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  1. 1. Gerald Simmons & Associates Performing home inspections since 1986 Construction and related industry since 1973A CONSULTING, BUILDING AND MECHANICAL INSPECTION SERVICE 2312 Clairmont Road Atlanta, GA 30329 SCHEDULE: (770) 435-0151 FAX: (404) 728-8760 Home office: (404) 728-9922Professional member:American Society of Home Inspectors, IncMember #012049Since 1991Associate member:Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc.Member #16628Since 1988Certifications:SBCCI: CABO One and Two Family Dwelling Inspector Structural, HVAC, Plumbing, & Electric Registration No. 1499SBCCI: Housing Rehabilitation Inspector Registration No. 1085SBCCI: Standard Code Building Inspector Registration No. 5104Other achievements: Co-founder: Georgia Association of Home Inspectors. Vice-President: Georgia Association of Home Inspectors 1989 through 1991 President: Georgia Association of Home Inspectors 1992. Radon Measurement Proficiency Organization ID No. 2190700 Radon Measurement Proficiency Individual ID No. 140550 Professional Pest Control Technology training 10/27/89 Continuing Education requirements are 20 hours per year. 1
  2. 2. THE PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE INSPECTION: BY ACCEPTANCE OF OUR INSPECTION REPORT, YOU ARE AGREEING TO THE TERMS OFOUR INSPECTION AGREEMENT. A copy of this agreement was made available by Email transmissionimmediately after scheduling your inspection. In addition, a copy is included on our website. The purpose of the inspection is to disclose the condition of the building, improvements and mechanicalsystems, as they exist on the day of the inspection. The scope of the inspection is a visual inspection of readilyaccessible areas of the building, improvements, and mechanical systems, and is limited to the areas and systemsidentified as follows: drainage; interiors; roofing; electrical; plumbing; central heating; central air-conditioning(weather permitting); insulation; and ventilation. THE OBJECTIVE OF THE REPORT IS: To supply a written summary disclosing the condition of the building, improvements, and mechanicalsystems observed. LIMITATIONS: The inspection has been limited to readily accessible areas. No disassembly of equipment or activatingequipment that has been shut down has been performed. No opening of walls, moving of furniture, appliances,stored items, walking on roof, or excavation has been performed. Concealed or inaccessible conditions may not beexposed. Systems and conditions which are not within the scope of this inspection include, but are not limited to:environmental hazards (e.g., lead paint, formaldehyde, toxic or flammable materials, asbestos, radon); pestinfestation; portable appliances (e.g., washers, dryers, window air-conditioners); security systems; fire or lawnsprinkler; swimming pools; spas or jetted tubs; tennis courts; playground or other recreational or leisureappliances; efficiency or performance evaluation of equipment or systems; solar heating systems; intercoms,timers, or audio equipment; below ground septic or drainage systems; water wells; zoning ordinances; buildingcode conformity; or any items considered cosmetic in nature. Any general comments about these systems andconditions are informational only and do not represent an inspection. CONCEALMENT AND CAMOUFLAGING: The inspector may not be able to detect problems or defects that have been concealed or camouflaged. WARRANTIES AND GUARANTEES: The inspection report is not to be used as a guarantee or warranty, expressed or implied, regarding theadequacy, performance or condition of any inspected building, improvement, or system. The inspector does nottake a position on value of the premises, nor to make any representation as to advisability of purchase orsuitability of use. THE CLIENT: The client is urged to be present during the inspection, to take notes and ask questions, in order toobtain the most value from the inspection. The inspection is made with the express agreement that allthose concerned understand and agree to the conditions and limitations under which the inspection isperformed. 2
