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Hazard Study Process Glossary

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Hazard Study Process …

Hazard Study Process
Glossary

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  • 1. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com GBH Enterprises, Ltd. Process Safety Guide: GBHE-PSG-HST-090 Hazard Study Process Glossary Process Information Disclaimer Information contained in this publication or as otherwise supplied to Users is believed to be accurate and correct at time of going to press, and is given in good faith, but it is for the User to satisfy itself of the suitability of the information for its own particular purpose. GBHE gives no warranty as to the fitness of this information for any particular purpose and any implied warranty or condition (statutory or otherwise) is excluded except to the extent that exclusion is prevented by law. GBHE accepts no liability resulting from reliance on this information. Freedom under Patent, Copyright and Designs cannot be assumed.
  • 2. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Process Safety Guide: Hazard Study Process: Glossary PURPOSE This document provides a glossary of defined roles and terms used in the hazard study process. ACS – Advanced Control Systems High level process control using predictive models to anticipate the process behavior. AIChE - American Institute of Chemical Engineers ANSI – American National Standards Institute AQS – Air Quality Standard A concentration of a substance in air deemed to be acceptable to the environment being considered. The AQS may apply at local, national or international level. Atmospheric Pressure Storage Tank A container or structural envelope subject primarily to hydrostatic pressure. In Europe tanks with gas at low pressure, typically less than 0.1 bar above the liquid, are included in this definition. In North America tanks with internal pressure of up to 15 psi g. are covered in this description. BPCS – Basic Process Control System A system that responds to input signals from the process, its associated equipment, and/or an operator and generates output signals causing the process and its associated equipment to operate in the desired manner. BPEO – Best Practical Environmental Option Best option when all aspects, including practicality, secondary and indirect environmental effects such as abatement costs, have been taken into consideration.
  • 3. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Basis for Safe Operation The basis for safe operation should make clear why the design is safe to operate. For example, explosions may be avoided by preventing flammable mixtures, by control and/or trip systems, eliminating, as far as possible, ignition sources, providing explosion relief or designing to contain explosions. (Also known as Basis of Safety.) Bund A containment area in which one or more storage tanks, vessels or other equipment are located comprising leak tight floor and walls. (Known as a dike in North America.) CCPS - Center for Chemical Process Safety Run by the AIChE, of which ICI is a member. C/E - Control/Electrical Refers to the joint specialization covering issues related to process control and electrical equipment and supply. CIMAH - Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazard Regulations (UK) Superseded by COMAH. COMAH - Control of Major Accident Hazards (UK) Regulations enacted as a consequence of the EEC “Seveso Directive” 82/501/EEC. COSHH - Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (UK) Capital Projects The means whereby fixed assets are designed purchased, built, extended, modified, subject to special repair and maintenance or demolished.
  • 4. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Note: The GEPs apply to all Capital Projects: • Whether the work is financed from Capital or Revenue budgets; • includes those controlled by local sites or facilities • includes Capital Equipment such as Transport Containers for Dangerous Goods. Checklist A method for hazard identification by comparison with experience in the form of a list of failure modes and hazardous situations. Chemical Hazard Assessment Experimental assessment of the chances and kinetics of a runaway reaction or detonation using specialist laboratory techniques such as Differential Thermal Analysis, Accelerating Rate Calorimetry, or Dewar Flask. This work is often essential for sizing reliefs of reactors in which exothermic reactions are carried out. The use of an outside specialist contractor will probably be required. Commissioning Manager A person appointed by the Project Manager or Operating Manager to carry out defined responsibilities (relating to the achievement of beneficial production of a modification, expansion or new plant). Controlled Equipment Equipment that should be given special attention because of legislative or company SHE reasons for purposes of ensuring integrity. Criterion A standard of performance with which assessed performance may be compared. Critical/Criticality Equipment or system where failure may lead to Risk or an Unacceptable Situation.
  • 5. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Critical Equipment Equipment or systems where failure may lead to Risk or an Unacceptable Situation. . Critical Machine System A Machine System, which has been assessed to involve an Unacceptable Situation if the machine or its protective system should fail. This includes all failures or malfunctions, which could lead to danger to life, significant harm to any person or to the environment. Critical Pipebridges Structures which support a group of pipelines either on bridges or on a series of supports whose failure could cause one or all of the pipes to suffer the loss of containment due to structural failure which could lead to an Unacceptable Situation. Critical Piping System A Piping System which is outside GBHE specifications, or one which is in such a location that a leak or failure could give rise to an Unacceptable Situation. Critical Plant Structures Structures or buildings the failure of which could lead to a loss of containment of chemicals, or other potentially hazardous substances, causing an Unacceptable Situation. Critical Safety Instrumented System A Critical Safety Instrumented System is one that protects against hazards concerned with a risk of death or serious injury to people or of harm to the environment and (alone, or in conjunction with other measures) makes a significant contribution towards the reduction of an identified risk. The system is said to be Critical when the risk is reduced by a factor of 10 or more to a tolerable level.
