RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Biodiesel Fuel
Issues, Trends and Challenges
By Gera...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Petroleum Background
Geologically mined non-renewabl...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Needs of Petroleum Industry
Unusable in original sta...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Schematic of Petroleum Refining
www.renaltenergy.com
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Foundational Technology: Distillation
www.renaltener...
Diesel Engines Pollute the Air
 Diesel exhaust is toxic and carcinogenic
 20,000 Americans die each year from lung disea...
Diesel Engines Here for Long Term
 Diesel engines are still one of the most reliable,
energy efficient & powerful propuls...
Diesel Engines Here for Long Term
 2/3 of our petroleum is imported now; jobs/trade
balance
 Diesel fuel production at r...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Needs of Biodiesel Industry
Useful existing feedstoc...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Biodiesel Background
Biologically produced renewable...
Enter Biodiesel
 A diesel displacement fuel made from plant oils,
animal tallow or recycled cooking oils through a
chemic...
Growing Biodiesel Feedstock:
Canola and Mustard oil seed crops
 Rotation crops for wheat farmers in CA, Eastern
Washingto...
Biodiesel Raw Materials
Oil or Fat Alcohol
Soybean, Canola Methanol
Corn, Safflower Ethanol (rare)
Mustard, Cottonseed
Sun...
Biofuels: Production Methods
Biodiesel Production Methods
•Base catalyzed transesterification of oil
•Direct acid catalyze...
Biofuels Production: Reaction Mechanism
Base catalyzed Esterification reaction
CH2OCOR''„ CH2OH R'''COOR
CHOCOR'' + 3 ROH ...
The Biodiesel Reaction
Vegetable Oil or
Animal Fat
(100 lbs.)
+
Methanol or
Ethanol
(10 lbs.)
Biodiesel
(100 lbs.)
+
Glyce...
Transesterification Reaction
H O
 
H - C - O - C - CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3

 O
 ...
Biodiesel = Methyl esters of
Tryglyceride fatty acid chains
H O
 
H - C - OH CH3 - O - C - (CH2)16 CH3

 Methyl Stear...
Catalyst-
Mixing
Methanol
Catalyst
Transesterification
Vegetable Oils, Used
Cooking Oil,
Animal Fats
Neutralization Phase ...
Biofuels Production: Process Flowsheet
Base Catalyzed Esterification of Oils
Source: Lurgi Process
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Biodiesel Fractionation Processes
www.renaltenergy.c...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Historical comparison between development of
petrole...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Conventional Biodiesel Fractionation Technologies
1....
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Conventional Biodiesel Fractionation
Technologies
2....
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Conventional Biodiesel Fractionation
Technologies
3....
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Urea-biodiesel clathration
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Foundational Technology: Urea Clathration
Scalable/r...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Biodiesel Standard Process
www.renaltenergy.com
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Biodiesel Fractionation Process
www.renaltenergy.com
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Urea is only additional component, which is
100% re...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Can be integrated into existing/new
biodiesel proces...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Differential Processing
Usable with any biodiesel fe...
Biodiesel: Fuel Quality for Diesel Engines
•ASTM Specification for B100 for Blending has been developed
(D6751)
• Changes ...
Biodiesel B100 Properties
 Ultra low Sulfur (typically < 8 ppm)
 No Aromatics (& low PAH emission)
 High Cetane (> 52, ...
Biodiesel Properties
Properties ASTM Standard-D6751
• Reaction completion
• Glycerin removal
• Catalyst removal
• Free fat...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Cold Flow Properties:
www.renaltenergy.com
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Biodiesel quality depends on feedstock
www.renaltene...
Important Biodiesel Parameters
 Complete Reaction to >97% conversion to avoid
partially reacted glycerides remaining in f...
Production Process Highlights
 Most transesterification reactions achieve 97-99%
conversion of oils & fats to esters
 Co...
Biodiesel Production: Challenges
• Glycerol Utilization
- Better utilization of glycerin
• Improve Esterification
- Proces...
RENALT ENERGY
Biodiesel: Production vs Capacity
Biodiesel Specification ASTM 6751
Property ASTM Method Limits Units
Flash Point 93 130 min. degree C
Water & Sediment 2709...
