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The four main sources of Fugitive Emissions on most plants are valves, machine seals, re-makable joints and pressure relief devices. Other possible sources include open-ended lines, sampling connections, drains and vents.
Sometimes special precautions are taken to minimize Fugitive Emissions, for example the use of bellows seal valves. However, generally no special precautions are taken and the subsequent Fugitive Emissions to atmosphere represent a significant amount of plant losses.
Regulatory requirements covering Fugitive Emissions exist in many countries and therefore a leak reduction program should be implemented. Fugitive Emissions also represent financial losses to the business as well as potential damage to the environment.