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GBH Enterprises, Ltd.

Process Engineering Guide:
GBHE-PEG-MAS-604

Distillation Sequences, Complex
Columns and Heat Integ...
Process Engineering Guide:

Distillation Sequences,
Complex Columns and Heat
Integration

CONTENTS

SECTION

0

INTRODUCTI...
7

COMPLEX COLUMNS AND HEAT INTEGRATION
INTERACTIONS

11

FIGURES

1

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SEQUENCES

3

2

A SINGLE SIDEST...
0

INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE

Capital and operating costs depend on the sequence of columns within a
continuous Distillation Tr...
3

DEFINITIONS

For the purposes of this Guide, the following definitions apply:

Complex Columns

Distillation columns wi...
FIGURE 1

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SEQUENCES

It is important to establish a good system; typically there will be 25% to 50% co...
Thus with multi-component systems there is a need to identify the good
sequences without costing all the possibilities.
It...
4.1 Sidestream Columns
A sidestream column is worth considering if the middle product does not have a
high purity requirem...
4.2

Multi-Feed Columns

If there is more than one feed to a column the most suitable arrangement is a
system in which fee...
5

SIMPLE COLUMN SEQUENCING AND HEAT INTEGRATION
INTERACTIONS

Having established good simple column sequences attention s...
The Heat Exchanger Network (HEN) provides a ready means of calculating a
target utility requirement of a flowsheet where a...
The pinch divides the process into two distinct parts. above the pinch the process
is a net sink (one requiring heat, alth...
6

COMPLEX COLUMN ARRANGEMENTS

The simplest of the complex column arrangements has been described in 4.1, a
single sidest...
6.2

Sidestream Systems

Sidestream systems, as opposed to a simple sidestream column, allow
production of three pure prod...
An example is illustrated in Figure 7.
FIGURE 7 EXAMPLE OF A SIDESTREAM COLUMN

6.3

Pre-Fractionator Systems

Pre-Fractio...
FIGURE 8 SIMPLEST PRE-FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM

The energy savings from such a system are rarely greater than 10% and the
extra...
FIGURE 9

PETLYUK COLUMN

Such systems realize energy savings of up to 50%.
However, because of doubts about controllabili...
To summarize Clauses 4 and 6:
(1)

In simple column sequences heuristics based on vapor rate within the
column will identi...
Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutd...
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Distillation Sequences, Complex Columns and Heat Integration

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Distillation Sequences, Complex Columns and Heat Integration

0 INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE
1 SCOPE
2 FIELD OF APPLICATION
3 DEFINITIONS
4 SEQUENCING OF SIMPLE COLUMNS
4.1 Sidestream Columns
4.2 Multi-Feed Columns

5 SIMPLE COLUMN SEQUENCING AND HEAT
INTEGRATION INTERACTIONS
5.1 Energy Quantity and Quality
5.2 Heat Integration within the Total Flowsheet

6 COMPLEX COLUMN ARRANGEMENTS
6.1 Indirect Sequence with Vapor Link
6.2 Sidestream Systems
6.3 Pre-Fractionator Systems

7 COMPLEX COLUMNS AND HEAT INTEGRATION
INTERACTIONS

FIGURES

1 DIRECT AND INDIRECT SEQUENCES

2 A SINGLE SIDESTREAM COLUMN REPLACING 2
SIMPLE COLUMNS

3 A TYPICAL MULTI-FEED COLUMN

4 TYPICAL GRAND COMPOSITION CURVE

5 TYPICAL INDIRECT SEQUENCE WITH VAPOUR LINK

6 SIDESTREAM STRIPPER AND SIDESTREAM
RECTIFIER

7 SIMPLEST PRE-FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM

8 SIMPLEST PRE-FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM

9 PETLYUK COLUMN

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Transcript of "Distillation Sequences, Complex Columns and Heat Integration"