ASTM D6751 Highlights
 Acid number – for degrading, oxidized fuel
 Flashpoint – for residual methanol
 Water & sediment...
Biodiesel: Economics
Assumptions
• Plant size: 60 million gallons
• Feedstock cost: 80%
• 7.5 lbs feedstock/gallon biodies...
Biodiesel: Economics
Net operating profit= Revenues –Operating cost
(excluding capital and other fixed costs )
RENALT ENER...
How can Biodiesel be used?
 In low levels with petrodiesel ULSD (B2 - B5) to
restore the lubricity after hydrotreatment t...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Applications
Summer/winter diesel fuel blend stocks...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Summary
Description of a novel simple fractionation ...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Summary
Usable with variety of feedstocks (plant, an...
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Biodiesel Fuels, Issues Trends Challenges

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- Petroleum Background
- Needs of Petroleum Industry
- Schematic of Petroleum Refining
- Foundational Technology: Distillation
- Diesel Engines Pollute the Air
- Diesel Engines Here for Long Term
- Needs of Biodiesel Industry
- Biodiesel Background
- Enter Biodiesel
- Growing Biodiesel Feedstock: Canola and Mustard oil seed crops
- Biodiesel Raw Materials
- Biofuels: Production Methods
- Biofuels Production: Reaction Mechanism
- The Biodiesel Reaction
- Transesterification Reaction
- Base Catalyzed Esterification of Oils
- Biofuels Production: Process Flowsheet
- Biodiesel Fractionation Processes
- Conventional Biodiesel Fractionation Technologies
- Foundational Technology: Urea Clathration
- Urea-biodiesel clathration
- Differential Processing
Biodiesel Properties
- Biodiesel: Fuel Quality for Diesel Engines
- Biodiesel B100 Properties
- Cold Flow Properties
- Important Biodiesel Parameters
- Production Process Highlights
- Biodiesel Production: Challenges
- Biodiesel: Economics
- Biodiesel Applications

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Biodiesel Fuels, Issues Trends Challenges

  1. 1. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Biodiesel Fuel Issues, Trends and Challenges By Gerard B. Hawkins Executive Director RENALT ENERGY www.renaltenergy.com
  2. 2. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Petroleum Background Geologically mined non-renewable resource Complex mixture of mainly hydrocarbon structures (alkane / alkene, aromatics, wide range of molecular weights, C4-C100+) Multiple sources differing in composition (geographical, contaminants) www.renaltenergy.com
  3. 3. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Needs of Petroleum Industry Unusable in original state (viscous, black gunk), low cost Must be able to handle differing feedstocks and produce consistent products Needed processing technology to make useful differentiated products, e.g. gasoline, diesel, kerosene, chemical feedstocks, etc. Current issues are economic and political www.renaltenergy.com
  4. 4. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Schematic of Petroleum Refining www.renaltenergy.com
  5. 5. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Foundational Technology: Distillation www.renaltenergy.com
  6. 6. Diesel Engines Pollute the Air  Diesel exhaust is toxic and carcinogenic  20,000 Americans die each year from lung disease from diesel exhaust particulates  400,000 Americans suffer from asthma and lung disease related to diesel exhaust; problem acute in West Oakland, BayView  Diesel exhaust is even more of a problem in congested cities with older diesels  Sulfur oxides in exhaust lead to acid rain  Environmental Justice projects in SF… RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  7. 7. Diesel Engines Here for Long Term  Diesel engines are still one of the most reliable, energy efficient & powerful propulsion systems; long engine life  New diesel engine technologies & regulations will reduce exhaust emissions dramatically; plus new after-treatment  Diesel-Electric hybrids do help reduce impact; electric buses have decades of success on the steep hills of SF  CNG buses in widespread use but problems persist  However, the diesel fuel remains toxic to workers & the public as volatile flammable liquid; threat to groundwater RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  8. 8. Diesel Engines Here for Long Term  2/3 of our petroleum is imported now; jobs/trade balance  Diesel fuel production at refineries in the western states cannot keep up with the demand – opportunity for biofuel  The long-term sustainability of non-renewable petroleum fuel is a real issue for the US and developing countries  The rising price of diesel fuel is promoting alternative fuel RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  9. 9. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Needs of Biodiesel Industry Useful existing feedstock (oil), high cost Quality control; Must be able to handle differing feedstocks and produce consistent products Needed processing technology to make differentiated products, e.g. cold flow products Major current issue is product performance with respect to cold weather www.renaltenergy.com