  3. 3. REPORTSUBJECT PROPERTY LOCATION:FOR: (CLIENT)PAYMENT:AUTHORIZED BY:DATE INSPECTED:PRESENT AT THE INSPECTION:REPORTED AGE:WEATHER CONDITIONS:REPORT TRANSMITTED TO: The use of the words "acceptable", "typical", "standard", "functional", and "good", asthey relate to the condition of a component, system, appliance, or appurtenance is not an attemptat gradation. A component, system, appliance, element, or appurtenance that is "In acceptablecondition" generally means that no repair is necessary. "Typical" is a comparative term."Standard" refers to standards or accepted practices within the construction industry."Functional" means that a component or system is operating or functioning as intended ordesigned. The word "good" is a comparative term generally used when describing a conditionbased on age. The •• that precede some paragraphs are provided for quick reference to items orareas that may not be standard, typical, acceptable, safe, or functional.A) GROUNDS AND APPURTENANCES, with respect to their effect on the condition of thebuilding. 1. Vegetation: The ground cover is established. •• Tree branches over hang the roof and house. Recommend trimming the branches thatover hang and can come in contact with the roof. 3
  4. 4. 2. Retaining walls: Not applicable. None present. 3. Driveways: Gravel. 4. Walkways: Concrete appears to be functional. 5. Patios: Not applicable. None present. 6. Grading and drainage: Drainage at the foundation is from right to left and back tofront when facing the front door. •• Drainage is toward the back right corner of the foundation. There is evidence of activeseepage into the crawl space. See section F below for additional comments. For your information: The following are basic standards for maintaining lot drainage. The grade away from foundation should fall a minimum of 6 inches within the first 10feet on all sides of the foundation. 7. Miscellaneous: (fencing, additional remarks) No evidence of fencing. NOTE: We do not inspect sprinkler systems, swimming pools, hot tubs, recreationalequipment or other special equipment.B) ROOFING, GUTTERING AND CHIMNEYS: 1. Main roof type and pitch: Gable and hip style with a steep pitch. 2. Roof coverings (material and condition): Asphalt composition shingles. •• The shingles appear to be 10 plus years of age. Excessive granule loss with shrinkageat tab slots. •• Sagging and unevenness in the surface of the roof can be traced to burned anddamaged wood. •• If someone were to walk in and area where burned wood is located that person maywell fall into the attic space. See section J for additional comments. This type shingle has an estimated serviceable life of from 15 to 20 years. Estimate the remaining life to be from 3 to 5 years. 3. Visible roof flashings: Appear functional there is no evidence of leaking noted. 4. Other roof areas: There are two flat sections of roof, one above the laundry room theother above a portion of the master bath. Both flat sections are covered with a rubber membranethat appears to be functional. •• The front porch roof is covered with a deteriorating rolled roofing material that willneed to be replaced in the not too distant future. 5. Gutters and down spouts: Metal gutters and downspouts. •• All gutters are filled with debris one can not evaluate the condition of the gutters.Gutters and downspouts are in need of cleaning. •• All down spouts should be extended away from the foundation, this to prevent waterfrom entering the crawl space. Gutters and downspouts play an important role in controlling rain water run off.Recommend keeping the gutters and down spouts in good repair. 6. Chimneys: This is a masonry chimney that stops just below the roofline. 7. Skylights: None present. 8. Roof protrusions: Appear to be functional there is no evidence of leaking. 4
  5. 5. 9. How observed: Observed from ground level, from atop the roof and from inside theattic space. 10 Remarks: None.C) HOME EXTERIOR: 1. Trim: Wood, metal and vinyl. The only wood trim that is visible is located around windows, doors and on the frontporch. All other wood is covered with metal or vinyl. 2. Claddings/wall coverings: The exterior is covered with vinyl. •• A piece of siding is missing on the left side of the front porch near the roof. •• 3. Paint: Paint has been applied over previous coats of paint. I suspect that some layersof paint contain lead. Based on the age of the property there is a good possibility that some ofthe old paint contains some lead. Use care and proper protection when scraping or removing theold paint. If you have any questions regarding lead in paint recommend contacting the GeorgiaEnvironmental Protection Department. 4. Windows: Wood, single glaze. 5. Doors: The exterior doors were opened and closed, appear to be functional. 6. Storm windows: Not applicable. None present. 7. Screens: Not applicable there are none present. 8. Porches: The porch is wood frame supported on what appears to be a brickfoundation. Side stairs are not functional, blocked by a rail. The front step is granite. 