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RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Bio-Aviation Fuels
Issues, Trends and Challenges
By ...
Biofuels
In the early days of the jet age, speed and luxury were the
drivers of intercontinental travel.
Today, our engine...
Biofuels
The world is turning to governments and business to reduce
the human impact on climate change. And the aviation
i...
Biofuels - Aviation
Biofuels provide the aviation industry with the
capability to partially, and perhaps one day fully,
re...
Biofuels - Aviation
However, there are
emissions produced during
the production of biofuels,
from the equipment needed
to ...
Biofuels - Aviation
Relative to fossil fuels, sustainably produced biofuels
result in a reduction in CO2 emissions across ...
Biofuels - Aviation
When these elements are accounted for, biofuels are still
anticipated to provide an estimated 80% redu...
Biofuels - Aviation
Furthermore, biofuels contain
fewer impurities (such as
sulfur), which enables an
even greater reducti...
Biofuels - Aviation
Lifecycle emissions from fossil fuels
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Mille...
Biofuels - Aviation
Lifecycle emissions from biofuels
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Biofuels - Aviation
Global Biofuels Mandates
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Biofuels - Aviation
Public Policy-Driven Demand for Biofuels by 2020
Policies in place
to support
biofuels continue
to be ...
Biofuels - Aviation
Second-generation biofuels for aviation:
• use a sustainable resource to
produce a fuel that can be
co...
Biofuels - Aviation
Second-generation biofuels for aviation:
• include bio-derived oil, sourced
from feedstocks such as ja...
Biofuels - Aviation
Key advantages of second-generation
biofuels for aviation
• Environmental benefits: sustainably produc...
Biofuels - Aviation
Jatropha is a plant that produces seeds
containing inedible lipid oil that can be used to
produce fuel...
Biofuels - Aviation
Camelina is primarily an energy crop, with
high lipid oil content.
The primary market for camelina oil...
Biofuels - Aviation
Second-Generation Biofuel feedstock: Camelina
Camelina is often grown as a rotational crop
with wheat ...
Biofuels - Aviation
Algae are potentially the most
promising feedstock for producing
large quantities of sustainable aviat...
Biofuels - Aviation
Second-Generation Biofuel feedstock: Algae
One of the biggest advantages of algae
for oil production i...
Biofuels - Aviation
Halophytes are salt marsh grasses and
other saline habitat species that can grow
either in salt water ...
Biofuels - Aviation
Overall Next-Generation Facilities Capacities: Evolution between 2010 and 2011
(millions of gallons)
N...
Biofuels - Aviation
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Biofuels for Aviation
Technical Challenges
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Alternate fuels include synthetic,
bio- derived rene...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
FT synthetic fuels (S-8 and S-5, synthetic replaceme...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
FT fuels exhibit high life-cycle CO2 emissions
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Production Challenges
Two Major Production Challenge...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
Hydrogen Balance: One Problem
Biomass contains rough...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
The Imbalance of Hydrogen
Biomass Composition:
Carbo...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
"RENALT ENERGY" - providing integrated solutions to
...
RENALT ENERGY
Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
We also have interest in, Biomass-to-olefins, Biomas...