  10. 10. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Biodiesel Background Biologically produced renewable resource Hydrocarbon-like ester structures (mainly alkane/alkene structures, relatively narrow molecular weight distribution (C12-C20) Multiple sources differing in composition (plant/animal/microbial, few contaminants) www.renaltenergy.com
  11. 11. Enter Biodiesel  A diesel displacement fuel made from plant oils, animal tallow or recycled cooking oils through a chemical process to remove glycerin and yield methyl or ethyl esters optimized for combustion  Renewable, agriculturally produced alternative fuel to displace imported petroleum; similar price  Biodiesel itself is non-toxic, non-flammable and non- volatile, making it safer to handle & store  Biodiesel contains little sulfur and no aromatics  When blended with petroleum diesel or burned as a pure fuel, biodiesel can significantly reduce diesel engine exhaust PM, CO, HC, S & toxics RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  12. 12. Growing Biodiesel Feedstock: Canola and Mustard oil seed crops  Rotation crops for wheat farmers in CA, Eastern Washington, Oregon, Idaho, NV  High oil yield strains yield 100-150 gallons of biodiesel per acre (double yield of soy)  Dry farmed and drought tolerant crops  Plant debris contributes nitrogen to soil  Glucosinolate in plant and meal is an organic fungicide, pesticide & herbicide -reduces costs for farmer; added benefits RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  13. 13. Biodiesel Raw Materials Oil or Fat Alcohol Soybean, Canola Methanol Corn, Safflower Ethanol (rare) Mustard, Cottonseed Sunflower Catalyst Palm, Coconut Sodium or potassium Jatropha, Castor bean Hydroxide Beef tallow, pork lard, poultry fat Used cooking oils & grease, FOG RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  14. 14. Biofuels: Production Methods Biodiesel Production Methods •Base catalyzed transesterification of oil •Direct acid catalyzed transesterification of oil •Convert oils into fatty acids and then to biodiesel RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  15. 15. Biofuels Production: Reaction Mechanism Base catalyzed Esterification reaction CH2OCOR''„ CH2OH R'''COOR CHOCOR'' + 3 ROH Catalyst CHOH + R''COOR CH2OCOR„ CH2OH R'COOR (100 lbs) (10 lbs) (10 lbs) (100 lbs) Oil or Fat Alcohol (excess) Glycerin Biodiesel (Triglyceride) RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  16. 16. The Biodiesel Reaction Vegetable Oil or Animal Fat (100 lbs.) + Methanol or Ethanol (10 lbs.) Biodiesel (100 lbs.) + Glycerine (10 lbs.) + catalyst (hydroxide) Combining Yields www.renaltenergy.com
  17. 17. Transesterification Reaction H O   H - C - O - C - CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3   O   H - C - O - C - (CH2)7 -CH = CH(CH2)7 CH3 + 3 H3 - C -OH --------------->  + -OH  O Methanol Catalyst   H - C - O - C - (CH2)7 -CH = CHCH2 CH = CH(CH2)4 CH3  H Triglyceride Vegetable / Soybean Oil RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  18. 18. Biodiesel = Methyl esters of Tryglyceride fatty acid chains H O   H - C - OH CH3 - O - C - (CH2)16 CH3   Methyl Stearate (saturated ester)  O   H - C - OH + CH3 - O - C - (CH2)7 -CH = CH(CH2)7 CH3   Methyl Oleate (mono-unsaturated ester)  O   H - C - OH CH3 - O - C - (CH2)7 -CH = CHCH2 CH = CH(CH2)4 CH3  H Methyl Linoleate (di-unsaturated ester) Glycerin Biodiesel Methyl Esters
  19. 19. Catalyst- Mixing Methanol Catalyst Transesterification Vegetable Oils, Used Cooking Oil, Animal Fats Neutralization Phase Separation Re-neutralization Methanol- Recovery Purification Methanol- Recovery Quality Control Glycerin Purification Neutralizing Acid Crude Biodiesel Methyl Ester Crude Glycerin Pharmaceutical Glycerin Recycled Methanol If desired Biodiesel Production Process RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  20. 20. Biofuels Production: Process Flowsheet Base Catalyzed Esterification of Oils Source: Lurgi Process RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  21. 21. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Biodiesel Fractionation Processes www.renaltenergy.com