9. Deck/balconies: A wood platform is located at the right rear corner of the dwelling.The materials used to construct the deck appear to be a standard grade. The method of construction cannot be evaluated; the deck is sitting on the ground. 10. Remarks: None. NOTE: Wall coverings and trim were observed from ground level unless statedotherwise.D) GARAGE/CARPORT: 1. Type: Single-car detached garage. 2. Doors and openers: Side hinged doors. •• 3. Remarks: The garage is in dilapidated condition. The structure appears to be anattractive nuisance. The structure should be removed.E) ELECTRICAL: 1. Estimated amperage and voltage: 150 amps (120/240volts) 2. Over current protection type: Circuit breakers. 3. Type conductors (wires) main and branch circuits: The service entry conductor ismulti-strand aluminum, the visible branch circuit conductors are copper. This appears to be a standard installation. 4. Incoming service location: The incoming service is overhead. 5. Grounding: Grounding rod. 5
  6. 6. 6. Adequacy: The incoming service appears to be adequate for current usage. The load centers are full. 7. Fixtures and outlets: A representative number of fixtures and outlets were operatedand tested. Appear to be functional. •• If this is truly a renovated structure as advertised there are an insufficient number ofwall outlets in the habitable rooms and the hall. 8. GFCI protection: Located in a wall outlet in the bathrooms and kitchen. Theprotection responded when tested appears to be functional. Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) is a safety device that should be installed in wallreceptacles that are located near a water source. Examples of recommended locations for GFCIprotections are receptacles in bathrooms, on the exterior, the garage, crawl space, basement level,and kitchen. 9. Location of main and branch circuits: The main and branch circuit disconnects arelocated in the kitchen. 10. Smoke detectors: Located in the hall near the living room and dining room. •• Smoke detectors should be located outside the bedrooms. An additional detector shouldbe located outside the back bedrooms. 11. Remarks: The load center panel cover was removed. No improprieties were noted inside the load center. •• Wiring located in the attic space should be secured to framing. Wiring interferes withthe removal of the furnace filter. •• Renovations and alterations to the electrical system and components appears to havebeen haphazard. Recommend having the electric system and all components analyzed by alicensed electrician and repaired as needed.F) BASEMENT, CRAWL SPACE, SLAB: 1. Basement: Not applicable. 2. Crawl space/under floor ventilation: Access into the space is through a door and areawell located on the left side of the foundation. •• Access in the crawl space is limited to an excavated area that runs from left to rightwhen facing the front of the dwelling. The excavated areas walls are 4-inch concrete blocks. Thewall on the right, when inside the crawl space, is showing evidence of bulging. A portion of theleft wall has collapsed. Repairs are recommended. 3. Slab: Not applicable. 4. Visible framing: The materials used appear to be a standard grade. The method of construction appears to be consistent with standard building practices ofthe period. •• Beams have been added beneath the living and dining room floors. The beams are4X4’s supported on stacked brick. The beams are bowed downward and provide no bearingsurface. Unevenness in the living room and dining room floors can be traced to settlement at thefoundation. 5. Foundation: The perimeter walls are brick. Interior piers are brick. •• A steel jack column has been installed next to a pier located at the end of the leftexcavated area wall. The pier is showing evidence of movement to a point where the pier hasfailed. 6
  7. 7. •• Stacked bricks located beneath the added beams are not functional. 6. Floors: Dirt. 7. Evidence of water seepage: There is evidence of active seepage, water enters throughthe right rear corner of the foundation and runs into a sump located just inside the access areawell. (Evidence of water seepage is a judgment call based on visual clues) •• 8. Sump pump: There is a sump that is filled with water. The pump has been removedfrom the sump and is lying on one of the excavated area walls. The sump and pump are notfunctional. •• 9. Insect/rot damage: There is not enough space between the bottom of the livingspace floors and the crawl space for an average size person to crawl let alone inspect for wooddestroying insects. The Seller should provide you with a clearance letter from a licensed pest controlcompany, at the time of settlement. The letter should be dated within 30 days of the time ofsettlement. 