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Bio-Aviation Fuels: Issues, Trends and Challenges

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Introduction and Guidance
Biofuels – providing environmental benefits
Lifecycle emissions from fossil fuels
Lifecycle emissions from biofuels
Global Biofuels Mandates
Public Policy-Driven Demand for Biofuels by 2020
Second-generation biofuels for aviation
Key advantages of second-generation biofuels for aviation
Overall Next-Generation Facilities Capacities: Evolution between 2010 and 2011 (millions of gallons)
Technical Challenges
FT synthetic fuels (S-8 and S-5, synthetic replacements
of JP-8 and JP-5) also have very good freezing qualities
Production Challenges
Hydrogen Balance: One Problem
The Imbalance of Hydrogen

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Transcript of "Bio-Aviation Fuels: Issues, Trends and Challenges"

  1. 1. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Bio-Aviation Fuels Issues, Trends and Challenges By Gerard B. Hawkins Executive Director RENALT ENERGY
  2. 2. Biofuels In the early days of the jet age, speed and luxury were the drivers of intercontinental travel. Today, our engines are at the cutting edge of efficiency. Our aircraft are more aerodynamic and lighter than ever before. We are making huge improvements in our air traffic control efficiency, how we fly our aircraft and in developing more environmentally-friendly operations at airports. But we are still using the same fuel. That’s about to change. Introduction and Guidance RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  3. 3. Biofuels The world is turning to governments and business to reduce the human impact on climate change. And the aviation industry is about to embark on a new journey. Sustainable biofuels are crucial to providing a cleaner source of fuel to power the world’s fleet of aircraft and help the billions of people who travel by air each year to lower the impact of their journey on our planet.. Introduction and Guidance RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  4. 4. Biofuels - Aviation Biofuels provide the aviation industry with the capability to partially, and perhaps one day fully, replaces carbon-intensive petroleum fuels. Developing sustainable biofuels for aviation will: • provide the aviation industry with an alternative to petroleum-based fuels; • enable the industry to reduce its carbon footprint by reducing its greenhouse gas emissions; • allow it to draw upon a variety of different fuel sources; • be easier to implement than for other transport RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  5. 5. Biofuels - Aviation However, there are emissions produced during the production of biofuels, from the equipment needed to grow the crop, transport the raw goods, refine the fuel and so on. Biofuels – providing environmental benefits RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  6. 6. Biofuels - Aviation Relative to fossil fuels, sustainably produced biofuels result in a reduction in CO2 emissions across their lifecycle. Carbon dioxide absorbed by plants during the growth of the biomass is roughly equivalent to the amount of carbon produced when the fuel is burned in a combustion engine – which is simply returning the CO2 to the atmosphere. This would allow the biofuel to be approximately carbon neutral over its life cycle. Biofuels – providing environmental benefits RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  7. 7. Biofuels - Aviation When these elements are accounted for, biofuels are still anticipated to provide an estimated 80% reduction in overall CO2 lifecycle emissions compared to fossil fuels. For example, analysis of camelina feedstock use for aviation has shown even better results, with an 84% reduction in lifecycle emissions. Biofuels – providing environmental benefits RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  8. 8. Biofuels - Aviation Furthermore, biofuels contain fewer impurities (such as sulfur), which enables an even greater reduction in sulfur dioxide and soot emissions than present technology has achieved.. Biofuels – providing environmental benefits RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  9. 9. Biofuels - Aviation Lifecycle emissions from fossil fuels RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  10. 10. Biofuels - Aviation Lifecycle emissions from biofuels RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  11. 11. Biofuels - Aviation Global Biofuels Mandates RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  12. 12. Biofuels - Aviation Public Policy-Driven Demand for Biofuels by 2020 Policies in place to support biofuels continue to be aggressive and progressive, particularly in the U.S. and Europe. The figure above shows biofuels mandates that either are implemented or will be by year. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  13. 13. Biofuels - Aviation Second-generation biofuels for aviation: • use a sustainable resource to produce a fuel that can be considered as a replacement for traditional jet fuel, while not consuming valuable food, land and water resources; • can be mass grown in locations almost worldwide, including in deserts and salt water; . RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  14. 14. Biofuels - Aviation Second-generation biofuels for aviation: • include bio-derived oil, sourced from feedstocks such as jatropha, camelina, algae and halophytes; • have the potential to deliver large quantities of greener fuel for aviation at more stable prices although aviation will not rely on just one type of feedstock. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  15. 