  • 6. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Note: On most plants only a small proportion of the trip and alarm systems are Critical Safety Instrumented Systems. Devices for electric power protection, safety valves, bursting discs, mechanical interlocks and fire & security systems are NOT included. Dike See Bund. Dow Index This is an index of fire, explosion and toxic hazards which may be used for risk prioritization selection and ranking. (May be used to assist in the laying out of chemical plant.) E/I - Electrical/Instrumentation Synonym for Control / Electrical. EIA – Environmental Impact Assessment The process of considering and justifying the impact of a new plant or significant change on the immediate and general environment. ELD – Engineering Line Diagram A drawing showing the process piping, instrumentation and equipment. Also known as Piping and Instrument Diagram, Process and Instrument Diagram, PID or P&ID. EQS – Environmental Quality Standard A concentration of a substance deemed to be acceptable to the aquatic environment being considered. The EQS may apply at local, national or international level. ES – Environmental Statement A document considering and justifying the environmental impact of new plants or significant changes. Submission of an Environmental Statement to the planning authorities is often a legal requirement.
  • 7. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Electrical Equipment Within the scope of GEP 2 this definition includes instrumentation. Electrical System The interconnection of all the Electrical Equipment to a common source of electrical energy and includes that source. FMEA – Failure Mode and Effect Analysis A systematic, tabular method for evaluating and documenting the causes and effects of known types of component failures. FS - Function Specification Fault Tree A logic model that graphically portrays the combinations of failures that can lead to a specific main failure or accident of interest. This generally follows an ANSI standard N41.4-1976 now superseded by IEC 61025. See Hazard Analysis. Formal Design Review Reviews carried out by the Design Authority on new and Modified Critical and Controlled Equipment. They should ensure that appropriate design and construction standards are used to meet the duty and operating requirements, and that design limits, working limits, protective systems and inspection requirements are sufficient to control hazards and to prevent an Unacceptable Situation. Note: This review is sometimes known as design verification. GEP – Group Engineering Procedure Engineering Documents in the GEP series define essential requirements for compliance with GBHEs Safety, Health and Environmental Standards. International businesses have their own version of the GEPs.
  • 8. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com GG – Group Guideline Guideline in the Responsible Care Management System (RCMS). GS – Group Standard Standard specified in the Responsible Care Management System (RCMS). Ground Any natural material below the land surface. Groundwater All subsurface water contained in the Ground and geological formations. Group Risk See Societal Risk. Guide Diagram A set of guidewords used to stimulate thinking about potential hazards. There are different guide diagrams for different stages of Hazard Studies and for different types of processes or operations. Guidewords Guidewords used to prompt thoughts. HAZCON A what if/checklist based study for construction and demolition activities. HAZDEM A what if/checklist based study specifically for demolition activities.
  • 9. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com HDS – Hazard Data Sheet Summary of the SHE hazards of the specified material. Sometimes (US terminology), referred to as MSDS – Material Safety Data Sheet. HV – High Voltage Any equipment or conductor with an operating voltage above 1000 V, unless otherwise defined in national or local regulations. Hazard A Hazard is a physical situation with potential to cause harm to people, the environment or property. As so defined, Hazards can be associated with physical, chemical or biological effects in storage, transport or use of chemicals and in the operation of other assets. Hazard Analysis or HAZAN The identification or undesired events that lead to the materialization of a hazard, the analysis of the mechanisms by which these undesired events could occur and usually the estimation of the extent, magnitude and likelihood of any harmful effects. Not to be confused with Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) which has a specific meaning in the USA. Generally in GBHE outside North America Hazard Analysis refers to a Fault Tree type diagram drawn in accordance with GBHE’s conventions. Hazard Assessment See Hazard Analysis. Hazard Control Philosophy The hazard control philosophy will describe the principles that will be used for control of significant hazards. Examples are; the use of double blocks and bleeds for isolation, high pressure design to minimize relief requirements or to contain explosions, maintenance venting handling, flaring, computer control systems, etc.