10. Remarks: There is no way that workmen can enter the crawl space and performneeded repairs that will stabilize the floor system. Seepage into this crawl space will continue tobe a problem because the exterior grade is sloped toward the crawl space. Soils are abovefoundation vent openings allowing water to freely enter the crawl space.G) PLUMBING: 1. Visible water piping: CPVC. 2. Visible waste piping: Cast iron and some plastic. 3. Water supply: Public. 4. Waste supply: Public. 5. Main water shut-off location: I did not locate the main cut-off valve. 6. Water heater: 40-gallon gas fired unit, located in a closet in the laundry room. The unit operated at the inspection. The pressure relief valve appears to be functional. The drain line on the temperature and pressure relief discharges into the over flow pan. The date of manufacturer is 1999. The serviceable life of a gas water heater is estimated to be from 8 to 12 years. For your information: A temperature and pressure relief valve should be tested at leasttwo times a year. 7. Faucets: All were turned on and off, appear to be functional. •• 8. Drains and traps and functional flow: The main 4-inch vent pipe is capped orsealed and is not functional. I could not locate the main vent. 9. Water pressure and functional flow: The water pressure appears to be functional. The flow rate (gallons per minute flow) showed little if any drop when three facilitieswere operated at the same time. 10. Garden tub (jacuzzi): Not applicable. None present. 11. Ceramic tile: Fiberglass tub surround. 12. Washer location/condition: Located in a room off the kitchen. 13. Dryer location/condition: Next to the washer. 14. Laundry tub/wet bar: Not applicable. 7
  8. 8. 15. Bathroom ventilation: The exhaust fans operated. The fan exhausts into the attic,should be directed to the atmosphere. 16. Main gas cut-off: The main gas cut-off is located on the gas meter. •• 17. Remarks: Renovations to the plumbing, especially the waste lines appear to behaphazard and do not appear to comply with basic plumbing standards. Recommend having theplumbing analyzed and corrected as needed by a licensed plumber.H) HEATING: 1. Type energy source: Gas fired, forced air. 2. Equipment Brand: Goodman. 3. Approximate Btu/hr. rating: 75,000 Btus/hr. 4. Location and condition: The furnace is located in the attic space. The furnace operated at the inspection. The date of manufacture is 1998. The serviceable life of this type furnace is estimated to be from 15 to 20 years. 5. Distribution (ducts): Appear to be functional. 6. Vents and returns: Appear to be adequate. 7. Filters: Disposable filter, size 14X25X1, located in the return air plenum. •• Filter slot cover is not secure. The filter slot cover should be secured to preventunconditioned air from entering the attic. Filters should be cleaned or replaced quarterly. 8. Remarks: None. NOTE: the inspector does not calibrate Temperatures.I) COOLING: 1. Type energy source: Electric forced air. 2. Equipment brand: Goodman. 3. Approximate Btu/hr rating: 36,000. Btus/hr. 4. Condition: The cooling system was not operated at the inspection. The temperature was approximately 50 ˚F. Cooling systems should not be operated when the over night temperature has been below60 ˚F. The date of manufacturer is 1999. The serviceable life of an air conditioner is estimated to be from 10 to 15 years. 5. Service disconnects: Located on the foundation wall within sight of the condensingunit. 6. Remarks: None. NOTE: Temperatures are not calibrated.J) ATTIC: 1. Insulation type: Cellulose. 8
  9. 9. 2. Average depth: 2 to 3 inches. 3. Ventilation: A gable vent. Ventilation adequacy is poor. 4. Ventilator fan: Not applicable. 5. Whole house fan: Not applicable. 6. Visible framing: The materials used are standard grade. •• Roof rafters and roof decking are severely charred from a previous fire. The damagedframing and decking is located above the left bedroom, living room and dining room. Once caneasily remove section of burned wood from some of the rafters. Some of the damaged raftershave been repaired with lumber that does not bear on a surface at both ends. All damaged woodshould be removed and replaced with new lumber. This includes damaged rafters and damageddecking. 7. Signs of leaks: None observed. •• 8. Remarks: The access opening may be too small to remove the furnace when itcomes time for furnace replacement. The minimum size opening needed for equipment removalis 22-inches by 30-inches.K) GENERAL INTERIOR: 1. Walls: Functional. 