15. Biofuels - Aviation Key advantages of second-generation biofuels for aviation • Environmental benefits: sustainably produced biofuels result in a reduction in CO2 emissions across their lifecycle. • Diversified supply: second-generation biofuels offer a viable alternative to fossil fuels and can substitute traditional jet fuel, with a more diverse geographical fuel supply through non-food crop sources. • Economic and social benefits: sustainable biofuels provide a solution to the price fluctuations related to fuel cost volatility facing aviation. Biofuels can provide economic benefits to parts of the world, especially developing nations, that have unviable land for food crops that is suitable for second-generation biofuel crop growth. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  16. 16. Biofuels - Aviation Jatropha is a plant that produces seeds containing inedible lipid oil that can be used to produce fuel. Each seed produces 30 to 40% of its mass in oil. Jatropha can be grown in a range of difficult soil conditions, including arid and otherwise non-arable areas, leaving prime land available for food crops. The seeds are toxic to both humans and animals and are therefore not a food source. Second-Generation Biofuel feedstock: Jatropha RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  17. 17. Biofuels - Aviation Camelina is primarily an energy crop, with high lipid oil content. The primary market for camelina oil is as a feedstock to produce renewable fuels. The left over “waste” from the oil extraction can also be used as feed for chickens in small proportions. Second-Generation Biofuel feedstock: Camelina RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  18. 18. Biofuels - Aviation Second-Generation Biofuel feedstock: Camelina Camelina is often grown as a rotational crop with wheat and other cereal crops when the land would otherwise be left fallow (unplanted) as part of the normal crop rotation program. It therefore provides growers with an opportunity to diversify their crop base and reduce mono-cropping (planting the same crop year after year), which has been shown to degrade soil and reduce yields. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  19. 19. Biofuels - Aviation Algae are potentially the most promising feedstock for producing large quantities of sustainable aviation biofuel. These microscopic plants can be grown in polluted or salt water, deserts and other inhospitable places. They thrive off carbon dioxide, which makes them ideal for carbon capture (absorbing carbon dioxide) from sources like power plants. Second-Generation Biofuel feedstock: Algae RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  20. 20. Biofuels - Aviation Second-Generation Biofuel feedstock: Algae One of the biggest advantages of algae for oil production is the speed at which the feedstock can grow. It has been estimated that algae produces up to 15 times more oil per square kilometer than other biofuel crops. Another advantage of algae is that it can be grown on marginal lands that aren’t used for growing food, such as on the edges of deserts. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  21. 21. Biofuels - Aviation Halophytes are salt marsh grasses and other saline habitat species that can grow either in salt water or in areas affected by sea spray where plants would not normally be able to grow. Second-Generation Biofuel feedstock: Halophytes RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  22. 22. Biofuels - Aviation Overall Next-Generation Facilities Capacities: Evolution between 2010 and 2011 (millions of gallons) Next-Generation Biofuels Technology RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  23. 23. Biofuels - Aviation RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  24. 24. Biofuels for Aviation Technical Challenges RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  25. 25. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Alternate fuels include synthetic, bio- derived renewables, and more challenging fuels such as hydrogen.
  26. 26. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium FT synthetic fuels (S-8 and S-5, synthetic replacements of JP-8 and JP-5) also have very good freezing qualities
  27. 27. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium FT fuels exhibit high life-cycle CO2 emissions
  28. 28. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium
  29. 29. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Production Challenges Two Major Production Challenges The Hydrogen Balance Problem Biomass Logistics
  30. 30. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium Hydrogen Balance: One Problem Biomass contains roughly 5% hydrogen Aviation fuels contain roughly 15% hydrogen The extra hydrogen comes form two routes (for thermochemical processes): Steam reforming of methane (natural gas) Water gas shift reaction Note: The question applies to companies with biological routes, too!
  31. 31. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium The Imbalance of Hydrogen Biomass Composition: Carbon ~ 45 -50% Hydrogen ~ 5 – 6% Oxygen ~ 45 – 50% Aviation Fuels: Carbon ~ 85% Hydrogen ~ 15% Oxygen ~ 0%
  32. 32. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium "RENALT ENERGY" - providing integrated solutions to "Green" petrochemicals, integrated Bio-Refining /conventional oil Refining, and Biomass-to-chemicals, primarily through Energy and Process Consultancy. Biomass-to-"Green" chemicals: Biomass-to-chemicals refers to the process of producing chemicals from Biomass. The major Biomass - to-chemicals processes utilized in worldwide, with our strategic focus on, Biomass-to-methanol, MTO and MTP processes that produce the same chemical products, such as ethylene and propylene, as the petrochemical facilities, due to better cost efficiencies and greater demand for these chemicals.
  33. 33. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium We also have interest in, Biomass-to-olefins, Biomass-to- PVC, Biomass to-aromatics and Biomass-to-ammonia/urea processes. We provide a broad range of integrated services spanning the project life-cycle from feasibility studies, consulting services, provision of proprietary technologies, design, engineering, and after-sale technical support. www.renaltenergy.com
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