  22. 22. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Historical comparison between development of petroleum/biodiesel fuel processing – Technologies to create multiple fuel products Description of new biodiesel fractionation process Opportunities/Applications Overview www.renaltenergy.com
  23. 23. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Conventional Biodiesel Fractionation Technologies 1. Thermal fractionation (with or without solvent): Crystallization/filtration process, very low yields, long process time, high losses due to co-crystallization / inclusion Solvent crystallization gives higher yields, but requires significant refrigeration/very low temperatures www.renaltenergy.com
  24. 24. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Conventional Biodiesel Fractionation Technologies 2. Adsorption/Chromatographic, Liquid-Liquid extraction techniques Require multiple solvents, expensive processing components, energy intensive High cost, low selectivity, unsuitable for large scale processing www.renaltenergy.com
  25. 25. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Conventional Biodiesel Fractionation Technologies 3. Lipase catalysis Relies on the selectivity of certain lipases to hydrolyze only the unsaturates High selectivity but very low yields, process time runs into days Extremely expensive www.renaltenergy.com
  26. 26. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Urea-biodiesel clathration
  27. 27. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Foundational Technology: Urea Clathration Scalable/robust, based on alkene structure, energy efficient www.renaltenergy.com
  28. 28. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Biodiesel Standard Process www.renaltenergy.com
  29. 29. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Biodiesel Fractionation Process www.renaltenergy.com
  30. 30. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Urea is only additional component, which is 100% recycled Only additional major equipment is mixing tank/centrifuge (some additional tankage) Only added energy input is for added methanol evaporation (if any) Differential Processing www.renaltenergy.com
  31. 31. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Can be integrated into existing/new biodiesel processing plants Scalable, robust, simple process Estimated differential costs 5-10 cents/gal Differential Processing www.renaltenergy.com
  32. 32. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Differential Processing Usable with any biodiesel feedstock or blend, e.g. soybean oil, canola, palm oil, coconut oil, lard, waste restaurant fat, etc. Controllable product properties based on Alkane / alkene composition, carbon chain Length Yields will depend on feedstock Composition Serial/staged fractionation is possible to obtain multiple products www.renaltenergy.com
  33. 33. Biodiesel: Fuel Quality for Diesel Engines •ASTM Specification for B100 for Blending has been developed (D6751) • Changes being considered to improve quality •Attempts are being made to address stability and compatibility with newer diesel technology concerns of engine manufacturers • Additional research required to define and test for stability • Lack of data relating stability and deposit formation in engine RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  34. 34. Biodiesel B100 Properties  Ultra low Sulfur (typically < 8 ppm)  No Aromatics (& low PAH emission)  High Cetane (> 52, improved ignition)  High Lubricity (even 1% restores ULSD lubricity)  Biodegradable (soil, marine, aquatic ecosystems)  Non-Toxic (but harmful to aquatic habitats)  Non-volatile (< 2 mm Hg vapor pressure)  Non-flammable (Flash Point > 300 Deg F)  Solvent action of fuel on seals, gaskets, tank liners  Must meet ASTM 6751 specifications or problems result with precipitations, contaminants & failures RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  35. 35. Biodiesel Properties Properties ASTM Standard-D6751 • Reaction completion • Glycerin removal • Catalyst removal • Free fatty acids removal Ester Viscosity mm²/s Cetane No. ΔHg kJ/kg Tflash °C CP °C PP °C Methyl 4.08 46.2 39,800 191 2 -1 Ethyl 4.41 48.2 40,000 174 1 -4 Isopropyl 52.6 – – -9 -12 N-Butyl 5.24 51.7 40,700 185 -3 -7 No. 2 Diesel 2.39 45.8 45,200 78 -19 -23 RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  36. 36. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Cold Flow Properties: www.renaltenergy.com