2. Ceilings: Functional. Cracks and sagging appear to be related in part to the age of the dwelling and in part tothe previous fire. 3. Floors: Functional. Unevenness can be attributed to the previous fire, and settlement related to the originalmethod of construction and the age of the dwelling. 4. Stairs: Not applicable. . 5. Doors: Doors will open and close. 6. Windows: Windows are paint bound. Many of the ropes are missing. 7. Fireplaces: This is a masonry fireplace that is not functional as a fireplace. The fireplace is currently equipped with two sets of ceramic gas logs. The logs were notoperated. •• Burning solid fuels in this fireplace will burn the house. The chimney terminates justbelow the roof. 8. Remarks: None.L) KITCHEN AND APPLIANCES: 1. Cabinets: Functional 2. Counters: Functional. 3. Surface cooker: Electric. 4. Oven: Electric. 5. Refrigerator: None present. 6. Disposal: Do not recall seeing a disposal. 7. Fan/hood: Operated at the inspection. 8. Dishwasher: Yes. 9
  10. 10. 9. Other equipment: None 10. Remarks: None. NOTE: Cooking temperatures are not calibrated, We do not inspect intercoms,microwaves, trash compactors, central vacuum systems, security systems, or other specialequipment.M) GENERAL COMMENTS: This is a mature single story dwelling constructed over a crawl space. The exterior is covered with vinyl siding. There is a single vehicle garage that is not functional. The above information provides an overview of the dwelling and its components. There are recommended repairs along with other recommendations that can be foundoutlined above. The main issues are burned wood framing members and roof decking located in the attic,seepage into the crawl space, the sagging floors and the unusable garage. The electrical system and components should be analyzed by a licensed electrician andplaced in safe and functional condition as needed. The plumbing and components should be analyzed by a licensed plumber and placed infunctional condition as needed. The heating and cooling systems are relatively new. The kitchen appliances are relatively new.N) DISCLAIMER: This inspection and report excludes and does not intend to cover any and all components,items and conditions which by nature of their location are concealed or otherwise difficult toinspect. The inspection and report excludes and does not intend to cover any swimming pools,tennis courts, playground equipment or other recreational or leisure appliances. Also excludedare all cosmetic conditions such as the condition of wallpaper and interior painting. The inspection and report are furnished on and "opinion only" basis. This company andits inspectors assume no responsibility for the cost of repairing any unreported defects orconditions that have been camouflaged, concealed, or are in areas that are not accessible. This inspection has been conducted and this report has been prepared to conform to the"Standards of Practice" of The American Society of Home Inspectors, Inc.O) DISCLOSURE: I have no material interest, present or contemplated in the subject property or theimprovement thereof. I have no association with any contractor or with anyone else who maybenefit from the sale and/or improvement of the subject property. 10
  11. 11. IT IS RECOMMENDED, that prior to settlement, you conduct a "walk through"inspection. Using this report as a guide, recheck the property. Conditions can change from day today. REMEMBER TO ASK the Seller/Owner for all owners’ manuals and any warrantiesthat should stay with the property. THE INSPECTION AND REPORT IS NOT INTENDED TO BE CONSIDERED AS AGUARANTEE OR WARRANTY EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIEDWARRANTY OF MERCHANT ABILITY OR FITNESS FOR USE, REGARDING THECONDITIONS OF THE PROPERTY, ITEMS AND SYSTEMS INSPECTED AND ITSHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON AS SUCH. ______________________________________ GERALD A. SIMMONS FOR: Gerald Simmons & Associates 11
