydraulic fluids on diaphragm failure is unacceptable. (c) Hydraulically actuated single diaphragm Use on duties other than the above. If the process fluid contains large solids or abrasive particles a design without a support plate in the process fluid should be specified. This may be either a single or double diaphragm head. A3.4 Confirm Selection Confirm selection of pump type and speed by considering: (a) Metering criteria (Clause A4) (b) Pressure pulsation (Clause A5) (c) Over-delivery (Clause A6) (d) Inlet conditions (Section B) Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 16. (e) Engineering Design Guide GBHE-EDG.MAC.16 Series for the liquid concerned. (f) Catalogues of preferred vendors (g) Plant experience from similar installations from Engineering Design Guide GBHE-EDG.MAC.52 Series Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 17. Fig A3.3 SELECTION OF PUMPING HEAD TYPE. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 18. A4 Metering Criteria The accuracy of metering is not solely determined by the accuracy of pump manufacture but also by factors connected with the installation such as fluid, pressures, temperatures, contamination and electrical supply frequency and voltage. Although extremely high accuracies (errors of the order of ~ 0.05%) can be achieved under favorable conditions, accuracy in practical installations should be considered no better than + 2.5%. To achieve this accuracy the fluid has to be clean and operating conditions stable and constant. Slurries or widely ranging conditions, particularly with high pressures/low flows, preclude accurate metering. A4.1 Flowrate Repeatability Flowrate repeatability is defined as the ability of a metering pump to consistently deliver a measured volume after repeated resetting of the capacity adjustment. It should be considered no better than + 2% of the pump capacity Q at any flow setting and to achieve this accuracy, operating conditions have to be stable and constant. If good flowrate repeatability is required over the 0-20% range of pump capacity the stroke frequency should be varied as well as the stroke length. Wide ranges of operating pressures, temperatures and fluid properties will result in a considerably reduced repeatability. See Section C1.1 for the change in volumetric efficiency with discharge pressure. A4.2 Accuracy of Mean Flow Measurement Although the flowrate corresponding to a given setting value may be repeatable, the absolute value of this flowrate is subject to a further tolerance of the order of 0.5% of the pump capacity. A4.3 Flowrate Continuity The instantaneous flowrate from a metering pump may fluctuate markedly over each crankshaft revolution. See Section B2 for prediction of the peak instantaneous flow: mean flow. If duties require continuous delivery flow, install a discharge pulsation damper or specify a multiplex pump. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 19. For smoothing delivery flow with a damper, the delivery system should be damped by resistance. Typically for a tolerance on flow of the same order as the flowrate repeatability, ensure for low viscosity liquids: hrd > 5.1 x Pr 0.7 ρ and hrd > 1.3 Prd ρ The flow of viscous liquids is more readily damped by using multiplex pumps. Dampers necessarily have a long time constant which limits the rate at which the desired flow setting under automatic control can be changed and requires a substantially constant discharge pressure. For a tolerance on flow continuity of the same order as the flowrate repeatability this limit on rate of flow setting gives a minimum of; 500 Z times the period of one crankshaft revolution for full travel of the flow setting (from 0 - 100%), where Z is the number of plungers. A5 Pressure Pulsation To avoid pulsation enhancement, the length of piping between the pump ports and a large discontinuity such as a vessel should be less than 4% of the fundamental wavelength (λ ) where: Λ = C N.Z Where C N Z = Velocity of sound in fluid = crank rotational speed = number of plungers m/s rev/s Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 20. Then calculate the pressure pulsation at both inlet and discharge of pump from: δP = 700 ρ N Q Z Ʃ 1 d2 Where δP = Pressure pulsation (peak to peak) L= length of line to large discontinuity D = diameter of line bore D= diameter of a section of line of length bar m mm l Alternatively, if the system presents no discontinuity in the piping close to the pump, then calculate the pressure pulsation at inlet and discharge of pump from: δP = kρCQ D2 Where K = 40 for simplex pump 20 for duplex pump 3 for triplex pump 1 for quintuplex pump For lines of varying diameter, take D as the minimum line diameter excluding short lengths (< 0.01 λ). If δP > 0.01 P and δP > 0.04 P0.7 where P = mean pressure at pump inlet & discharge bar a then the pressure pulsations are unacceptable and piping vibration is likely. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 21. Reduce the level by: (a) Increasing line diameter (b) Specifying pulsation damper (c) Specifying multi-headed pump A6 Over Delivery The pump discharge pressure should always exceed the inlet pressure to avoid flow through the pump which is not controlled by the plunger. For simplex pumps without pulsation dampers ensure that: Ps > δP i 2 And Ps > δP d 2 For other arrangements ensure that: Ps > δP I + δP d 2 2 where δP i = pressure pulsation at pump inlet (from Clause A5) bar δP d = pressure pulsation at pump discharge (from Clause A5 ) bar Pressure retaining valves or spring loaded pump valves to develop an artificial pressure difference should be avoided. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 22. On batch systems, drips from the delivery line should be prevented by installing valves at the outlet or by arranging for the outlet to be at the highest part of the pipeline and of small bore. SECTION B INLET CONDITIONS Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 23. BI Calculation of Basic NPSH Basic NPSH = hsi + 10.2 ρ B 1000 + P1 – Pv m where hsi = static liquid head over pump inlet m This is measured from the lowest liquid level to the pump centre and is negative when the liquid level is below the pump centre. The lowest level is not necessarily the extreme value but is the one at which the pump is still operational. B = minimum barometric pressure at pump location mbar Use 0.94 of the mean barometric pressure from local meteorological data to allow for weather changes. P1 = minimum working value of the gas pressure on the free liquid surface in the inlet vessel. This is negative for vessels under vacuum. bar g Pv = vapor pressure of the liquid at the maximum operating temperature bar a ρ= B2 liquid density at the maximum operating temperature. For slurries the density of the MIXTURE should be used. kg/I Correction for Frictional Head Calculate the maximum frictional head loss in system, Hri at peak instantaneous flow rather than at mean flow and include the maximum operating loss in the the inlet filter when this is dirty. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 24. Obtain the peak instantaneous flow from the following table: Configuration Quintuplex Triplex Duplex Simplex B3 Peak flow / mean flow 1.03 1.1 1.6 3.2 Correction for Acceleration Head Calculate Hai the head required to accelerate the fluid in the inlet piping during each pulsation cycle from: Hai = δP1 ρ m where δP1 = pressure pulsation at pump inlet (from Clause A5) B4 bar Calculation of Available NPSH Calculate the available NPSH at the pump suction flange from: (a) For simplex and duplex pumps Available NPSH = Basic NPSH - (Hai2 + Hri2) ½ - 1 (b) m For triplex and quintuplex pumps Available NPSH = Basic NPSH - (Hai + Hri) - 1 m Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 25. B5 Correction to NPSH for Fluid Properties The following corrections should NOT be quoted to the pump supplier. Use only for discussions on layout and system design. B5.1 Suspended Solids Content The behavior with slurries is notoriously difficult to predict; the only reliable test is to run the pump on the plant. Pastes, gels and other non-Newtonian fluids should always be the subject of experimental tests. For suspensions of hard crystalline solids, use the following empirical rules as a guide: (a) Very fine suspensions where all the particles are less than 3 µm are best treated as viscous liquids - see Fig B5.1. (c) For slurries having a range of particle sizes take: NPSH slurry = 1 1 +X x NPSH carrier where x = fractional content by volume of solid particles and the NPSH for the carrier liquid has already been corrected for viscosity. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 26. FIG.B5.1 ESTIMATE OF VISCOSITY OF FINE SUSPENSIONS B5.2 Viscosity An increase in viscosity increases the NPSH required. For high values of viscosity the losses across valves are approximately proportional to the liquid velocity. Consequently the NPSH required is directly proportional to viscosity at constant speed and flow. However, it is normal practice to reduce pump speed as viscosity increases (see Clause A).I) and so, in effect, limit the variation of NPSH required with viscosity change. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 27. B5.3 Gas Content For accurate metering, the liquid should contain no free gas. As pressure reduces across the pump inlet valves on the inlet stroke the dissolved gas may be released from solution if the available NPSH is too small. It is essential to avoid gas release for metering duties. B6 Estimation of NPSH Required The NPSH required by a pump is dictated by its detail design and its operating speed. As a guide for layout system and pump specification, a preliminary estimate of the NPSH required by plunger & mechanically actuated diaphragm pumps may be obtained from Fig B6 where: For single valve: A= 24 Ѵ Q Z dv3 + 5x105 ρ Q2 Z2 dv4 For double valves: A= Where 80 Ѵ Q Z dv3 + 15x105 ρ Q2 Z2 dv4 d v nominal valve size. mm Take as next size up from (5000 Q ) ½ Z Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 28. Select spring loading for duties where metering accuracy is important. Take the value of spring pressure to be approximately 0.2 Ph without spring loading. For hydraulically actuated diaphragm pumps, estimate as above and take additional diaphragm and support plate losses as for a single valve without spring loading. The actual NPSH required should be checked after selection of the pump supplier. FIGURE B6 ESTIMATE OF NPSH REQUIRED Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 29. B7 Priming For accurate metering, pumps should have a flooded inlet and the gland subject to a pressure above atmospheric pressure to avoid inward air leakage. The pressure at the pump inlet should be greater than the pressure differential required to open both inlet and discharge valves against their spring forces. When the pump does not auto-prime through the process piping but is primed by operation of a vent valve, check the line diagram to ensure that: (a) The vent is shown (b) The vent is piped to a safe disposal point when the pump is handling a hazardous liquid (c) When the inlet vessel is working under vacuum, the vent is piped to the gas space of the inlet vessel (d) When the vent is piped, then a visible indicator is fitted in the vent line adjacent to the pump. With liquefied gases at sub-ambient temperature, the discharge pressure at startup should be less than the pressure reached if a cylinder fills with vapor and the plunger acts as a compressor. As the clearance volume is likely to be of the same order as the swept volume, the maximum absolute pressure developed in the cylinder is unlikely to exceed twice the absolute inlet pressure. The discharge pressure should be less than this value to clear the cylinder of vapor. Note that vapor compression does not result in condensation because it is nearly adiabatic and hence yields superheated vapor. When the pump stops, it eventually loses prime. Consequently inlet lines should be lagged. This condition normally requires a special bypass provision. Check the line diagram for inclusion. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 30. SECTION C POWER RATING Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 31. C1 Pump Efficiency C1.1 Volumetric Efficiency Volumetric efficiency, ᵑv = delivered volume. 100 % swept volume For preliminary estimation of the volumetric efficiency refer to Fig C1.1. The upper line at each band refers to large pumps (Q/N ~ 0.8), and the lower line to small pumps (Q/N ~ 10- 3). This figure is based on a liquid such as water with a bulk compressibility of 2.1 x 103 MN/m2. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 32. C1.2 Mechanical Efficiency Mechanical efficiency, ᵑm = theoretical hydraulic power. 100 % power input to pump For preliminary estimation of mechanical efficiency take: ᵑm = 100 1.3 + 5 Qo Po % Note that as reduction gears are usually integral with the pump, their losses are included in the above estimate. C1.3 Overall Efficiency The overall pump efficiency ᵑ is defined as ᵑ = ᵑv ᵑm 10-2 C2 % Calculation of Absorbed Power E= 10 Q o P o kw ᵑ Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 33. C3 Determination of Driver Power Rating Multiply the mean power requirement for the pump by the following additional factors as appropriate: belt drive 1.07 simplex pump 1.3 duplex pump 1.1 equipment and data tolerance 1.1 For multiple pump heads driven by one electric motor drive, sum the power requirements for the individual feeds. For an electric motor drive select the next highest power rating in kW from: Consult Power Group for appropriate motor rating and type for variable speed drives. Note: This power rating should be used only for a PRELIMINARY estimate of the electrical distribution load. Check the required power rating and frame size after selection of pump using the manufacturer’s data. Standard motors have a starting torque of about 150% full load torque which is adequate for reciprocating metering pumps. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 34. SECTION D CASING PRESSURE RATING Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 35. D1 Calculation of Maximum Discharge Pressure Calculate maximum discharge pressure, Pdmax' from: Pdmax = PR + ρ m ( hsd + hrd ) bar g 10.2 Where PR ρm = set pressure of relief valve on delivery vessel bar g = maximum liquid density kg/l maximum static head from pump to the free liquid surface in the delivery vessel m maximum frictional head loss in the delivery pipe system at the peak instantaneous flow (see Clause B2 for peak flow : mean flow) m H sd = H rd = Note: pressure pulsations due to acceleration reads are assumed sufficiently small to be accommodated within relief valve setting. D2 Discharge Pressure Relief Rating A discharge pressure limiting device should be installed unless there is no possibility of a restriction occurring in the discharge system between pump and vessel. Protection by the motor overloads is not sufficient. The conventional pressure limiting device is a relief valve in the discharge pipework or in the hydraulic system of diaphragm pump heads. However, relief valves tend to leak after they have operated and detection of a small leak is difficult. Consequently for metering duties specify a bursting disc in the discharge Pipework or, for a diaphragm pump, the hydraulic relief valve setting at least 125% of the maximum discharge pressure P dmax. