Fixed Bed Purification Troubleshooting Guide
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Fixed Bed Purification Troubleshooting Guide

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Operational Problems ...

Operational Problems
Catalytic Reactor Process - Prompt List
- Feed Issues:
- Pipe work type Issues
- Operational Issues
- Vessel Loading
- Vessel Designs
- Wider Process Issues
- Material Issues
- Discharge issues
- Things to look at
- Things to consider trying

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Fixed Bed Purification Troubleshooting Guide Fixed Bed Purification Troubleshooting Guide Document Transcript

  • Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com GBHE Technical Bulletin CTB #34 Fixed Bed Purification Troubleshooting Guide Possible Operational Problems - High Pressure drop Low Performance / early breakthrough Catalytic Reactor Process - Prompt List Feed Issues: Composition Temperature Density Viscosity, especially liquid cases Pressure Flow rate Impurity Levels Other impurities, O2, un-saturates, chloride, ammonia, H2, CO, benzene, mercury, metals. Other S compounds, air. Fouling - dust, scale, sludge 1 phase or 2 phase Water content / slugs of water Phase change across valves Dense phase - 2 phase transitions Oil carry over Design vs actual conditions Wax in feed Pipe work type Issues: Pipe work diameter Feed filters / Delivery filters Valving arrangements Start up / Commissioning filters Debris in line JT cooling - droplets across inlet valves Corrosion somewhere? System pressure drop Blockage elsewhere, heat exchangers?
  • Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Operational Issues: Commissioning procedures Surge / pipe hammer Gas locking in liquid beds Removal for inspection and recharging without sieving Parallel vessels running singly or in series ? Change over valve arrangements Rapid pressurizing of the vessel / system Up flow / down flow - Fluidization? Disturbance of the top of the bed What has already been done to try to deal with the process problem - Fluffing the bed, back flow, venting etc. Vessel Loading: Material dropped in from height Distributor not reinstalled No / wrong ceramics on top of bed Mesh - on distributor, in top of bed, at bottom of bed, around collector, + mesh size Damaged by operator walking on material Grading of absorbent on ceramics - should be abs, 6, 19, 50, not abs, 19, Debris in bottom of vessel Damage to collector Vessel over filled - too close to distributor Reloading used material Vessel Designs: No of holes in collector / distributors Position of distributor Inlet / outlet size Ceramics / Support arrangements Meshes? Support Screens Wider Process Issues: Feed pump arrangement Compressors + associated kick back Start up / Shutdown transients Peak flow conditions Unusual operational permutations
  • Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Fire relief protection Thermal relief protection Control Loop design / behavior Original design intent vs actual operation Hazop type issues Sampling Monitoring of reaction front down vessel Operational costs Other unit operations - amine, glycol, and sieves, mercury removal units Compressor protection - pressure / vac valves, air sucked in? Imperial / metric units / conversion factors. Material Issues: Has the correct material been supplied - sulfided, calcined?, reduced, ordinary etc Correct packaging Damage in transit / storage Discharge issues: Discharge under nitrogen Correct use of BA Air flow through bed Air in nitrogen? 97% not good enough - at least 99.9% Discharge to drums - bags will self heat PPE, dust mask, gloves, overalls, boots, helmets Correct purging of bed Monitoring of benzene, hydrocarbons Static in vac discharges Damage to discharged material Things to look at: DCS info on all streams Logs Analyses ELD's Vessel drawings Loading diagrams Procedures operating, loading, start-up, shutdown, upstream/downstream equipment
  • Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com Things to consider trying: Pressure drop survey Additional analysis Extra Monitoring of additional process variables Speak to operators / shift team Look at history - has it ever worked correctly? What other things/ processes/materials have they tried?