  • 10. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) Study A study carried out by application of guidewords to identify all deviations from design intent with the potential for undesirable effects on safety, health, the environment or operability. A general term for studies such as Hazard Study 3. In the GBHE system it should not be used for any of the other studies. Hazard Study A Hazard Study is one of a set of studies carried out to ensure that Hazards are identified, understood and properly controlled. Hazard Studies can be carried out on new or existing processes or on modifications. Hazard Studies also identify obstacles to operability. The technique applied depends on the stage of the study; some studies will use a guide diagram approach to identify hazards and others will be based more on a checklist approach. Hazard Study Leader The person appointed to lead a team through the hazard study process. The hazard study leader is responsible for the thoroughness of the hazard study. Hazardous Event The occurrence of an incident with a potential for human injury, damage to property, damage to the environment or some combination of these. High Hazard Materials These are: • Dangerous goods categorized as Packing Group I according to the criteria of the United Nations’ ‘Orange Book’. • Compressed gases and liquefied gases.
  • 11. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com • ‘Severe Marine Pollutants’ as listed and defined in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code), and other ecotoxic substances whose release could result in major contamination. • Any other substances distributed in such a way that similar risks are involved. • As defined in US by 29 CFR 1910.119 Appendix A (actual term used Highly Hazardous Chemicals). Hose or Flexible A complete system including the end connectors, clamps or securing devices, and the flexible pipe or hose. IDLH Maximum concentration (in air) of a substance that has no Immediate Danger to Life or Health. Individual Risk The frequency at which an individual may be expected to sustain a given level of harm from the realization of specified hazards. Inspection See Periodic Inspection. LE – Lifting Equipment The term used to describe all forms of Lifting Gear and Lifting Appliance. LV – Low Voltage Any equipment or conductor with an operating voltage of 1000 V or below, unless otherwise defined in national or local regulations.
  • 12. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Lifting Appliance A machine or component, which using Lifting Gear can raise, lower or suspend a load. Lifting Appliances include cranes, elevators, or lifts for personnel and materials, fork-lift trucks, stacker trucks, mobile working platforms, pulley blocks, runway beams and davits. Lifting Gear This includes items such as shackles, slings, hooks, chains and spreader beams used to connect Lifting Appliances to one another and to connect Lifting Appliances to loads. MSDS – Material Safety Data Sheet US terminology for Hazard Data Sheet. Machine System Any reciprocating or rotating device used to produce a change in properties or conditions within chemical process plants. Examples are pumps, fans, compressors, turbines, centrifuges and agitators. Included in the Machine System are any sub-systems required for machine operation, or safety. Management System All of the procedures and instructions, which describe methods of work, design requirements and operational limits, and which ensure conformance with legislation, regulations and standards. Modification/Modify Examples of Modifications, whether temporary or permanent are listed in LEP 18/1 Appendix A. Mond Index The Mond Index is a rapid hazard assessment technique for use on chemical plants or in plant design. It enables the potential hazards of plant units to be identified, assessed and minimized and provides a logical basis for plant layout. It considers toxic chemicals as well as flammable and explosive chemicals.
  • 13. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com NIHHS - Notification of Installations Handling Hazardous Substances Regulations 1982 (UK) OHS - Occupational Health Statement OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the US Department of Labor Operational Hazard Assessment Studies of materials or mixtures to assess their potential for runaway reactions, spontaneous combustion, explosion ignition conditions and effects. Other Critical Pressure Equipment Equipment such as Atmospheric Pressure Storage Tanks, silos, hoppers and furnaces that have been selected for registration. It does not include Pressure Vessels, Piping Systems, Pressure Relief Streams, Protective Devices and Flexibles and Hoses. Note: Registration is considered when the equipment is situated where a leak or failure could cause an Unacceptable Situation, or if use of the equipment could involve Risk. PCB - Poly Chlorinated Bi Phenyls Highly toxic and environmentally damaging materials. PES – Programmable Electronic System A computer based system that controls, protects or monitors the operation of plant, utilities or services. These include programmable logic controllers (PLC), supervisory computers, microprocessor applications and distributed control systems. They may also be found in packaged equipment, measuring elements on load cells and analyzers. PFD - Probability of Failure on Demand The fraction of the time a protective device is not available due to some type of failure. Formally called FDT or Fractional Dead Time.
