Van Aken Euro Fed Lipids Final

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One of the main concerns about the healthiness of dietary fat is related to the growing problem of obesity, insulin intolerance and cardiovascular disease, which appear interrelated and are …

One of the main concerns about the healthiness of dietary fat is related to the growing problem of obesity, insulin intolerance and cardiovascular disease, which appear interrelated and are collectively identified as metabolic syndrome. Dietary fat contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome mainly because of its role in caloric overconsumption. This is primarily due to the high caloric value of fat in combination with the sensorial attractiveness of fat-rich foods and the relatively late satiety signal produced by fat. However, there is a quickly expanding field of recent insights that identifies different roles of specific fatty acids (such as saturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acids and the essential omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids) for general health and metabolic syndrome in particular.

This presentation shortly discusses recent insights in the factors that affect gastro-intestinal digestion, intestinal absorption and distribution through the body, and health implications of different fatty acids. Special attention is given to the physiological regulation mechanisms that control fat-induced satiety and caloric intake from food emulsions. In these systems fat digestion can be affected by the emulsifier through obstruction of the digestive enzymes and by colloidal destabilization processes (aggregation and coalescence) in the stomach.

Based on these insights opportunities are be identified for a healthier fat formulations.

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  • 1. How fat compositionand food formulationaffect absorption andmediate food intakeWhich way to go? George van Aken george.vanaken@nizo.nlMonday, September 26, 2011Together to the next level
  • 2. Key questionFat is highly caloric, sensorially pleasant foodconstituent which entices overeating How can we avoid overeating?Together to the next level 2
  • 3. Origin of the studyFinalized project at TIFN:Engineered Sensory and Dietary Functionality of DispersedFat• Project goals: • Optimization of fat-related sensory and dietary effects. • Main focus on satiety and food intake reduction.• Key objectives: • Gastro-intestinal behaviour of food emulsions in relation to physiological responses. • Physical-chemical and biochemical mechanisms behind this behaviour. • Engineering rules to help control the processing, delivery and release of fat in the digestive tract.NOW focussing on application at NIZO food research Together to the next level 3
  • 4. Outline• Fundamentals of fat digestion and absorption• Role of fat consumption in obesity• How can we reduce caloric intake?• ConclusionsTogether to the next level 4
  • 5. FUNDAMENTALS OF FATDIGESTION AND ABSORPTIONTogether to the next level 5
  • 6. Emulsion digestion and absorption Digestion processeslipases bile Regulation of digestion and food intake Fatty acid absorption Delivery of -3, -6 and vitamins
  • 7. Fat digestion: main enzymatic processes Stomach Gastric lipase (<10%) blood Small Small intestinal intestine wall Short chain and polunsaturated FFA Serum albumin transporter Pancreatic lipase (almost complete) Fast LCFA chylomicron Slow lymph Together to the next level 7
  • 8. Routing of fatty acids - overview Nerve membrane Functional liver lipids FA glucose Portal veinC11:0 and shorter Main ω-3 DHA bloodω-6 serum VLDL stream albuminω-3 glucose LDL chylomicronsOleic acidC12:0 and longer Lymph vessel Energy supply Muscles Adiposites
  • 9. ROLE OF FAT CONSUMPTIONIN OBESITYTogether to the next level 9
  • 10. Positive energy balance METABOLIC SYNDROME: Type II diabetes, OBESITY, Inflammatory reactions, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, CVD Enlarged adipocytes: Ectopic fat storage in:Fat storage exceeds • Impared adiposite • liver differentiation and • heartthe normal storage function • pancreatic β-cellscapacity of adiposites • Modulated • skeletal muscle, endocrine fuction • abdominal fat Heilbron et al, Int. J. Obesity, (2004)
  • 11. Ease of overeating of fatNutrient Caloric Sensory effect Ease of value overeating (kcal/g)Proteins 4 Can be relatively unpleasant : small tends to a highly viscous, tough and dry mouthfeelSugars 4 Pleasant : moderate viscous mouthfeel sweetFats 9 Pleasant: high thin mouthfeel, lubricant, smoothening adds to flavour richness Together to the next level 11
  • 12. BUT: the body is designed for efficient absorption and to control food intake duodenum jejunum ileum Pylorus absorptive cells Stomachintake Stomach Small intestine emptying gall bladder pancreas COLON Feedback Detailed in vivo human study to confirm these feedback mechanisms are still ongoing at TIFN in collaboration with Maastricht University
  • 13. Nutrient transport through the gastrointestinal tract is regulatedPhysiological restrictions: • Vmax per unit length of small intestine • Absorption requires transfer from polymers to monomers: • proteins amino acids • di-, oligo-, polysaccharides monosaccharides • triglycerides fatty acids, monoglyceridesRegulation mechanism for efficient absorption: • Efficient and gradual absorption of nutrients by small intestine • > 95 % for a single shot of 650 g oil (220% of advised total daily caloric intake) • Small intestinal transit time adjusted to avoid spill over into the colonRegulation mechanisms for food intake: • Feeling of a full stomach • related to gastric distension + the detection of nutrients in the small intestine • Feeling of hunger • related to a low reserve of nutrient in small intestine