  12. 12. GLOSSARY OF TERMSActivate: To turn on equipment by normal control mean such as a thermostat or control switch.Ambient Temperature: The temperature of the air surrounding the equipment.Accessory Building: A secondary building, the use of which is secondary to the main building.Alarm Systems: Warning devices, installed or free standing, including but not limited to: carbon monoxidedetectors, flue gas and other spillage detectors, security equipment, ejector pumps and smoke alarms.Amperage: The rate of flow of electricity through wire, measured in terms of amperes.Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupter: An electric device designed to protect against fires caused by arcing faults inhome electrical wiring currently required in all sleeping areas.Attic: Accessible space between the top of the uppermost ceiling and the underside of the roof. Inaccessiblespaces are considered structural cavities.Automatic Safety Controls: Devices designed and installed to protect systems and components from unsafeconditions.Backfill: To place earth or selected materials in an excavated void, such as back filling against a foundation.Basement: A space of full story height below the first floor wholly or partially below the exterior grade.Btu: Abbreviation for British Thermal Unit:(for the purpose of the report) a measure of the capacity of aheating or cooling system.Butt joint: a joint consisting of two parts of wood or other material that are placed squarely together rather thanoverlapping or interlockingChase: A groove or shaft in a wall that provides an open space for pipes, ducts, or conduits. Generally, found inwalls between floor levels. The tops and bottoms of all chases should be sealed or "fire stopped".Circuit: The path of electricity away from, and back to the source.Circuit Breaker: A protective device that opens an electric circuit when an overload occurs.Component: A part of a system.Damp Proofing: A treatment of a surface or structure that retards the passage of moisture.Defect: A condition that can require a recommendation an expert be retained to determine the extent and ifcorrective action is necessary for such condition.Describe: To report a system or component by its type or other observed, significant characteristics to distinguishit from other systems or components.Differential Settlement: Uneven or variable settlement of building foundations due to non-uniform earth support. 12
  13. 13. Dismantle: To take apart or remove any component, device or piece of equipment that would not be taken apartor removed by a homeowner in the course of normal and routine homeowner maintenance.Draft Hood: A device built into an appliance, or made a part of the vent connection from an appliance, which isdesigned to (1) insure the ready escape of the products of combustion in the event of no draft, back draft orstoppage beyond the draft hood; (2) prevent a back draft from entering the appliance; (3) neutralize the effect ofstack action of the vent upon the operation of the appliance.Ducts: Conduits for distributing warm and cool air.Easy access: Getting access for inspection purposes into areas or openings that were specifically designed andinstalled for a normal sized person to enter into or to pass through in a safe physical manner. Also, see "ReadilyAccessible".Eaves: The edge or edges of the roof, which usually overhang the walls and cast off the water that walls on theroof.Efflorescence: A powdery crust that forms as a result of evaporation. Usually found on masonry walls.Fascia: A flat, horizontal board enclosing the overhang at the eaves.Flashing: Sheet metal or other impervious material used in roof and wall construction to protect buildingmaterials from water seepage.Flue Lining: Fireproof materials lining a chimney.Flue Pipe: A pipe connecting the fire chamber of a boiler or furnace with a chimney. Also known as a smokepipe.Foundation: Construction, below or partly below grade, which provides support for exterior walls or otherstructural parts of a building.Functional: When something is in good working order or working at the moment.Functional Drainage: A drain is functional when it empties in reasonable time frame and is not subject tooverflow when one of the faucets is left on.Functional Flow: Sufficient flow of water to keep the highest fixture (commode) in a dwelling clean when twofixtures are operated simultaneously.Further Evaluation: Examination and analysis by a qualified professional, tradesman or service technicianbeyond that provided by the home inspection.Grade: A reference plane representing the average finished ground level adjoining the building at all exteriorwalls.Grade Beam: A reinforced concrete beam, spanning between piers and in contact with the earth used forsupporting wall or columns construction.Grandfathered: An exception that allows an old rule, building code, standard or customary practice to continueto apply to existing conditions, when a new rule, building code, or standard will apply to all future situations. 13