  1. 1. GBH Enterprises, Ltd. Process Engineering Guide: GBHE-PEG-MAS-604 Distillation Sequences, Complex Columns and Heat Integration Information contained in this publication or as otherwise supplied to Users is believed to be accurate and correct at time of going to press, and is given in good faith, but it is for the User to satisfy itself of the suitability of the information for its own particular purpose. GBHE gives no warranty as to the fitness of this information for any particular purpose and any implied warranty or condition (statutory or otherwise) is excluded except to the extent that exclusion is prevented by law. GBHE accepts no liability resulting from reliance on this information. Freedom under Patent, Copyright and Designs cannot be assumed. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  2. 2. Process Engineering Guide: Distillation Sequences, Complex Columns and Heat Integration CONTENTS SECTION 0 INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE 2 1 SCOPE 2 2 FIELD OF APPLICATION 2 3 DEFINITIONS 2 4 SEQUENCING OF SIMPLE COLUMNS 3 4.1 4.2 Sidestream Columns Multi-Feed Columns 4 5 5 SIMPLE COLUMN SEQUENCING AND HEAT INTEGRATION INTERACTIONS 5 5.1 5.2 Energy Quantity and Quality Heat Integration within the Total Flowsheet 5 6 6 COMPLEX COLUMN ARRANGEMENTS 8 6.1 6.2 6.3 Indirect Sequence with Vapor Link Sidestream Systems Pre-Fractionator Systems 8 9 10 Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  3. 3. 7 COMPLEX COLUMNS AND HEAT INTEGRATION INTERACTIONS 11 FIGURES 1 DIRECT AND INDIRECT SEQUENCES 3 2 A SINGLE SIDESTREAM COLUMN REPLACING 2 SIMPLE COLUMNS 4 3 A TYPICAL MULTI-FEED COLUMN 5 4 TYPICAL GRAND COMPOSITION CURVE 6 5 TYPICAL INDIRECT SEQUENCE WITH VAPOUR LINK 8 6 SIDESTREAM STRIPPER AND SIDESTREAM RECTIFIER 9 7 SIMPLEST PRE-FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM 9 8 SIMPLEST PRE-FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM 10 9 PETLYUK COLUMN 10 Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  4. 4. 0 INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE Capital and operating costs depend on the sequence of columns within a continuous Distillation Train as well as on heat integration with the rest of the process. The optimum sequence can result in significant savings. Complex Columns, especially those with sidestreams, partial condensers or PreFractionators, can also reduce costs. 1 SCOPE The aim is to give the reader an appreciation of the factors involved in the sequencing of simple columns and in Complex Column arrangements. The guide is not intended as a step-by-step procedure to arrive at an optimal solution. Complex Columns and heat integration are also dealt with at an appreciation level. The occurrence of azeotropes, multiple liquid phases, solids formation or chemical reactions may make certain column sequences impossible and may invalidate some of the heuristics put forward. The guide gives the reader the background necessary to seek advice from experts in the process synthesis techniques used to arrive at optimal solutions and to interpret their recommendations. 2 FIELD OF APPLICATION This Guide applies to the process engineering community in GBH Enterprises worldwide. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  5. 5. 3 DEFINITIONS For the purposes of this Guide, the following definitions apply: Complex Columns Distillation columns with more than one of any of the following: feeds, vapor outlets, liquid outlets. Examples are columns with a sidestream off-take, as well as those with sidestream strippers or rectifiers, direct or indirect. Systems involving a PreFractionator or a partial condenser are also included. Distillation Train A sequence of two or more columns to achieve the desired split into streams of specified compositions. Pre-Fractionator A distillation column which achieves a "sloppy" split of the middle component(s). The split top and bottom products are then fed to separate conventional columns. With the exception of terms used as proper nouns or titles, those terms with initial capital letters which appear in this document and are not defined above are defined in the. 4 SEQUENCING OF SIMPLE COLUMNS With a three product system the choice is between the direct and the indirect sequence. In the direct sequence the lowest boiling product is removed first, while in the indirect sequence the highest boiling product is separated first, requiring a further stage of separation to obtain the lowest boiling component as a product. FIGURE 1 DIRECT AND INDIRECT SEQUENCES Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  6. 6. FIGURE 1 DIRECT AND INDIRECT SEQUENCES It is important to establish a good system; typically there will be 25% to 50% cost difference (capital plus operating) between the best and worst sequences. As more products are involved the problem expands. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  7. 7. Thus with multi-component systems there is a need to identify the good sequences without costing all the possibilities. It has been shown that the total number of trays is approximately constant for all sequences. Capital cost differences therefore result from changes in column diameter and reboiler and condenser requirements. These are all functions of the vapor rate within the column. The vapor rate is also a major influence in terms of operating cost (or energy requirement). Good sequences will therefore have a low total vapor rate compared to bad sequences; Two heuristics, both of which reduce vapor rate, can be applied in deciding between possible column sequences: (a) Favor the split that removes 25% to 50% of the feed in the distillate. (b) Do difficult separations last. The first is generally the more important consideration. These heuristics can be used with confidence to eliminate the bad sequences (those which contradict both heuristics) for relatively ideal systems. Great care must be taken if this approach is adopted for non-ideal systems, the local physical chemistry expert should be consulted. Having identified the good sequences these can be compared in more detail using available distillation computer programs, e.g. CHEMCAD. Two further column types, although strictly speaking complex columns, are considered under the simple column heading: (c) sidestream columns; (d) multi-feed columns. These column types should be considered immediately after the best simple sequences have been identified. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  8. 8. 4.1 Sidestream Columns A sidestream column is worth considering if the middle product does not have a high purity requirement. A typical application of one sidestream column replacing two simple columns is shown below. FIGURE 2 A SINGLE SIDESTREAM COLUMN REPLACING 2 SIMPLE COLUMNS In addition to eliminating a column the sidestream column arrangement requires a lower total vapor rate and energy savings of up to 40% can be achieved. For maximum middle product purity liquid sidestreams should be used above the feed (main impurity the more volatile component), vapor sidestreams below the feed (main impurity the less volatile component). Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  9. 9. 4.2 Multi-Feed Columns If there is more than one feed to a column the most suitable arrangement is a system in which feeds go to the optimum feed trays, for example: FIGURE 3 A TYPICAL MULTI-FEED COLUMN This is a more efficient arrangement than either mixing the feeds and feeding to one feed tray in the column or using two columns to achieve the separation. To a first approximation, a feed should go to a tray where the ratio of the key components in the liquid (or vapor) is the same as their ratio in the liquid (or vapor) phase of the feed. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  10. 10. 5 SIMPLE COLUMN SEQUENCING AND HEAT INTEGRATION INTERACTIONS Having established good simple column sequences attention should be given to heat integration interactions, both within the sequence and in the total flowsheet. 5.1 Energy Quantity and Quality The optimum design of a distillation system necessarily includes a consideration of heat integration to minimize operating cost. The latter is dependent on both energy load (the quantity of heat required) and energy level (the quality of heat required). The criterion of determining a minimum total vapor rate to identify good sequences in a simple column system satisfies the requirement of minimizing the quantity of heat. The temperature difference across a column, i.e. temperature in reboiler minus temperature in condenser, is related to the quality of heat. Columns with small temperature differences will be easier to fit into any heat integration scheme. Therefore the sum of all the column temperature differences (ΣΔT) within a sequence is a measure of the integratability or energy quality of that sequence. Operating pressure fixes reboiler and condenser temperatures. For initial studies this should be assumed to be atmospheric or just above unless extenuating circumstances are known (e.g. thermolabile substances or low boilers involved). Good sequences have been shown to have low ΣΔT, indeed when considering heat integration good sequences get better, although by pressure shifting "poor" sequences can be improved. The strategy should therefore be: (a) Identify the good simple column sequences, and then (b) Consider heat integration, shifting column pressure as required/possible. 5.2 Heat Integration within the Total Flowsheet The next stage is to consider heat integration of the simple column sequence within the total process flowsheet. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  11. 11. The Heat Exchanger Network (HEN) provides a ready means of calculating a target utility requirement of a flowsheet where all conditions, including column pressures, are considered fixed. However the target can be reduced further by systematically identifying appropriate changes to process operating conditions which enhance integration possibilities. A flowsheet including distillation can be conveniently divided into a "distillation system" and a "background process". The distillation system is taken to contain only the reboiler and condenser heat loads. The background process accounts for everything else including any feed preheating and/or product rundown heat loads. 5.2.1 Grand Composite Curves The heat interactions between the distillation system and the background process are explored using a thermodynamic approach. This involves a consideration of total flowsheet temperature (T) versus enthalpy (H) profiles, or grand composite curves. The grand composite curve is normally obtained using a computer program, i.e., CHEMCAD. The T versus H profile shows the net requirement for heating and/or the net requirement for cooling of that process at all temperatures after process interchange has been taken into account. A typical profile is given below. FIGURE 4 TYPICAL GRAND COMPOSITION CURVE Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  12. 12. The pinch divides the process into two distinct parts. above the pinch the process is a net sink (one requiring heat, although individual parts such as ABC may be self sufficient in heat) and below the pinch the process is a net source (one having a surplus of heat, although again individual parts such as EFG may be self satisfying). Grand composite curves are constructed for the distillation system and the background process. The T versus H profile for the distillation system can be simplified by linking the reboiler and condenser as clearly identifiable column units. Drawing the two profiles on the same diagram clearly shows if the columns are "appropriately" or "inappropriately" placed with respect to the background pinch temperature. (In theory, heat integration with the background process can be used to operate a column for "free" if the temperatures of the reboiler and condenser both lie above or below the pinch.) The T versus H profile can also be manipulated manually or via CHEMCAD to study the effect of changes in column pressure, or feed temperature, or the applicability of intermediate reboilers and/or condensers etc.. Readers are referred to the text of the original report for a more detailed appreciation of this topic. This also covers cost and design implications of heat integration, suffice to state here that the methodology proposed consists of 5 stages: (a) The flowsheet is split into two parts, namely the distillation system and the background process. (b) Using HEN techniques the T versus H profile of the background process is obtained. (c) A T versus H profile, including certain simplifying assumptions, is constructed for the distillation system with each reboiler and condenser linked together as recognizable column units. (d) The two profiles are then put together and manipulated to identify design options. (e) A range of reducing utility targets, along with associated capital cost implications, is identified. From these options the final topology, with the correct balance between capital and operating costs, is selected. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  13. 13. 6 COMPLEX COLUMN ARRANGEMENTS The simplest of the complex column arrangements has been described in 4.1, a single sidestream column. In this situation the sidestream column replaced two adjacent simple columns. Other complex column configurations are described below. To be worthwhile the complex column should obviously use less energy and have a similar, or lower capital cost than the simple columns arrangement. 6.1 Indirect Sequence with Vapor Link The indirect sequence with a vapor link uses a partial condenser rather than a total condenser at the top of the first column. FIGURE 5 TYPICAL INDIRECT SEQUENCE WITH VAPOR LINK The feed to the second column is saturated vapor instead of saturated liquid. The additional heat in the vapor feed replaces part of the reboiler requirement of the second column. Typically this arrangement may save about 10% on energy. Column pressures must be suitable to allow operation. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  14. 14. 6.2 Sidestream Systems Sidestream systems, as opposed to a simple sidestream column, allow production of three pure products with up to 25% saving in energy. The two best known configurations are the Sidestream Stripper and the Sidestream Rectifier. (See Figure 6). FIGURE 6 SIDESTREAM STRIPPER AND SIDESTREAM RECTIFIER The columns are linked by liquid and vapor lines and must operate at the same pressure. Vapor links can be avoided if another complete column is added to the first sidestream column - the two columns do not then have to operate at the same pressure. The capital cost is higher. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  15. 15. An example is illustrated in Figure 7. FIGURE 7 EXAMPLE OF A SIDESTREAM COLUMN 6.3 Pre-Fractionator Systems Pre-Fractionator systems only achieve a sloppy split of the middle component(s). The simplest system consists of three columns with conventional reboilers and condensers and liquid links. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  16. 16. FIGURE 8 SIMPLEST PRE-FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM The energy savings from such a system are rarely greater than 10% and the extra column, reboiler and condenser increase the capital cost substantially. Such a pre-fractionating system is unlikely to be an attractive proposition unless spare columns are available. More complex systems have been proposed, for example the PETLYUK column. (See Figure 9). Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  17. 17. FIGURE 9 PETLYUK COLUMN Such systems realize energy savings of up to 50%. However, because of doubts about controllability the PETLYUK column is rarely used in practice (investigations are in hand to resolve this problem). Heuristics based on feed composition offer a useful guide in deciding when to consider complex column arrangements in a sequence of simple columns. Thus with three products, A (the lightest), B, C (the heaviest) and based on feed composition consider: (a) Sidestream columns : When B large with respect to A or C and a slack specification on B with respect to A or C (b) Indirect with vapor link : When C large, B small, easy separations. (c) Sidestream systems : B small. (d) Pre-Fractionator systems : B large. If consideration of the feed heuristics identify a promising complex column opportunity this should be assessed using an available distillation computer program. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  18. 18. To summarize Clauses 4 and 6: (1) In simple column sequences heuristics based on vapor rate within the column will identify bad sequences for ideal systems. Care must be taken if this approach is adopted for non-ideal systems. (2) The good column sequences should be compared in more details using an available distillation program, e.g. CHEMCAD. (3) Having established a good simple sequence, consideration should be given to the introduction of complex column arrangements to further reduce energy requirements and/or capital costs. (4) Heuristics based on feed composition are a useful guide in deciding when to consider complex column arrangements. (5) Assess promising complex column arrangements using an available distillation program. 7 COMPLEX COLUMNS AND HEAT INTEGRATION INTERACTIONS Complexing increases the temperature difference across columns and makes heat integration more difficult. However both complexing and heat integration have the same effect – they decrease load but increase level. Consideration should be given to the benefits to be gained from complexing followed by heat integration and vice-versa. The effects of complex columns can be studied using T versus H profiles. Quite often heat integration will achieve larger savings. In general complexes that destroy heat integration links are not worth considering. Maximum savings are likely if use can be made of both complexing and heat integration. Complexing and heat integration may give rise to problems in startup and/or operational flexibility. These should be assessed to ensure that the potential savings are realistic. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  19. 19. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com

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