Manual de evaluación participativa

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Manual de evaluación participativa

  1. 1. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International1© Dr. Ravi I. Jayakaran, QPI-GMS®, June 2007Prepared for the CHE program team working in 76 villages in Cambodia as part of Cambodia Global Action.Made available throughspecial funding support from Samaritans Purse InternationalDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  2. 2. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International2Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  3. 3. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International3Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  4. 4. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International4Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  5. 5. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International5Photographs in this manual are by author unless otherwise specified.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  6. 6. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International6Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  7. 7. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International7Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  8. 8. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International8This manual is dedicated to the poor and marginalized in Cambodia, and tothe task of equipping CGA staff to become good Participatory Evaluators whowill continue to seek to improve the performance of their programs and becommitted to Continueous Quality Improvement (CQI).Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  9. 9. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International9A user Guide and ManuallDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  10. 10. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International10Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualPhoto: Joanna Bryden
  11. 11. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International11Chief Consultant: Strategy & Development ProgrammingQuality Professional Interfaces-GMS®CambodiaDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  12. 12. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International12Index:Chapter Subject Page number1. Introduction2. Cleaning up the design Matrix3. Background and Principles of Participation4. The Uniqueness of Qualitative informationDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  13. 13. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International135. Types of groups to be interviewed and documentation6. Using the Manual7. Scheduling & Evaluation design8. General information at village level9. Purpose of Evaluating Programs10. Stage when Evaluation should be done11. Strategy for Evaluation (How)12. Preparing for an evaluation:13. Stakeholder analysisDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  14. 14. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International1414. Difference between Monitoring & Evaluation15. Annual reviews and Ministry Reviews16. CQI and Strategic Planning17. Determining what to do18. Planning ways to do it19. Designing a tailor-made Evaluation20. Various Participatory Exercises21. o Country profile22. o Impact-1: Community health improvedDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  15. 15. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International1523. o Impact-2: Family Food security status improved24. o Impact-3: Increased capacity to manage their own lives25. o Impact-4: Community infrastructure provided26. o Expenditure analysis – at Macro level27. o Uncertainity analysis – at Macro level28. o Problem analaysis – at Macro level29. o Livelihood analysis – at Macro level30. o Wholistic Worldview Analysis (WWVA)31. o Community Attitude to CHE programDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  16. 16. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International1632. o Community Attitude to Christ33. o Community Attitude to the Change agentIndex (contd…)Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  17. 17. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International17Chapter Subject Page number34. o Grouping of villages according to their performance35. o Key stakeholders in the development process36. o Stakehoder analysis (in a successful village)37. o Stakehoder analysis (in a partly successful village)38. o Stakehoder analysis (in a village with low results)39. o Uncertainity Analysis at village level40. o Problem Analysis at village level41. o Livelihood Analysis at village levelDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  18. 18. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International1842. o Expenditure analysis at village level43. o Community level program inventory44. The Default Priority Profile - DPP45. The Value Change Index46. EEIRS (Efficiency, Effecitveness,Impact,Relevance, Surstainability)test for the overall performance of the organization47. Acronyms used in this manual48. Conclusion49. Notes on the TSTDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  19. 19. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International1950. Additional readingDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  20. 20. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International20Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  21. 21. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International211. Introduction:Samaritan’s Purse International Relief (SP) is Christian Non-GovernmentalOrganization that has been providing relief to people in need around the world since1970. For the past 23 years, SP has helped meet the needs of victims of war,poverty, natural disasters, disease and famine. SP responds quickly, appropriatelyand has been active in over 100 countries worldwide. Although largely donorfunded, SPIR has successfully partnered with donors such as USAID, CIDA, DFID,UNICEF, WFP and UNHCR.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  22. 22. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International22For almost 10 years, SP has been helping to provide financial and human resourcesto a variety of local and international NGOs operating in Cambodia. Most recently,SP has ventured into a partnership with Cambodia Global Action (CGA) to grow theirCHE programming with animal husbandry and village credit programmes. TheSeeds of Hope programme offers seed resources for animal banks, impactmonitoring and CHE trainings to over 80 CHE committees throughout Cambodia. Itis SP’s long term desire to open this programme to other CHE-based projects beingmanaged by other LNGOs in Cambodia. This relationship with CGA is considered apilot of more expansive programmes for others working with the CHE methodology.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  23. 23. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International23CGA is a local Christian NGO with CHE programming for over 5 years in 76 villagesacross 9 program units with 16 sub project units at a commune level.1) Kompong Speu 1. Kandal Dom Commune, Chbaa Mon District2. Mohasaing Commune, Phnom Srouch District2) Kandal (Khien Svay) 3. Dey Eth Commune, Khien Svay District4. Bantey Dek Commune, Khien Svay District3) Kandal (Saang) 5. Svay Rolum Commune, Saan DistrictDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  24. 24. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International246. Kos Anlong Chin Commune, Saang District4) Kampong Cham 7. Teuk Chroow Commune, Dambae District8. Chong Cheach Commune, Dambae District9. Nean Toet Commune, Dambae District5) Phnom Penh (Dangko) 10. Trapean Kransang Commune, Dangkor6) Kampot 11. Andong Khmae Commune, Kampong Bay12. Meak Prang Commune, Kampot District7) Siem Reap (Pouk) 13. Keo Por Commune, Pouk District8) Takeo (Bati) 14. Trapeang Krasang Commune, Bati District9) Stung Treng 15. Samahki Commune, Stung Treng DistrictDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  25. 25. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International25This Manual has been Tailor-made for the CHE program of CGA but hasprinciples that can be adopted in other programs too.2.Cleaning up the deign Matrix (Making the Log frame Evaluation friendly):Before carrying out an Evaluation, one must ensure that the design Matirix (PDM-Project Design Matrix) that forms part of the Log frame for the projects programs isproperly streamlined so that activities result in Out-puts of significance, and thatDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  26. 26. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International26these in turn end up together having an Impact. A series of 3 or 4 Impacts then leadin the direction of enabling the Project or Program achieving its Objectives or Goals.Evaluations are carried out at the Impact level, hence, if the Design Matrix isntproperly integrated, it will be difficult to Evaluate or attribute success to any particularprogram. In reviewing the design of the CHE program of CGA, we found that therewas some misalignment of the activities, Outputs and impacts. Time was thereforetaken to re-align these so that they fitted more correctly into a logical sequence. Thedetails of the revised Matrix are seen below:Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualImpact I: Improved Community Health AchievementOutput I.1: Improved Primary HealthcareActivity I.1.1: Community Health ScreeningOutput I.2: Improved Water/SanitationActivity I.2.1: LatrinesActivity I.2.2: WellsActivity I.2.3: Soap DistributionActivity I.2.4: Water FiltersOutput I.3: Improved NutritionActivity I.3.1: Home GardenActivity I.3.2: Rice BankActivity I.3.3: Rice StorageOutput I.4: Improved EnvironmentActivity I.4.1: Organic Pig PenActivity I.4.2: Earth Worm RaisingActivity I.4.3: Garbage ManagementActivity I.4.4: Compost PitActivity I.4.5: Fruit Tree NurseriesActivity I.4.6: Bio GasActivity I.4.7: Natural Pesticide