  • 14. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com PFD - Process Flow Diagram A representation of the process flowsheet including main plant items and their connections. PHA – Process Hazard Analysis As defined by OSHA “A thorough, orderly, systematic approach for identifying, evaluating, and controlling the hazards of processes involving highly hazardous chemicals.” Approved methodologies are ‘What If’, ‘Check List’, ‘What If/Check List’, Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP), Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis or an appropriate equivalent methodology. GBHE’s Hazard Study Methodology meets PHA requirements. PHR – Periodic Hazard Review PHR – Process Hazard Analysis Revalidation (in USA legislation) Periodic review and audit of the safety management of a process subsequent to commissioning. In GBHE, PHR based on Hazard Study 2 is a technique developed to meet SHE Assurance requirements. P&ID – Piping and Instrument Diagram See ELD (Engineering Line Diagram). PLC - Programmable Logic Controller PSM - Process Safety Management In the US this usually refers to the OSHA PSM rule, 29 CFR 1910.119, The Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals. The objective of this legislation is to protect workers from toxic emissions, fires and explosions from operations involving hazardous chemicals. Parallel legislation to the EPA’s RMP rule, which is focused on the protection of the public.
  • 15. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Periodic Inspection A careful and critical scrutiny of the registered equipment, systems or installation to assess its actual condition and whether it is safe to use for the period up to the next Periodic inspection. The term testing is often used for safety instrumented systems. Piping System A section of pipework including piping and pipework components such as flanges and fittings, valves, bellows, anchors, supports, linings, insulation and protection. Pressure Relief Stream Comprises the pipework, any Protective Device and associated alarms and interlocks, and other equipment between the equipment to be protected and either the exit to atmosphere or a downstream vessel. A Pressure Relief Stream may include a discharge header being fed by other Pressure Relief Streams. Pressure System Pressure vessels, Atmospheric Pressure Storage Tanks, piping systems, Pressure Relief Streams and other pressure containing equipment. Pressure Vessel A container or structural envelope of any capacity subject to either internal or external pressure. The term includes process vessels, reactors, heat exchangers and vessels for the storage of fluid under pressure. In North America the term is used for vessels designed for and subject to a pressure of 15 psi g or greater. Project Manager The Project Manager is the manager of a Capital Project (including site/facility controlled projects), appointed by the Responsible Executive to be responsible for the implementation of the project from inception to completion of Commissioning (or other milestone agreed with the business).
  • 16. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Project SHE Dossier See SSHE dossier. Project Specification The project specification is developed from the process specification and provides the formal basis for the cost estimate leading to sanction and detailed design. Protective Device Any automatic device, which protects equipment from excessive internal or external pressure, such as a safety valve, a pressure vacuum relief valve, a vacuum relief valve, a bursting disc, an atmospheric vent, an overflow, a lute, a flame trap or an explosion door, together with any accessories such as interlocks and alarms. QRA - Quantified Risk Assessment RCRA - Research Conservation and Recovery Act US legislation owned by the Federal EPA. Detailed requirements may vary from state to state. Deals with the disposal of hazardous liquid and solid wastes. RMP – Risk Management Program 40 CFR Part 68 Chemical Accident Prevention Provisions, US Federal EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Rule to protect the public from toxic emissions, fires and explosions arising from operations involving hazardous chemicals. Parallel legislation to OSHA’s PSM regulation 29 CFR 1910.119 which is focused on the protection of workers. Recognized Good Practice The knowledge contained in national and international standards and codes of practice, Group or industry guidance, professional knowledge, learning from events, and similar sources, which require professional judgment in their application. Allowance should be made for international differences in the practice used to achieve conformance with a given SHE standard.
  • 17. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Register A list of equipment subject to Registration. Each item is to be given a unique number so that it can be easily found and a record kept. Registration/Registered Registration within GBHE is the formal status given to selected plant/equipment/systems so as to ensure integrity. Requirements for Registration include: (a) Allocating and making such equipment/systems with a unique identification number; (b) Creating and maintaining a record file containing key information relating to design, commissioning, construction, testing, Periodic Inspections, Repairs and Modifications; (c) Inclusion in a notification system which displays the next due Periodic Inspection date and any overdue inspections. Repair A Repair involves restoration of equipment in accordance with the original design, parts and material specifications. Other work should be regarded as a Modification. Responsible Care Management System (RCMS) GBHE Safety, Security, Health and Environmental Policy Standards and Guidelines. Responsible Engineers (Mechanical, Electrical, Civil or Instrument) The responsibilities of the Responsible Engineer are specified in the Group Engineering Procedures. It is essential that the individual have both the competence and the authority to fulfill the accountabilities. On appointment the Responsible Engineer shall carefully consider such factors and refer any concerns to the Responsible Executive and, if necessary, the GBHE Engineering Manager.