  • 14. Some main feedback mechanisms Van Aken, Food Biophysics (2010) 5(4):258–283 Full stomach duodenum jejunum ileumMealending - Computerintake max storage modelling Pylorus Transit speed Fed by: physiological literature - bile vitro studies in pancreas GLP-1 -Next (Belly Quintet, Symphid, TIM)meal - I-cells L-cells CCK CCK PYY, No + GLP-1 hunger CCK-B Large reservoir of nutrient + present in small intestine
  • 15. HOW CAN WE REDUCE THECALORIC INTAKE?Together to the next level 15
  • 16. 1. Increase feeling of a full stomach during eating by reducing the initial fast emptying • Gastric emptying of non-nutritional liquid is fast and dependent on the viscosity • Gastric emptying of nutritious liquids is much slower and regulated at a constant release of energy (~ 2 kcal/min) • Regulation only starts after sufficient nutrients have entered the small intestine. This may take several minutes. • Fullness is however dependent on both gastric distension (increased) and nutrient detection in the small intestine (lowered) Simulation of an emulsion of 30 g fat and 200 g water; effect of a 1000x increase in viscosity
  • 17. 2. Keep a full stomach during eating by control of emulsion stability• Gastric emptying of nutritious liquids regulated at a constant release of energy (~ 2 kcal/min)• Bulk fat and many emulsions and are unstable in the stomach (low pH, enzymes) and phase separate into an energy- rich creamed layer (containing the fat) Marciani et al. 2009 * and an energy-poor lower phase * • Consequence: the energy poor lower phase empties fast, quickly reducing the volume of the stomach • Felt as less fullness during and shortly after the meal. Simulation of an emulsion of 30 g fat and 200 g water; effect of fat floating until fundus and corpus have emptied (50 ml water) *Marciani et al., British Journal of Nutrition (2009), 101, 919–928
  • 18. Approach: inverted phase separation instomach A number of sedimenting emulsion systems have been identified* 5 % triolein, 1 % WPI, 1 % caseinate CURRENTLY investigated in an in vivo human trial (TIFN, IFR, (2) Norfolk and Norwich University hospitals NNUH) Expectation: Gastric volume reduces slowly → more fullness during a meal → sooner meal ending Full fat milk Simulation of an emulsion of 30 g fat and 200 g water; effect of fat sedimentation until 5 ml of fat is left in the antrum * Van Aken, G.A., Bomhof, E., Zoet, F.D., Verbeek, M., Oosterveld, A., Food Hydrocolloids (2011), 25: 781-788, Differences in in vitro gastric behaviour between homogenized milk and emulsions stabilised by Tween 80, whey protein, or whey protein and caseinate
  • 19. 3. Control the rate of intestinal fat hydrolysis Small intestinal transit time normally regulated to compensate for a high caloric entry into the intestine or slow enzymatic hydrolysis (“Ileal brake”) Sugars delivered to the ileum or fat delivered to the jejunum shortly (e.g. 15 min) before a meal reduces food intake from that meal. Compensates only; no effect on total caloric intake. Simulation of an emulsion of 30 g fat and 200 g water; effect of a 10x slower digestion
  • 20. 4. Reduce the rate of intestinal absorption of fat hydrolysis products• Oleic acid or oleic acid + monoolein intubated into the jejunum gives a strong hunger suppressing signal (Little et al., Am. J. Physiol.2005)• A similarly strong effect is also found for 1,3 diglycerides (Kristensen et al., J. Nutrition 2006; Yanai et al., Nutrition Journal, 2007)• Stronger effect of predigested TG, oleic acid and 1,3-diglycerides also reduces total caloric intake (overcompensation). The excess suppression by oleic acid seems only to occur beyond a higher level of free oleic acid intubated (Woltman & Reidelberger, Am. J. Physiol. 1995).
  • 21. Possible explanation of stronger effect of predigested TG, oleic acid and 1,3-diglycerides ENTEROCYTE Portal Pancreatic vein lipase absorption glycerol-3-phosphate pathway SLOWFullness Fatty acid chylomicronFood intake receptor reduction ENTEROCYTE absorption monoglyceride Pancreatic pathway lipase Lymph FAST vessel Kristensen et al., J. Nutrition 2006
  • 22. Simulated effect of slower intestinalabsorption Most effective fat-based way to reduce hunger and food intake? Replace TG by fatty acids, diglycerides, monoglycerides, non-glyceride esters Simulation of an emulsion of 30 g fat and 200 g water; effect of a 4x slower absorption
  • 23. CONCLUSIONSTogether to the next level 23
  • 24. summaryFat is highly caloric, sensorially pleasant foodconstituent which entices overeating How can we avoid overeating? Lipids are also satiating and can be used to limit food intake, but it needs to be in an appropriate form or type Opportunities for product development!Together to the next level 24
  • 25. Optimized formulations of fat/lipids in food may help to• Reduce the over-eating during a liquid meal: • Avoid fat creaming in the stomach (acid and pepsin stable emulsifiers) (ongoing in vivo human study) • Induce gastric sedimentation of fat (dense fat structures) (ongoing in vivo human study)• Decrease hunger and suppress intake on next meal: • Increase the viscosity (however less fullness during the 1st meal) • Marginal effect of slower digestion (emulsifiers that slow release of FA) • Large effect by slower absorption: • Replace TG by fatty acids, diglycerides,monoglycerides, non- glyceride esters • Release system of encapsulated fatty acids, diglycerides, non- glyceride esters fatty acids Together to the next level 25
  • 26. Let’s translate:Opportunities for product development Belly QuintetAnimal Model Food grade pilot plant Human SYMPHID subjects Computer modelling Tiny TIM Together to the next level 26
  • 27. Creating the future togetherTogether to the next levelTechnology for your success 27