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 36. The relief valve should be sized for at least 110% of the pump displacement capacity at the maximum pump speed. If long term operation against the relief valve could induce a high temperature, a temperature trip should be fitted. D3 CALCULATION OF PUMP HEAD OUTLET LOSSES As a preliminary estimate take the head outlet losses, PH as twice the head inlet loss Ph from Clause B6. Check after selection of pump using the manufacturers data. D4 Casing Hydrostatic Test Pressure The hydrostatic test pressure for the pump read should exceed 150% of the maximum attainable pressure, taken as the sum of the pressure setting of the discharge pressure limiting device and the pump head outlet losses, PH. Pumps handling hot liquid (above 175°C) require individual consideration taking into account piping loads and reduction in material strength with increase in temperature. The rating of the inlet connection should be identical to that of the casing and discharge connection. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 37. APPENDIX A RELIABILITY CLASSIFICATION Installations having high availability are conveniently classified as follows: Class 1 A Class 1 installation achieves high availability by having units of high intrinsic reliability, and is characterized by: (a) The machine being a single unspared unit upon which the process stream is wholly dependent. (b) The plant section having a single process stream with a long process recovery time after a shutdown so that the loss of product owing to a machine stoppage is large even though the shutdown is for a short time. (c) A capability of continuous operation within given process performance tolerances over a period of more than three years, without enforced halts for inspection or adjustment. (d) Component life expectancies exceeding 100,000 hours operation. Class 2 As for Class 1 but where infrequent plant shutdowns of short duration are acceptable because the process recovery time is short. Consequently the period of continuous operation capability can be reduced and is taken as 4,000 hours for this classification. Class 3 As for Class 1 or 2 but with a machine performance deterioration during the operating period accepted, or countered by adjustment of process conditions or by other action on the part of the plant operators. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 38. Class 4 A Class 4 installation achieves high availability by redundancy and is characterized by having: (a) One or more machines operating with one or more standby machines at instant readiness at all times to take over automatically upon malfunction of a running machine. (b) Operating and standby machines designed specifically for their functions so that they are not necessarily identical. (c) Component life expectancies exceeding 25,000 hours operation. Class 5 A Class 5 installation follows the Class 4 redundancy concept and is characterized by: (a) One or more machines operating with one or more identical machines installed as spares to take over the process duty at the discretion of the plant operators. (b) One or more machines operating in plant sections where product storage is sufficient to give the plant operators adequate time to assess the malfunction and take remedial action. Alternatively, plant sections where a single machine stoppage does not cause a disproportionately large process upset. Spare machines are not installed. Class 6 Machines intended for batch or intermittent duty. Where high demand availability is essential, such machines lie within Class 4. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 39. DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE This Engineering Design Guide makes reference to the following documents: ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDES GBHE-EDG-MAC-1012 Integration of Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps into a Process (referred to in Clause 2.4.1). GBHE-EDG-MAC-1014 Integration of Special Purpose Centrifugal Pumps into a Process (referred to in Clause 2.4.2). GBHE-EDG.MAC. 52.Series Machine Inventories (referred to in Clause A3.4 and block diagram page 7). Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 40. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com