  • 18. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com The Responsible Engineer is responsible for ensuring the appointment of the appropriate key individuals for the production unit/facility. Responsible Executive The person identified by the Business, Region or Group Department as having the following responsibilities that are included in each GEP: (a) Ensuring that local engineering procedures are provided in accordance with the Group Engineering Procedure, and that they are implemented; (b) Approval, in consultation with the GBHE Engineering Manager (or nominee), of the appointment of Responsible Engineers and other key individuals required by the Group Engineering Procedure; (c) Ensuring that staff with the required competence are appointed in writing; (d) Ensuring that systems for GEP compliance audits are established. Guidance on the appointment of Responsible Engineers can be found in GBHE-EN-003. Risk Risk is the likelihood of a specified level of harm to people, the environment or property or that adverse effects will be expressed as a result of exposure to hazard. It may be either a frequency (the number of specified events occurring in unit time) or a probability (the probability of a specified event following a prior event), depending on the circumstances. Risk Assessment The evaluation of the likelihood of undesired events and the likelihood of harm or damage being caused, together with the value judgments made concerning the significance of the results.
  • 19. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com SARA – Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act US environmental regulation that includes chemical inventory reporting and local emergency planning. SEVESO Refers to European Union SHE legislation 82/501/EEC enacted in response to the chemical disaster at Seveso, Italy. In UK embodied in CIMAH and, more recently, COMAH. SHE Impact Study A study carried out, according to GG 17.2 (now a reference document), at an early stage in process development which focuses on assessing the SHE impact of a process and employing the use of Inherent SHE principles. SHED – Safety, Health and Environmental Dossier SIS – Safety Instrumented System A system composed of sensors, logic solvers, and final control elements for the purpose of taking the process to a safe state when pre-determined conditions are violated to protect safety, health or the environment. They consist of the following: A trip system: an automatic instrument system used to prevent hazardous events from arising. It measures one or more relevant process parameters and if the value of one (or a pre-defined combination) of these reaches preset limits (which anticipate the hazardous condition by a safety margin) then it takes action to make the plant safe. An alarm system: a warning device that provides a plant operator with information that a predefined hazardous condition is imminent. The information is displayed by a steady or flashing light or a message on a computer screen, and is usually accompanied by an audible tone to attract the operator’s attention.
  • 20. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com An interlock: an instrument system which prevents potentially hazardous or otherwise undesirable actions from being taken unless other actions have been taken to make it safe (e.g. a door into a machine might be interlocked so that it cannot be opened unless the machine is stopped and electrically isolated). Interlocks differ from trips in that they do not require to be reset manually. A standby control system: a system that remains inactive during normal process conditions. Its set point is adjusted to the limit of acceptable process operation, so that when the controlled parameter reaches this limit the standby control system comes into operation to ensure the limit is applied. SSHE dossier Essential information relating to the design, operation and maintenance of a plant. Significant Environmental Harm This is evident damage to plant or animal life or contamination of Ground, Groundwater or surface water to an extent that would impair the fitness of these media for beneficial use. Site Responsible Engineer The person to whom defined responsibilities are given by the Responsible Executive to ensure that management systems are in place to implement the requirements of the relevant GEP, and to ensure that the appropriate management decisions are made. The appointed Site Responsible Engineer needs to recognize limitations in expertise and seek technical advice from others deemed to be competent in the GEP topic. In delegating such technical judgments, the Site Responsible Engineer does not delegate accountability. It is essential that the individual has both the competence and the authority to fulfill the required accountabilities, and guidance is given in GEN-003. Societal Risk The relationship between frequency and the number of people suffering from a specified level of harm in a given population from the realization of specified hazards. Now becoming known as Group Risk.
  • 21. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com TSCA – Toxic Substances Control Act This is US legislation owned by the EPA that regulates chemicals in the workplace. Type A Trip A trip that is a safety instrumented system (SIS) qv. Type B Trip A trip whose failure results in a significant business loss but not in an unacceptable situation with respect to safety or the environment. URS – User Requirement Specification General specification specifying performance requirements usually applied to control/electrical systems. Unacceptable Situation Where there is a significant probability of serious harm to people or to the environment. Within the above general definition the Site Responsible Engineer or other appropriate persons are required to make the judgment based on the particular circumstances. At Business discretion, serious loss of production may be regarded as an Unacceptable Situation. VCS – Vent Collection System Vessel A Vessel may be either a Pressure Vessel or an Atmospheric Pressure Storage Tank.
  • 22. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com

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