  27. 27. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International27The same principle was applied to all the Impact areas as follow:Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  28. 28. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International28Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualImpact II: Family Food Security Increased AchievementOutput II.1: Micro-Enterprises IncreasedActivity II.1.1: CreditActivity II.1.2: Rice Straw MushroomActivity II.1.3: Soybean SeedActivity II.1.4: Self Help GroupActivity II.1.5: Food ProcessingActivity II.1.6: Fish PondsOutput II.2: Animal Raising IncreasedActivity II.2.1: Chicken RaisingActivity II.2.2: Cow BankActivity II.2.3: Goat BankActivity II.2.4: Pig Bank
  29. 29. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International29Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualImpact III: Increased Capacity to Manage Their Lives AchievementOutput III.1: Improved Spiritual LivesActivity III.1.1: Video EventsActivity III.1.2: EducationOutput III.2: Improved Basic EducationActivity III.2.1: Village Livestock Agent ProjectsActivity III.2.2 Literacy ClassActivity III.2.3: TrainingActivity III.2.4: Family CompetitionOutput III.3: Improved Community StructureActivity III.3.1: VDCs, PMCs, CHEs and CHE ModelImpact IV: Community Infrastructure and Relief Provided AchievementsOutput IV.1: Community Infrastructure CreatedActivity IV.1.1: Road Repairing (Food for Work)Activity IV.1.2: Water Reservoir (Food for Work)Activity IV.1.3: School Construction with CommunityParticipationActivity IV.1.4: Sewage System with CommunityParticipation
  30. 30. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International30Once this sorting out was done, it became relatively easy to decide what theframework for the Participatory Evaluation should be.3. Back ground and Principles of Participation:Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  31. 31. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International31The TST (which has been described in detail in the briefing notes in Chapter 46) isused a great deal now in the Greater Mekong Sub-region for Participatorydevelopment programs. One of the biggest advantages with this technique is that itallows for discussion of information that is otherwise sensitive to handle. Besidesthis, while using the seeds and grouping them to depict information, there is thecreation of a visual that tremendously enhances the quality of discussions. Alsobecause of their ‘non-threatening nature’ the seeds allow group members to feel freeto express themselves openly and frankly. It is important while facilitating the groupdiscussions to ensure that all members in the group get a fairly equal opportunity toshare their views and that they are not dominated over by any group members andDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  32. 32. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International32coerced into agreeing to a ‘uni-polar’ view. This therefore means that the groupshould be of an optimum size of 7-9 members (discussed again later) for bestresults.Facilitation is an art. In fact it is a way of life! Care must be taken to ensure that thecore evaluation team members get ample input to develop their capacities tobecome good facilitators. This applies also to those who will be added to the coreteam in later months. All of them must go through the basic training and go throughthe pre requisite orientation to ensure that they do not become ‘manipulators’ ofopinions, but rather become good facilitators who are able to bring out from theDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  33. 33. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International33group they are facilitating, their true and real opinions. The purpose of ParticipatoryEvaluation is to get an honest picture of what we are doing and the type of impactwe are having…not to fool ourselves into believing that everything is perfect!!While facilitating, ensure that there is adequate time available for the exercise. Thisinvolves planning well in advance and ensuring that all members of the group arecomfortable. It is often a good idea to have some fruit available for communityparticipants especially as the day moves on close to lunch time or toward theevening. Before starting the facilitator ensures that at least one person has beengiven the task of documentation of all the discussions. Working in teams is importantDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  34. 34. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International34for this reason. After the group has been comfortably seated, introduce the purposeof the exercise, the methodology and then proceed. All other prerequisites by way ofmaterials required, and preparation are mentioned in the notes for each exercise.4. The uniqueness of Qualitative information:Qualitative in formation has a different mandate from Quantitative information. Thismust always be remembered by the Evaluater. While preparing the report one mustcapture the uniqueness of the context that will emerge when facilitation is done well.Each site must have the same number of exercises conducted for uniformity. UnlikeDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  35. 35. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International35quantitative information, the outcome of the exercises will be a narrative documentwith the visuals of each exercise in it. Comparing between sites is therefore is not somuch a matter of something being ‘better than’ or ‘worse than’ but a matter oflooking for linkages and learning from the composite information.Qualitative information allows for obtaining width as well as depth to the informationand this is what gives it its richness. To begin with, the principle is to ‘cast the netwide’ and get as much width from the information as possible. When something isseen to be significant, it is good to go into depth and probe as much as possible forhints of reasons and causes. In some cases it may even be possible to carry outDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  36. 36. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International36case studies of people who are seriously affected. This often throws light on realityin a most unusual way. For example, we may facilitate through awareness andcapacity building, ‘sexual negotiation skills’, but the whole issue of condomavailability in the village may be the biggest stumbling block. Again, even if condomsare available in the village, who they are available with may become an issue! Againin conservative society, it may be difficult for girls to ask questions of clarification onissues that are not immediately clear, and the findings may be to just go ahead andlist some of the questions that ‘normally arise’ and answer them.5. Types of groups to be interviewed & Documentation:Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  37. 37. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International37The Evaluation process involves interviewing individuals, and small homogenousgroup such as a government department where only one person may function as aspokesperson or with a small group where everyone is free to participate. Thetechnical term for the first type is ‘Key informant interview’ or KII. The second type isreferred to as a ‘semi- structured interview’ or SSI, and the third one is referred to asa focused Group discussion. The exercises designed for this manual are allspecifically designed for Focused Group Discussions (FGDs), but they can alsobe used for the SSI and the KII. The dynamics of group interaction allows fortriangulation (correction and modification by others in the group) of theDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  38. 38. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International38information.However in both KII and SSI there is no scope for Traingulation. Theideal size of a FGD is 7 to 9 members. Care should be taken to get a randomrepresentation along with reasonable gender balance and age balance (whenrelevant). Those selected must have a good idea about the topic so that they can allparticipate and contribute to the discussion. In the design of each exercise, it hasbeen recommended (where relevant) to also discuss and share the findings of theFGD with a larger group to ensure that they also share the same views. When this isnot the case, a note should be made in the document of the changes that weresuggested. Also, ensure that the original flip chart is left behind with the members ofDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  39. 39. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International39the FGD or some responsible person at the site. This means that the documentermust copy the final visual also as part of her/his documentation.Documentation: Each exercise has a code that begins with ‘PE’ followed by anumber. During the Pilot assessment, orientation and training, the core team will beshown how to use this exercise code and also determine some guiding questionsthat would be useful to facilitate the FGD. While the facilitator is facilitating the groupdiscussion, the documenter will note (as bullet points) all the important points thatemerge. At the end of the discussion he/she will also copy the visual. At the end ofthe day, each team will look at the exercises that it has completed and read throughDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  40. 40. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International40the documentation, highlighting the important points. This also helps edit out pointsthat have repeated themselves in the course of documentation. The highlightedpoints are synthesized into a summary that is about 1-2 paragraphs in length. Tosummarize, each exercise will have the following:• The Code with guiding questions• A copy of the visual• A transcript of the discussions with important points highlighted• A summary of the important points.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  41. 41. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International41The summaries (written in sequence) will constitute the site summary. The originalcopy of the visuals and code with transcript (as mentioned above) will be preservedin a box file at the main office for reference when required. As mentioned earlier, theoriginal flip chart on which discussions were carried out and which has the original‘visual’ must be left behind at the site with the group interviewed.6. Using the Manual:Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  42. 42. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International42The following are the various parts of each exercise, as described in the succeedingchapters. Each chapter uses the same format. This has specially been written thisway so that it is extremly user friendly and each exercise has all the details of whatneeds to be done. Every facilitator must study this clearly and understand thedesign.7. Scheduling and Evaluation design:Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  43. 43. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International43The following exercises will require between 2-3 full days for one team to carry out ina village. The ideal team will consist of three members, whose roles will beinterchangeable:1. A team leader: to help with logistics, encourage group members toparticipate, counter domination, and also prepare for the next exercise so thatthere isn’t any wastage of time in transitioning from one exercise to the other.The team leader will also be responsible for Filtering offand dominant peoplein the group and for documenting case studies when they emerge.2. A Facilitator: to facilitate the exercises as plannedDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  44. 44. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International443. A documenter: to document the details of the discussionsAlternately, if the PE team members work in teams of 5 and are located in the sameplace during the assessment, they can have one common team leader for two teamsof two each. Each of the teams will have a facilitator and a documenter. Theschedule for carrying out the exercises and the groups with which it should becarried out should be planned out in advance, before going to the village.After completing the exercises the following is the Filing profile for individual exercisereports:Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  45. 45. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International45Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  46. 46. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International46CODE:PPAE..01CODE of theexercise alongwith name,and guidingquestionsThe visualThe transcript ofthe discussions(with importantinformationhighlighted)Summary ofthe exerciseDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  47. 47. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International47Shown above is the format used for the recording of the details of each exercise.These original documents should be stored in a box file at the CHE/CGA office inPhnom Penh. The code mentioned below in the summary as well as the individualDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  48. 48. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International48exercise documentation enables the reference of the original papers when additionalor detail information is sought.Coding pattern:PE-01Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualParticipatoryEvaluationExercise number
  49. 49. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International498.General Information (at Village Level): At each site, obtain the followinginformation that is relevant to the site and will help the team understand the detailsof what is happening in the process at the particular site. The following format showshow to fill the information and the last column also shows where the information canbe obtained:Details of information SourceName of the Village staffDate of starting the Program staffDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  50. 50. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International50Type of School ( Primary / Secondary) Village chiefTotal land area of the village Village chiefPopulation density = Popn./ land area in KM2 CalculateInfant mortality rate CalculateVaccination levels Use TSTRatio of Doctors to population CalculateAverage rice production per hectare Village chiefAverage rainfall in the area School Atlas ofDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  51. 51. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International51Cambodia (P.12)Poverty rate (Neik Krao) RFSAPoverty rate (Neik Tual Krao) RFSA% of population with access to clean water TST% of children in school TST% of community migrating out every year TSTVisible display of acknowledgement of donor contribution to the Program: (Y/N)Note: Photo copy this template and get information for each village where ParticipatoryEvaluation is being done.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  52. 52. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International52The general information on each village will enable the Evaluators to see whatprogress has been made in the village over the years and also enable theidentification of areas which are still below standard.9.Purpose of Evaluating Programs: If there is one thing that gets neglected in theproject and Program cycle, it is the Evaluation of the impact of the program atperiodic intervals. When a program is launched, it is done on the basis of someassumptions. These assumptions of imact are assumed to be the result of a group ofoutputs, which in turn are the result of a group of activities. When the program isactually put into place, some of these assumptions may not work out, or the impactDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  53. 53. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International53may turn out to be different from what was intended. If the program is howeverevaluated every two or three years, the actual impact can be determined and this willhelp the management detrmine if the startegy employed was appropriate or not.Accordingly, corrections can be made in the program for bringing aboutimprovement, dropping activities that are not relevant, or introducing new programsthat may be required for corrective action. An evaluation is an excellent opportunityto look back at what has been achieved against the planned objective or goal of theprogram. It enables the Management of the program to see what progress has beenachieved and celebrate it. The next section will talk about the time and stage whenvarious evaluations are possible in greater detail.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  54. 54. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International5410.Stage when Evaluation should be done: There are different stages when anevaluation can be done. Smaller, and more focussed evaluations can be done atvarious stages of the Project or Program cycle as seen in the diagram.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  55. 55. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International55EVALUATIONSDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  56. 56. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International56For this, various aspects of the program cycle such as needs assessment, Planning,Implementation and monitoring system in place are evaluated. This type ofEvaluation is manily done when there are implications of a new methodology or aprogram that requires wider implementation, and for which the initial pilot programis to serve as a model. These evaluations are shorter in duration and may requirepeople who are specialists on the program component that is being evaluated.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  57. 57. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International57PHASE OUT3YRSEOP-EProgram Life cycle and EvaluationSEED PHASE 1ST 5 YEAR DESIGN2YRS 5 YRSQUALITATIVE(PLA)QUANTITATIVE(30 CLUSTER HHSSECONDARYDATAE-11ST 5 YEAR DESIGN 2ND 5-YEAR DESIGN5 YRS 5 YRSE-2 E-4E-1E-3The third evaluation helpsplan the phase out design ofthe project.Dr.Ravi Jayakaran: WV CambodiaE-2 E-5Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  58. 58. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International58For larger, long term projects and programs, it is necessary to build in Evaluations atthe end of each phase. Ideally, evaluations should be done at a 2-3 year interval,which means that the longer phases will get an additional mid-term evaluation also.Often, with projects and programs, the weakness is that at the time of writing theproposal, not provision was made for evaluations. They then try to look desperatelyfor a budget when they require and evaluation and it often ends up as an unplanned,shallow and shoddy affair. Ensure that you budget for evaluations at regular intervalswhen you design your program. This will ensure that planning is also done withevaluations in mind, namely that program people will always be conscious that theDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  59. 59. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International59program will be evaluated for impact. Evaluation reports when positive can open upthe door for new and additional funding.11.Strategy for evaluations: The Program design Matrix is the framework aroundwhich the evaluation is conducted. This therefore requires for the design to be wellthought through and for activities, outputs and impacts to be integrated. In an earlierchapter we discussed that this needs to be cleaned up if not done already beforestarting the evaluation. The principle then is to start with the Macro and then movedown to the output level. As in the case of the CHE PDM, there are 4 main impactareas. The first step therefore is to see what impact has been achieved under eachimpact area, namely improving health, improving household food secuity, increasingDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  60. 60. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International60capacity to manage their lives and creating new infrastructure. Changes in the livesof the community in these areas is explored and studied. Evaluations can be donebased on quantitative data or qualitative data or a combination of both. Forquantitative data to be of use, one must however have details in the form of abaseline carried out at the start of the project. This manual details how to usequalitative techniques for carrying out an evaluation.12.Preparing for an Evaluation:Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  61. 61. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International61In preparing for an evaluation, one has to determine what aspects of the impact ofthe project are to be evaluated and by what means. For some of the aspects, therewill be quantitative data available in terms of the numbers of deliverables that ahavealready been generated by the program such as wells, or water filters, or latrinesetcetra. This data should be documented for each of the activities and outputs undereach impact area. These are available for review in the Appendix that accompaniesthis document. These hard numbers will show how progress has been made overthe years and will especially be useful for the donor to be certain that their moneywas used wisely in producing the outputs that were planned. The evaluation doesntstop here, but goes further to also measure how those outputs which wereDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  62. 62. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International62generated as part of the project activity impacted the lives of the community that waspart of the target of the community. Staff teams are made and then they go alongwith external representatives to places other than where they normally work, to carryout the evaluation. Where possible, case studies are also developed of examples ofboth success and failure, so that they can be valuable lessons learned. After theevaluation is scheduled and starts, the external evaluator randomly visits some ofthe sites, to see how objectively the evaluators are doing their work. The exposure toother areas of work within the project also gives the staff a chance to see how theircolleagues are working. There is cross fertilization of perspectives and they alsoDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  63. 63. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International63draw new insights and lessons from the whole process. At the end of the evaluation,there is opportunity to debrief and share ideas and lessons learned.13.Stakeholder analysis:Another pre-requesisite for the evaluation is to carry out a stakeholder analysis.This consists of finding out who the potential stakeholders are for the informationthat is likely to emerge from the evaluation.The stakeholder analysis is done usingthe TST and determining details with a focus group that consists of membersrepresenting the donors, the Board, the Management team and if possible one of theDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  64. 64. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International64community leaders from the target area. The following page shos an example of howa stakeholder analysis looks. In the process of this Analysis we try to assess whateach stakeholders stakeis the outcome of the evaluation. We also find out whattheir principle interest is in the evaluation and this enables us to determine theframework for the evaluation and identify the issues that need to be studied.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  65. 65. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International65•For self assessment and forimproving impact and programmodificationStaff• For improving further collaborationOther partners•As an exercise to empower them andfor greater accountabilityCommunity benefitingfrom the program•For ensuring there is good impact andfor CQI (Continuous QualityimprovementManagement team•To ensure that the program isprogressing wellBoard of Directors• To assess how well Fund was given•To consider future fundingDonor (existing and potential new ones)Remarks if anyWhat they areinterested inKeystakeholdersDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  66. 66. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International66At the end of the evaluation, this stakeholder analysis enables us also to detrmine ifwe have found out all the information we intend to find out about.14.The difference between Monitoring & Evaluation:While the words Monitoring & Evaluation are often used together, there is a bigdifference that exists between the two of them. Monitoring is something that is ofetendone by the staff involved with the program activity and their supervisors. While thesupervisor doesnt normally do all the monitoring, he or she should slowly develop asystem of keeping track of progress in terms of completion of activities and what hasDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  67. 67. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International67been achieved in less measure than was intended. Monitoring is essentially a largelyselfdone and self assessed activity. Monitoring is also done at the output level, andthis may be done at 6 monthly or annual intervals, as compared to the previous onein which activities are monitored at a monthly or quarterly interval. Evaluation, on theother hand is done at a 2-3 year interval when it is actually possible to assess whatthe impact of the program has been on the lives of the people. Some people alsoDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  68. 68. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International68Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualWhenapproaching theend of the projectFinalEvaluationGoalOnce in 2-3 yearsEvaluationImpact level6 monthly andannuallyMonitoring andreviewOutput levelMonthly andquarterlyMonitoringActivity levelFrequencyType ofassessmentDimension
  69. 69. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International69add an addition dimesion to their assessment by having an annual review. Thisessentially consists of have a look at all that the program did over the past year anddocumenting the results of these.15.Annual Reviews and Ministry reviews:When there are several ongoing programs and activities continue over severalyears, it also makes sense to introduce a Ministry review every 5 years or so, tostudy and recognize what the program is actually busy with, and if parts of it can bechanged and reviewed. As with evaluations, It is always good to get an externalperson to facilitate the Ministry review, whicle the annual reviews can be done byDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  70. 70. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International70existing staff with the rpecaution of getting them to review in places other than wherethey work on a daily basis. Both these exercises should be followed by reflection andcorrection to programs and activities, and ofcourse, a celebration of achievements.16.CQI & Strategic Planning:The annual reviews and the evaluations result in corrective changes forimprovement of the focus of the programs and for greater efficiency and impact.These corrective changes facilitate what is known as a process of CQI or ContinousQuality Improvement. The Evaluations and the Ministry reviews on the other handfeed into the process of Strategic direction planning or Strategic planning and ofetnDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  71. 71. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International71usher in major changes in the programs, enhancement of activities or changes in theprogram portfolio so that the organization achieves its goals to a greater extent.17. Determining what to do:It is important to determine what to do in advance and schedule this carefully. Goodplanning will enable the evaluation team to achieve much in its time of evaluating.When an organization experiences evaluations for the first time in its life, and thereisnt an evaluation design available in advance, it might be useful to carry out a pilotassessment to determine what needs to be done. This method was adopted in theCGA-CHE program that had not had an evaluation in its several years of being inDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  72. 72. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International72operation. Carrying out the pilot assessment helps in puuting together atailormadedesign for the evaluation process.18.Planning what to do:After the list of exercises are determined, the evaluation team meets together inpreperation and all members are given necessary orientation and or training forcarrying out the same before they go to the variuos sites for the evaluation.19.Designing a tailor-made evaluation:Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  73. 73. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International73As described above, the evaluation of the CGA-CHE program was first subject to apilot assessment, to determine what programs should be assessed, and then basedon what was practically possible the evaluation framework and design weretailormade for the needs of the organization. Once established, this can nowbecome the norm for future evaluations, with specific additional exercises beingadded to this based on information that may be required to write future programproposals or to fulfill donor needs.20. Various Participatory Evaluation exercises: Based on the pilot assessment, itwas determined that some 25 Participatory evaluation exercises be designed forDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  74. 74. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International74collecting the information that is required by the program and potential donors forfuture programming and funding. By carrying out these exercises, the program willbe able to generate information on various aspects of its work to be able todetermine impact and also identify areas which need to be discontinued or modifiedfor better impact. Failure is not something to be ashamed of or worried about. Toquote a famour innovater, "Errors are not mistakes, they are innovations gonewrong". Every failure is thus an opportunity for change, modication andimprovement!Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  75. 75. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International75The following are the detailed descriptions of the exercises that can be done in thefield for getting needed information. Each exercise has descriptions and an examplefrom actual use in the field:21.Country profile: This exercise consists of carrying out a macro profile of thecountry where the program is operating. In generating some of the basicdemographic details of the country the Program team mebers learn where to getvarious bits of information. For Cambodia the main sources from where informationcan be obtained are: The Ministry of Planning, The National Institute of Statistics,Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  76. 76. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International76The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS) and from the Atlas ofCambodia and the school Atlas of Cambodia (available at Monument book stores).Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  77. 77. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International776/15/2007 Ravi Jayakaran / ParticipatoryEvaluations11:3124Health facility (doctors: Population)252Total number of High schools670Total number of Secondary schools1429Total number of Primary schools8628Total number of schools74Population density/ Square KM35Poverty rate (extreme poor)79%Literacy rate (15-44 age group)1400mmAverage rainfall (annual)1967/hRice produced (Kg /Hectare)13694Total villages185Number of Districts24Number of ProvincesIn CHE’s cover areaIn all ofCambodiaDetailsDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  78. 78. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International78Generating this information in the format shown above, and matching it withinformation from the full area where the CGA-CHE program operates, enables theteam to see which areas it has been able to achieve a critical concentrationpresence for tipping the balancein favour of change.Besides doing this at a countryoffice level, the program should also fill details in ateach field centre level. This information also comes in handy for lobbying for changeand advocacy with the decision makers for changing the situation in a particulararea.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  79. 79. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International79Code Number: PE- 01 Time required: 20-25 minutesName of the exercise: Impact-1: Impact of Improved community health.Materials required: Flip charts, marker pens, seeds, masking tape.Preparation: Read the Briefing notes on the TST, and after the focus group ofProgram staff responsible for this impact has been briefed about what is expected ofthem, proceed with the exercise.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  80. 80. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International80Example:Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  81. 81. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International816/15/2007 Ravi Jayakaran / ParticipatoryEvaluations2• Some people still don’t havelatrines•Don’t wash hand regularly•Some don’t have water filters•Still lack clean water for all•Children still dirty•Some people still don’t have arubbish pit•Use latrines•Know how to prevent disease•Use water filters•Reduced water Bourne disease•Multiply knowledge on health•Clean environment•Reduced health expenses•Increased vaccination•Get ANC (Ante Natal care)DetailsTSTDetailsTSTYet to be achievedAchieved alreadyMacro picture in the 76 villages where CHE worksDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  82. 82. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International82Steps involved: Ask the Focus group to group the seeds together into 2 groups,one depicting the impact that has already taken place and the other showing theimpact that is yet to take place. After there is consensus on this, the group is askedto give details of actual and specific impact in terms of new acquisitions, innovationsand changes under impact achieved and areas of shortcomings in the second group.Analysis of the information: In the example above, we find that around 60 % ofexpected impact has been achieved, while 40 % on the impact is still to be achieved.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  83. 83. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International83Details of these provide us information on what can be celebrated and what stillneeds focused attention for future improvement.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  84. 84. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International84Code Number: PE- 02 Time required: 15-20 minutesName of the exercise: Impact-2: Impact of Improved Houshold foodsecurity status.Materials required: Flip charts, marker pens, seeds, masking tape.Preparation: Read the Briefing notes on the TST, and after the focus group ofProgram staff responsible for this impact has been briefed about what is expected ofthem, proceed with the exercise.Example:Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  85. 85. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International856/15/2007 Ravi Jayakaran / ParticipatoryEvaluations3• Some people are still lazy to startof their own business•Some people still continue to usethe old techniques•Some people don’t want to havetheir own home gardens•Some people are able to establishtheir own business•Started using the techniques•Some people are able to growvegetables for their families for thewhole yearDetailsTSTDetailsTSTYet to be achievedAchieved alreadyMacro picture in the 76 villages where CHE worksDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  86. 86. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International86Steps involved: Ask the Focus group to group the seeds together into 2 groups,one depicting the impact that has already taken place and the other showing theimpact that is yet to take place. After there is consensus on this, the group is askedto give details of actual and specific impact in terms of new acquisitions, innovationsand changes under impact achieved and areas of shortcomings in the second group.Analysis of the information: In the example above, we find that around 40 % ofexpected impact has been achieved, while 60 % on the impact is still to be achieved.Details of these provide us information on what can be celebrated and what stillDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  87. 87. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International87needs focused attention for future improvement. In Foodsecurity statusimprovement, it is obvious that a lot of improvement is required.Code Number: PE- 03 Time required: 20-25 minutesName of the exercise: Impact-3: Impact of Increased capacity to manage their ownlives.Materials required: Flip charts, marker pens, seeds, masking tape.Preparation: Read the Briefing notes on the TST, and after the focus group ofProgram staff responsible for this impact has been briefed about what is expected ofthem, proceed with the exercise.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  88. 88. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International88Example:Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  89. 89. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International896/15/2007 Ravi Jayakaran / ParticipatoryEvaluations4•Some members of the communityhave not got the techniques of SRIAnd the improved Veterinarytechniques•Technique of SRI•Technique of the Veterinarian•Know How to take care of theirown health•Know how to increase theirincome•Know about being Gendersensitive•Have good management of theirown familiesDetailsTSTDetailsTSTYet to be achievedAchieved alreadyMacro picture in the 76 villages where CHE worksDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  90. 90. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International90Steps involved: Ask the Focus group to group the seeds together into 2 groups,one depicting the impact that has already taken place and the other showing theimpact that is yet to take place. After there is consensus on this, the group is askedto give details of actual and specific impact in terms of new acquisitions, innovationsand changes under impact achieved and areas of shortcomings in the second group.Analysis of the information: In the example above, we find that around 60 % ofexpected impact has been achieved, while 40 % on the impact is still to be achieved.Details of these provide us information on what can be celebrated and what stillneeds focused attention for future improvement through greater or modified effort.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  91. 91. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International91Code Number: PE- 04 Time required: 20-25 minutesName of the exercise: Impact-4: Community infrastructure provided.Materials required: Flip charts, marker pens, seeds, masking tape.Preparation: Read the Briefing notes on the TST, and after the focus group ofProgram staff responsible for this impact has been briefed about what is expected ofthem, proceed with the exercise.Example:Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  92. 92. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International926/15/2007 Ravi Jayakaran / ParticipatoryEvaluations5•Community Bridge•Road•Big irrigation system•Many more schools required•Big sewage system•Many more Churches required•Electricity•Hospital•Clean water systems for largerpopulations•Farms•New school building•Church constructed•Village path developed•Health centre constructed•Sewage system developed•Irrigation system developed•Pond dug•Small farm establishedDetailsTSTDetailsTSTYet to be achievedAchieved alreadyMacro picture in the 76 villages where CHE worksDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  93. 93. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International93Steps involved: Ask the Focus group to group the seeds together into 2 groups,one depicting the impact that has already taken place and the other showing theimpact that is yet to take place. After there is consensus on this, the group is askedto give details of actual and specific impact in terms of new acquisitions, innovationsand changes under impact achieved and areas of shortcomings in the second group.Analysis of the information: In the example above, we find that only around 20 %of expected impact related to community infrastructure needs has been achieved,while 80 % on the impact is still to be achieved. Details of these provide usinformation on what can be celebrated and what still needs focused attention forDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  94. 94. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International94future improvement through greater or modified effort. However in CGA-CHEs casethis activity is used more as a way to provide some work opportunity as relief, afterdiasasters. In this sense the objective has been met.Code Number: PE- 05 Time required: 20-25 minutesName of the exercise: Macro-profile of expenditure analysis in the area of work.Materials required: Flip charts, marker pens, seeds, masking tape.Preparation: Read the Briefing notes on the TST, and after the focus group ofProgram staff responsible for this impact has been briefed about what is expected ofthem, proceed with the exercise.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  95. 95. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International95Example:Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  96. 96. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International966/15/2007 Ravi Jayakaran / ParticipatoryEvaluations6OtherOtherExpensesExpenses(ceremonies,(ceremonies,gasoline etc)gasoline etc)HealthHealthcarecareSchoolSchoolFoodFoodMacro picture – CHE Project area (76 villages)Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  97. 97. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International97Steps involved: Ask the Focus group to group the seeds together into variousgroups, depicting the various things that an avarage family in the community has byway of expenditire. After there is consensus on the ratios and components, adiagram is made as shown above.Analysis of the information: In the example above, we find that around 40% of thecommunitys expenditure is on food, followed by 30% on health care and 20% oneducation. Other expenditure related to transport, ceremoies etcetra account foranother 10%. As a thumb rule, a community that has a third of its expence on food isconsidered to be a poor community. This community also spends a lot on healthDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  98. 98. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International98care, hence anything done to reduce the cost of health care will also have a majorimpact on the community.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  99. 99. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International99Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  100. 100. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International100Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  101. 101. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International101Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  102. 102. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International102Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  103. 103. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International10346.Briefing notes on the TST (Ten Seed Technique) developed by Dr. RaviJayakaran (QPI-GMS®: (Extract from The ‘Participatory Poverty Alleviation &Development ‘ book written By Dr. Ravi Jayakaran and published by World VisionInternational China, April 2003 & Mekong Institute, Khon Kaen University, Thailand:CD ROM 2005.INTRODUCTION: The 10 seed technique is a modified PLA tool and was introducedafter a lot of modification and experimentation as a tool that can be used to carry outthe PLA-Participatory Learning and Action exercises. It is useful in gatheringqualitative information on various issues, especially related to the perceptions of theDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  104. 104. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International104community and the way people see themselves in relation to others. The techniqueis very flexible and therefore versatile enabling its use in combination with othertechniques and also for collecting a wide range of information. The 10 seedtechnique enables probing deeply into different dimensions of an issue, for carryingout what is referred to as “opening up” the information. This essentially involvesgoing deeper into an issue after starting at the absolute basic level. For example wefind out about the health status of a community and then go deeper into it to find outreasons for difference, link it with their wealth status and go further into exploring thetype of health care each group is able to access. This ‘opening up’ process can keepcontinuing as we find linkages to education level and attitudes.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  105. 105. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International105Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  106. 106. The Left and Right Brain…•Input device (H/S)•GIGO•Trained•Schooled•Formatted•Filing: Systematic•Limited by the‘schooling it gets’•Input device (H/S/T/T/S)•Visual•Perceptive•Analytical•Versatile•Filing: ”creative”•Immense capability•Access to sub-conscious mindLEFT RIGHTRavi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS/ DFID-UNDP-MoEYS training/Feb 2006Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International106Most of the traditional PLA exercises can be done using the 10 seed technique;hence this will be explained in considerable detail. Detailed information can beobtained from the web sites mentioned at the end of this chapter.PHILOSOPHY BEHIND THE TECHNIQUE:This technique relies on using the Right brain function so that the full potential of thebrain for perceptive analysis is utilized. The right brain is initiated into action byvisuals such as pictures, and three-dimensional items. When we use seeds to depictaspects of information, the visual created by the seeds (strong contrast of colorsDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  107. 107. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International107between the seeds and background), helps the Right brain play a dominant role inthe analysis. In the beginning when this technique was developed, it was designedto enable illiterate villagers to participate in the discussions related to analyzing theirsituation. The idea was to remove differences due to literacy and enable thosewithout literacy to be able to participate equally with those who were literate.However when the technique was used in the field, it was discovered that there wereadditional benefits from being able to activate the right brain. The right brain is themore powerful part of the brain, because it is the creative side, more perceptive,more analytical and also has access to the information both in the left-brain and thesubconscious mind. Thus today the technique is even used with those who areDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  108. 108. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International108literate! For best results, facilitation must aim at getting the group to ‘move the seedsfirst’ then describe the section…rather than preparing a list first and then trying toslot the seeds in!!POTENTIAL USES OF THE TECHNIQUE:As has been already mentioned, the 10 seed technique can be used for a variety ofexercises for information collection. These are for example: Profile of street children,Vaccination levels, Patterns of distribution among a population (health care,HIV/AIDS, birth control practices, etc.), disease incidence, agriculture patterns,animal husbandry practices, sanitation practices, housing needs, MED profile in anDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  109. 109. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International109area, water resources, CEDC, rapid damage assessment in Disasters, educationlevels and, many other issues that project staff need to collect information about.Besides these, several of the routine PLA exercises can also be carried out by thistechnique for example: Trends analysis, Seasonality diagram, Livelihood analysis,Expenditure analysis, problem analysis, and etcetera. Some of the new exerciseswhich are used for Wholistic World View Analysis (WWVA), and Capacity–Vulnerability (C/V) analysis, Rapid Food Security status assessment (RFSA),Gender desegregation, HIV/AIDS macro zoom, and District/County level planningalso use the ten seed technique. These additional exercises have been designedbecause of specific needs in program management and other community needs.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  110. 110. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International110Given below is a brief description of how the ten seed technique can be used foreach of these exercises:Trends analysis: The group is asked to think of all the things that have changed intheir community since the past. They are then asked to list the things that havechanged. In front of each issue that has changed they are asked to prepare twocolumns, representing the situation – “then” and “now’. For each area of Change,they are asked to use 10 seeds and distribute them between the ‘then’ and ‘now’columns. The trend of change then becomes obvious and allow for a lot ofdiscussions.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  111. 111. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International111Seasonality Diagram: The group is asked to carry out a seasonality diagram as inthe standard practice, but with the change that for each of the seasonal events suchas rainfall, agriculture, disease incidence, festivals, Labor opportunity etcetera, theyare asked to use only ten seeds for distribution. This enables us to identify theoccurrences according to percentage intensity at different times of the year.Livelihood analysis: The group is asked to imagine the 10 seeds represent the entireincome of the whole village from all sources, throughout the year. (To make it easierthey are asked to imagine it all to be converted into money as some of it isDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  112. 112. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International112generated in cash and some in materials). They are then asked to divide the seedsinto groups representing the sources of the income. Use of the ten seeds hereenables us to find out what the main livelihood sources are.Expenditure analysis: The group is asked to imagine that the 10 seeds representthe total expenditure of the village for the whole year. They are then asked to groupthe seeds into clusters to show what those various expenditure heads are on ayearly basis. Again this allows us to determine the percentage of expenditure onvarious items such as food, clothes, and medical treatment, etcetera.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  113. 113. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International113Problem analysis: The group is asked to imagine that the 10 seeds represent all theproblems that are faced by the community as a whole. They are then asked to groupthe seeds to represent what these problems are.Disease incidence: The group is asked to imagine that the ten seeds represent allthe diseases that occur in the village throughout the year. Here too the numbers ofseeds in each group show us the percentage of a particular disease in a year.Wholistic World View Analysis (WWVA): This exercise is done by combining theLivelihood analysis and the problem analysis information of the village with theDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  114. 114. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International114information on uncertainties in the village. This is an exercise that involves the wholevillage and is usually done after carrying out a debriefing to the whole village ofinformation gathered in their village.Rapid Food Security status assessment (RFSA): This technique is carried out usingthe ten seeds and the group is asked to classify the village families into differentgroups according to their Food Security Status and according to the periods whichthey have struggles generating their livelihood.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  115. 115. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International115Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  116. 116. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International116Gender desegregation: This exercise is carried out to identify issues that are genderrelated and to determine the extent to which there is a link of an issue or aresponsibility with Gender. To find this out, the issue is first determined. Let us takefor example the issue is the decision regarding Family planning. We then ask thegroup what extent of the decision on family planning is determined by the men andby the women. They are asked to divide the 10 seeds accordingly.HIV/AIDS macro zoom: This is a method used to determine rapidly issues relatedto HIV/AIDS risk in a community. It is particularly useful for determining the strategyDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  117. 117. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International117for HIV/AIDS prevention in a city. The group to work with is composed of around 25to 30 people drawn from different walks of life who are familiar with the city. Thesepeople are usually from the media, the health care services, the entertainmentbusiness, the law enforcement department, and students from the University, thetransportation services and the NGO sector that has been working with HIV/AIDSprevention in the city. The series of exercises that are part of the Macro zoom look atthe HIV/AIDS risk frame for the city and in the course of a day are able to make arapid study of the potential strategies to be followed. The details of the exercises andexamples are currently being documented by the author of this book, and should beavailable in due course of time.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  118. 118. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International118Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  119. 119. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International119ADVANTAGE OF THE TECHNIQUE: The technique is very simple to understandand learn and equally easy to practice. When used with village groups also, theyvery easily understand it. It has been tested in several countries and has workedequally effectively in all of them. This technique has also been tested and foundsuccessful with people in different age groups varying from very young children toold people, with gender segregated groups and mixed groups and with people of noliteracy and those with Doctorates!Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  120. 120. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International120The other advantages are that seeds are easily available everywhere, very non-threatening, and easy to move and move again. Once the moving around of seedsstops with unanimous agreement the information can be written on a sheet of paper.The technique is a very visual one, and because of this allows for the literate andilliterate to participate as equal partners and contribute meaningfully to thediscussion. The specific number of seeds enables the group to make reasonablecomparisons. It is also possible because of this to determine approximatepercentages. The resultant visuals are easy to explain, understand and discussaround.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  121. 121. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International121How the technique works: After initial rapport building with the group and explainingto them that the purpose of the exercises is to understand and learn from themabout their perspective; we proceed with the technique. The group is given the tenseeds and asked to consider them to represent the entire population under study.They are then asked to move the seeds around into groups representing the aspectbeing analyzed. Once the groups of seeds have been formed, the participants areasked to describe them and give details on reasons for classifying them the waythey have done. Further details are then sought on indicators that determined thesegregation. Each group of seeds now has a veryDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  122. 122. HIV/AIDS workshop/WV China/RJ-MF/January 200258Don’t useUse% population using birth controlmeasures regularly:Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International122Distinct identity accorded by the participants, and discussions can now proceedaround the “visual” created. Discussions around the “visual” soon become veryintense and animated. Afterfinalization the information istransferred on paper for sharing withthe larger group. The following slideshows an example of this:Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  123. 123. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International123After this is done, we proceed further to ask more details, looking for example at thetypes of birth control measures used. The group is asked to look at the ‘visual’ andpointing to the 8 seeds representing the population that regularly practices birthcontrol measures, we ask for them to divide these further in terms of the types ofmeasures practiced. This can be done in two ways, either just asking them to dividethe eight seeds, or by again taking ten seeds and asking them to consider theseseeds to represent those who practice family planning measures regularly.The result of doing this can be seen in the following slide, where the group dividedthe seeds further into 5 groups showing the pattern of distribution. Thus, by lookingat this it is possible to identifying what percentage of the overall populationDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  124. 124. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International124approximately uses a particular type of birth control measure. For example in thecase above we found that the community was under the perception that they werequite well protected against HIV/AIDS, because a fairly high percentage of themwere using birth control measures. They had, in their thinking, equated ‘protection’against pregnancy as being protection against HIV/AIDS. Discussions around thevisual then could proceed to understand why this was so.Depending on the purpose of the exercise we can proceed further. As in the casementioned above the purpose was to find out the condom usage prevalence rate,because another exercise in the same community had shown a fairly high level ofDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  125. 125. HIV/AIDS workshop/WV China/RJ-MF/January 200259Type of Birth controlmeasures adapted:NaturalFamilyPlanningCondomIUD(IntraUterineDevice)PillsSterilizationParticipatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International125promiscuous behavior among them. The exercise thus enabled us to see that only30 % of the birth control measures in use were condoms, which also did not providethem 100% protection against the spread of HIV/AIDS.Thus the exercise can also be the basis of discussions for modification of behaviorwhen the community ‘discovers’ how much at risk it is. These discussions can alsolead into understanding appropriate interventions in the community for modified orchanged behavior. Other exercises can be linked to this to find out how theDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  126. 126. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International126community gets its information on family planning and thus we can identify the bestand most effective strategy for intervening in the community.GROUP SIZE & PARTICIPATION: The ideal size of participants group is around 8-10 persons. Some would swear that the ideal size is 7-9 persons, but there is needto be flexible about this because these optimum sizes may not always be possible inthe community, with the group sometimes being smaller or larger. In larger groupstoo the actual number of active participants may only be 8-10.If the number of activeparticipants increases beyond that, and then it might be important to split the groupfurther. Giving everyone an equal chance to share views can enable activeDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  127. 127. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International127participation. Sometimes it may be necessary to “filter out” the over dominating onesin the group, so that others can participate. Getting someone in the group to‘diplomatically’ take the person away from the group for a KII-Key Informantinterview does this. While this has the benefit that the group left behind becomesactive in participation, good information can also be obtained from the person filteredout. Prime candidates for this type of filtering are usually Schoolteachers, Villagechiefs, Businessmen, moneylenders and “educated” people in illiterate communities.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  128. 128. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International128Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  129. 129. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International129FACILITATING THE EXERCISES: Before going to the field to carry out theexercises, it is good to have the group prepare itself to work together. Besidesestablishing a code of conduct to respect and value one another, group membersmust also decide roles among themselves beforehand to determine who will be the ‘Interviewer’, ‘the recorder’ and if the situation calls for it- the ‘Filter’!! As with otherPRA/PLA exercises, facilitation involves ensuring that there is no dominance, andthat everyone gets an equal opportunity to participate and that there is a balancebetween being open to new and divergent views as well as being focused enough tolead the discussions in the direction of the information being sought. Facilitation alsoinvolves determining when a dominant person has become the ‘defacto-Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  130. 130. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International130spokesperson’ of the group and needs to be diplomatically ‘filtered’ out!! Thefacilitator (Interviewer) should also keep a balance of time required for the exerciseso that it is neither hurried nor drags on too long!KEY SUCCESS FACTORS: The correct attitude, a balanced group, adequate timeand the ability to keep the group working with a right brain orientation are some ofthe Key success factors in getting good quality information. It is almost mandatorythat the ‘outsiders’ carrying out the 10 seed technique exercises in the communityhave the correct attitude. This attitude is one of listening with a positive attitude. Thisessentially means being open to new perspectives and views without pre-Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  131. 131. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International131assumptions which are merely seeking for an ‘affirmation’ from the community. Abalanced group of outsiders with varied experience and one that does not thoseamong it who are overly dominant, nor seek to dominate the community, is alsoimportant. Such a group will be able to enable the community to participate well andspontaneously. Adequate time should be available so that there is no need to rush.The exercise can then be coordinated and facilitated well, and focus on gooddiscussions with openness to new views and perspectives.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  132. 132. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International132It is also very important to keep the group working with a right brain orientation. Thisessentially means that at the beginning stages the seeds should be the main thingson the paper with only symbols or diagrams drawn to mark the issues identified.ASKING GOOD QUESTIONS: After establishing good rapport with the communitygroup the facilitators of the exercise should explain the purpose of the exercise andthe subject that they propose to explore with them. A foundational principle toremember in asking questions is to remember to ask questions to learn andunderstand, not to ‘affirm’ pre-assumptions. Questions asked should therefore be‘Open ended’, and the 5W+1H (Who? What? Where? When? Why? + How?)Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  133. 133. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International133Principle is a good one to adapt. The general principle is to start with the simplifiedfoundational information first and then get deeper and deeper into the issue. Goingdeeper into issues to ‘Open up’ the information is a little more complex but comeseasily with practice. Here too the best results are obtained by continuing to be as“visual” as possible and getting participants to move the seeds first and thendescribe the categories.INTERVIEWING THE ‘VISUAL’ Once the ‘visual’ of the seeds placed in the differentgroups has been created it is reviewed with the participants to make sure everyoneunderstands the placement of the seeds. After this various aspects of this areDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  134. 134. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International134discussed…. this is done by “interviewing” the visual. This is a very non-threateningmethod, as we don’t need to make embarrassing eye contact with the participantsespecially when collecting sensitive information. When they feel comfortable andthey are ready for it, they do however make eye contact, but this is on the basis ofan established relationship. At the end of the session a participant from thecommunity is invited to give a summary of the observations and findings. Thedocument can be copied and the original left behind for use by the village in future.PRECAUTIONS AND CARE: There are some precautions and care that one musttake while using the 10 seed technique. The first and most important one in this isDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  135. 135. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International135that the facilitator must have the correct attitude. This is Mandatory. Second, thepurpose of the exercise must be explained to the community clearly right at thebeginning.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  136. 136. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International136Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  137. 137. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International137Since the technique uses right brain function it has the potential to bring Hopes &Dreams to the surface and therefore something must be done to address them afterthe exercise. Similarly when seeking sensitive information, it may throw light on anexploitatory situation in the village that must be dealt with urgently. This too must bedealt with soon, or it will result in frustration and the oppression may continueunchecked. It is also essential to ensure equal participation and opportunity to speakfor all participants without dominators ‘taking over complete’ control. Chapter sixoutlines ways in which to deal with such situations. Taking these precautions willenable the exercise to be done well and successfully.Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  138. 138. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International138POTENTIAL PROBLEMS: Dominant people in the community could be one potentialbig problem that will hinder good participation from the community. To prevent this,“Filter” dominators for KII (Key informant Interview) so that others get a chance toparticipate equally. As mentioned earlier, prime candidates for filtering are usually:Village leaders, moneylenders, Landlords, old school teachers, or other authorities.This, however, must be done sensitively so that the ‘filtered’ person still feelsimportant. Besides, this is often a blessing in disguise, because the filtered persondoes in fact give some good information.Other problems can be avoided by beingsensitive to the presence of people with vested interests in the group and ensuringthat information is not biased in favor of their interests. Gender biased informationDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  139. 139. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International139should be countered by trying to get some gender balance. If the context is one inwhich women will hesitate to speak in the presence of men, and then divide theparticipants into 2 groups. Choose the timings for the exercise carefully so that itdoesn’t disrupt the normal life of the village badly.GOOD FACILITATION: This essentially involves being able to overcome some ofthe potential problems that one might face as mentioned earlier. The 10 seedtechnique is very easy to learn, but the correct attitude is hard to develop (hence weneed to work on this if we want to be good facilitators). Developing openness to newperspectives and ideas and views is essential. One has to seek to listen and learnDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  140. 140. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International140(not seek to confirm pre-determined ideas). Success is guaranteed when onedevelops a ‘listening attitude”. A good facilitator is sensitive to the local context andculture and ensures equal participation and counters dominance by individuals tryingto become spokespersons for the group. If handled correctly, the exercises willgenerate animated discussions among the participants.Let facilitation become a way of life for you…. not only at work, but also inyour personal life!!Dr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual
  141. 141. Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and ManualSpecially prepared fCambodia Global Action and Samaritans Purse International141‘OPENING UP’ THE INFORMATION:This is done for issues that have ramifications with several factors for example theFood Security Status of a village in relation to migration patterns.The Food security status of the village is understood and then for each food securitystatus level further details are found out for example level of children’s education,Health status, migration patterns, use of different programs etcetera. Carrying outthis exercise results in the creation of a complex and complicated diagram.This diagram shows the ramifications and the underlying issues involved that causethe particular situation. Since the complex diagram emerged from the simple it isDr. Ravi Jayakaran/QPI-GMS® /Participatory Evaluation: A user guide and Manual

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