  14. 14. Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI): A GFCI is a microprocessor that compares a current in the neutralwire (ground wire) with that in the hot wire. If this differs by approximately 5 mA (5 milli amps = 0.005 A), theGFCI will disconnect the circuit in about 1/40th of a second (25 milliseconds). GFCI can be in the main panel box(circuit breaker) or in an outlet (receptacle).Habitable Room: A room designed and used for living, sleeping, eating or cooking, or a combination thereof.Bathrooms, toilet compartments (water closets), closets, halls, storage spaces, laundry and utility rooms are notconsidered habitable rooms.Home Inspection: The process by which an inspector visually examines the readily accessible systems andcomponents of a home and which describes those systems and components in accordance with these Standards ofPractice.Joist: A series of floor or ceiling framing members.Masonry: A construction of units of such materials as clay, shale, concrete, glass, gypsum or stone, set in mortar.Moisture Protection: Safe guarding living units against the penetration or passage of water, water vapor anddampness.Normal Operating Controls: Device such as thermostats, switches or valves that are operated by thehomeowner.Normal wear and tear: Normal wear and tear is a concept for which there is no real definitive measurement.Normal wear and tear is the normal deterioration that occurs over the course of time when property, items orcomponents are used as intended and not abused. Normal wear and tear is not the result of negligence or anaccident.Operate: To cause appliances to run and function, such as turning up the thermostat on an activated heatingsystem.P-trap: A section of waste pipe that holds water and prevents sewer gases from escaping into the house.Parging: The process of applying a coat of mortar to masonry construction.Plenum: An air compartment or chamber to which one or more duct are connected and which form part of an airdistribution system. Generally, found on a furnace.Point Up: To fill and finish the joints of masonry with cement or mortar.Rafter: A sloping rib member of a roof.Readily Accessible: Available for visual inspection without requiring moving of personal property, dismantling,destructive measures, or any action which will likely involve risk to persons or property.Register (vent): An opening from which air travels from ducts into a room.Report: To communicate in writing. 14
  15. 15. Representative Number: One component per room for multiple similar interior components such as windowsand electric outlets; one component on each side of the building for multiple similar exterior components.Ridge Board: The horizontal structural member at the top of a roof where the rafters meet.Roof Pitch: The degree of slope to a roof.Shakes: Hand cut wood shingles.Shut Down: A state in which a system or component cannot be operated by normal operating controls.Shim: A thin tapered piece of wood used to level a pier, etc.Significantly Deficient: A system or component that is unsafe or not functioning.Sill Plate: Horizontal wood member that provides bearing and anchorage for floors, located on top of foundationwalls.Soffit: The under side of a cornice at the eaves.Structural Component: A component that supports non-variable forces or weights (dead loads) and variableforces or weights (live loads).Stud: A vertical framing member in a wall or partition.Sump: A pit in a basement or crawl space floor into which water drains, to be pumped out with a sump pump.Swale: A wide shallow depression or channel for the collection and disposal of surface water.Technically Exhaustive: An investigation that involves dismantling, the extensive use of advanced techniques,measurements, instruments, testing, calculations, or other means.Ton of Refrigeration: The rate of removing heat equal to 12,000 Btus/hr.Under-floor Crawl Space: The area within the confines of the foundation and between the ground and theunderside of the lowest structural member.Ufer: A concrete encased grounding electrode or electric grounding connected to foundation reinforcing rods.Unsafe: A condition in a readily accessible, installed system or component that is judged to be a significant riskof personal injury during normal, day-to-day use. The risk may be due to damage, deterioration, improperinstallation or a change in accepted residential construction standards.Usable: Capable of being used as designed or intended.Vent Pipe: A pipe allowing gas to escape from plumbing waste system.Ventilation: Supply and removal of air.Voltage: The pressure behind the flow of electricity, measured in terms of volts. 15
  16. 16. Wattage: The amount of electricity flowing through a line, measured in terms of watts. Voltage time amperageequals wattage. 16