Fixed Bed Reactor Scale-up Checklist
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Fixed Bed Reactor Scale-up Checklist

The purpose of this checklist is to identify the stages and potential problems associated with the scale up of fixed bed reactors from the drawing board to the full scale plant, and to determine how they should be checked.

The checking can be done using various methods. These are:

• Literature data.

• Lab testing.

• Calculation.

• Modeling.

• Semi-tech testing.

• Piloting or Sidestream testing.


Identifying the stages that need to be addressed for a particular catalyst/reactor development will help in estimating the time needed for the development of the reactor

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Fixed Bed Reactor Scale-up Checklist Document Transcript

  • 1. GBH Enterprises, Ltd. Process Engineering Guide: GBHE-PEG-RXT-806 Fixed Bed Reactor Scale-up Checklist Information contained in this publication or as otherwise supplied to Users is believed to be accurate and correct at time of going to press, and is given in good faith, but it is for the User to satisfy itself of the suitability of the information for its own particular purpose. GBHE gives no warranty as to the fitness of this information for any particular purpose and any implied warranty or condition (statutory or otherwise) is excluded except to the extent that exclusion is prevented by law. GBHE accepts no liability resulting from reliance on this information. Freedom under Patent, Copyright and Designs cannot be assumed. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 2. Process Engineering Guide: Fixed Bed Reactor Scaleup Checklist CONTENTS SECTION 0 INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE 3 1 SCOPE 3 2 FIELD OF APPLICATION 3 3 DEFINITIONS 3 4 CHECKLIST 4 DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS PROCESS ENGINEERING GUIDE 24 Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 3. 0 INTRODUCTION / PURPOSE The purpose of this checklist is to identify the stages and potential problems associated with the scale up of fixed bed reactors from the drawing board to the full scale plant, and to determine how they should be checked. The checking can be done using various methods. These are: · Literature data. · Lab testing. · Calculation. · Modeling. · Semi-tech testing. · Piloting or Sidestream testing. Identifying the stages that need to be addressed for a particular catalyst/reactor development will help in estimating the time needed for the development of the reactor. It is important to know as early as possible in the design process, whether there will be a need for a pilot or Sidestream unit. If a Sidestream unit or pilot plant needs to be built, it must be designed to address any specific residual problems. There have been examples where multi-million pound fixed bed reactor Sidestream rigs have not identified any of the problems that occurred on the final plant. This checklist can be used to determine what potential problems there might be that would need to be resolved by a pilot or Sidestream unit. It is assumed that at the start of the exercise, laboratory tests have been undertaken with pure reactants and powdered catalysts in order to determine the conversion and selectivity at certain pressure (probably atmospheric) and a range of temperatures. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 4. 1 SCOPE This Process Engineering Guide covers the factors to be taken into consideration for the design and operation of a full scale fixed bed reactor and the most appropriate option for determining each factor. 2 FIELD OF APPLICATION This Guide applies to process engineers and related process development staff in GBH Enterprises world-wide. 3 DEFINITIONS For the purposes of this Guide, no specific definitions apply. 4 CHECKLIST It is important to consider each factor and to answer the question: How and when will each of the factors be determined or checked? This will enable the scale up strategy to be determined and the need for piloting or Sidestream testing assessed All the factors on the list should be addressed but the need for action can be taken on a judgmental basis depending on how critical the new process will be. It is recommended that experts from outside the business are brought into the discussions in order to provide an independent view on the issues and that the results of the discussion on each factor are recorded in writing, so that they can be reviewed, if the reactor design changes. The factors that need to be considered in a fixed bed reactor scale-up are listed below and the most likely option for dealing with each factor is given. This list only includes factors that are important for the reactor development and does not deal with factors specific to catalyst development and manufacture. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 5. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 6. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  • 7. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com