  37. 37. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Biodiesel quality depends on feedstock www.renaltenergy.com
  38. 38. Important Biodiesel Parameters  Complete Reaction to >97% conversion to avoid partially reacted glycerides remaining in fuel  Removal of Glycerin (gums engine valves)  Removal of Catalyst (caustic hydroxide)  Removal of Alcohol (flash point issues)  Absence of Free Fatty Acids or Soaps  Should be insured via ASTM D 6751 [New revisions coming including oxidation stability] RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  39. 39. Production Process Highlights  Most transesterification reactions achieve 97-99% conversion of oils & fats to esters  Co-product glcyerin & unreacted reagents are largely removed by gravity or centrifugation; traces can remain in fuel  Methanol is flashed off and recovered  Water washes remove last traces of catalyst, methanol, glycerin and soaps  Final polishing steps essential to remove traces of oils, mono-, di-, tri-glycerides & glycerin to achieve ASTM spec B100 RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  40. 40. Biodiesel Production: Challenges • Glycerol Utilization - Better utilization of glycerin • Improve Esterification - Processing steps • Fuel to diesel engine specifications - Minimize impurities RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  41. 41. RENALT ENERGY Biodiesel: Production vs Capacity
  42. 42. Biodiesel Specification ASTM 6751 Property ASTM Method Limits Units Flash Point 93 130 min. degree C Water & Sediment 2709 0.05 max. vol.% Carbon Residue 4530 0.05 max. wt. % (100% sample) Sulfated Ash 874 0.02 max. wt. % Kin. Viscosity, 40C 445 1.9 - 6.0 mm²/sec. Sulfur 5453 0.05 max. wt. % Cetane 613 47 min. Cloud Point 2500 By Customer degree C Copper Corrosion 130 No. 3 max. Acid Number 664 0.80 max. mg KOH/g Free Glycerin 6854 0.020 wt. % Total Glycerin 6854 0.240 wt. % Phosphorous 4951 10 max ppm Distillation, T90 AET 1160 360 max degree C RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  43. 43. ASTM D6751 Highlights  Acid number – for degrading, oxidized fuel  Flashpoint – for residual methanol  Water & sediment – fuel fouling, deposits  Sulfated ash – for residual catalyst  Total glycerin – for incomplete conversion, detects residual mono, di and tri glycerides  Free glycerin – inadequate fuel washing  New ASTM updates will include specs for Na+, K+ and oxidation stability RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  44. 44. Biodiesel: Economics Assumptions • Plant size: 60 million gallons • Feedstock cost: 80% • 7.5 lbs feedstock/gallon biodiesel • Operating cost (excluding feedstock): $0.42/gallon • Credit for glycerin and other by-products: $0.05/gallon RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  45. 45. Biodiesel: Economics Net operating profit= Revenues –Operating cost (excluding capital and other fixed costs ) RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  46. 46. How can Biodiesel be used?  In low levels with petrodiesel ULSD (B2 - B5) to restore the lubricity after hydrotreatment that removes the sulfur and lubricating compounds  As a blending stock with regular diesel (B20)  As a pure fuel (“Neat” or B100 in niche markets) primarily in CA and among biodiesel enthusiasts In all diesel engines, with no conversion for blends of 20% or less; Check fuel tanks RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium www.renaltenergy.com
  47. 47. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Applications Summer/winter diesel fuel blend stocks Aviation jet fuel Solvents Chemical feedstocks (enhanced reactivity) Future research on catalytic cracking/reforming/alkylation/cyclization www.renaltenergy.com
  48. 48. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Summary Description of a novel simple fractionation process for biodiesel fuels Low energy, environmentally benign, low cost, robust /scalable, compatible with existing/new biodiesel synthesis plants www.renaltenergy.com
  49. 49. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Summary Usable with variety of feedstocks (plant, animal, microbial lipids) Controllable cold temperature properties suitable for ground, aviation fuels; also potential chemical feedstocks www.renaltenergy.com
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